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Full text of "The foundation of the Hospital and Free school of King Charles II., Oxmantown Dublin : commonly called the Blue coat school : with notices of some of its governors, and of contemporary events in Dublin from the foundation, 1668 to 1840, when its government by the city ceased"

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FOUNDATION,    1668    TO    184O,    WHEN    ITS 




^(K  Right  Hon.  Sir  FREDERICK  R.  FALKINER,  K.C. 


SEALY,     BRYERS      AND      WALKER. 

Middle   Abbey   Street. 








The  duty  of  a  governor  of  King's  Hospital  to  consult  its  old 
records  from  time  to  time,  led  the  writer  naturally  to  a 
perusal  of  them  all,  until  the  task,  sufficiently  uninviting  at 
first,  became  the  subject  of  a  continually  increasing  interest. 
The  close  connection  of  the  School  from  its  foundation  with 
the  City,  whose  chief  magistrate  was,  for  one  hundred  and 
seventy  years,  the  standing  chairman  of  the  governors,  and 
whose  aldermen  were  always  his  official  colleagues,  brought 
the  life  of  the  school  into  constant  communion  with  the  life 
of  the  city  ;  whilst  the  usage,  which  prevailed  during  all 
this  period,  of  co-opting  to  the  Board  distinguished  persons 
from  outside,  brought  the  governors  from  time  to  time  into 
relations  with  many  of  the  highest  personages  in  church  and 
state,  some  of  them  historical  and  even  illustrious,  some  less 
known,  yet,  who  once  were  notables  or  notorious.  Under 
King  Charles's  charter,  the  chief  officer  of  the  school,  its 
chaplain  and  headmaster,  was  always  appointed  with  the 
direct  sanction  of  the  Archbishops  of  Dublin,  who,  in  the 
earlier  years,  were  usually  associated  as  Lords  Justices  with 
the  government  of  the  kingdom,  and  as  the  government  of 
the  city  very  often  reflected  that  of  the  realm,  so  both  will 
be  found  at  times  to  be  clearly  reflected  in  the  microcosm 
of  the  royal  school  of  the  city.  Thus  the  old  manuscript  of 
our  ancient  Minute  Books,  sere  and  dead  to  the  casual  glance 
become  to  the  student  startlingl}'-  revivified,  as  the  names  of 
men  long  forgotten  or  half  forgotten,  rise^up,  like  the  dry 


bones  in  the  valley  of  the  prophet,  luminous  and  animate,  as 
though  a  breath  had  entered  into  them,  and  the  atmosphere 
of  our  school,  and  its  place  in  our  mental  vision,  are  then 
re-peopled  with  phantoms  of  the  past,  figures  who  were  once 
chief  actors  on  the  stage  of  their  day,  makers  of  Dublin  in 
great  transitional  epochs  of  her  story.  No  one  can  be  more 
conscious  than  the  writer  of  the  want  of  due  proportion  and 
of  the  undue  discursiveness  in  many  of  the  pages  that  follow. 
But  if  the  fact  that  the  governors  were,  throughout,  the  men 
charged  with  the  rule  of  the  city,  and  the  conduct  of  its 
growth  and  development,  be  an  inadequate  excuse  for  the 
pages  which  have  sought  to  trace  the  evolution  of  our 
Capital  since  the  days  of  the  Restoration,  may  the  writer  be 
permitted  at  least  to  hope  that  he  has  been  enabled  to  recall 
some  striking  incidents  of  lasting  interest,  and  to  present 
them  in  lights,  which,  if  not  wholly  new,  exhibit  them  in 
relations  in  which  they  have  not  hitherto  been  familiar. 
His  ambition  will  be  more  than  satisfied  if  he  has  thus  made 
even  a  slight  contribution  to  the  History  of  our  Nolu/issiina 
Civitas,  Dublin. 

The  sources  from  which  tliese  chapters  are  drawn  have 
been,  for  the  most  part,  noted  in  the  text,  but  a  special 
acknowledgment  is  due  of  their  constant  indebtedness  to 
vSir  John  Gilbert's  great  Calendar  of  the  City  Assembly  Rolls, 
as  continued  by  his  talented  widow.  To  the  Corporation  of 
Dublin,  and  their  most  courteous  Town  Clerk,  Mr.  Henry 
Campbell,  and  to  his  friend  and  brother  governor,  Mr.  F. 
Elrmgton  Ball,  the  accomplished  author  of  The  History  of 
Dublin,  the  author's  thanks  are  here  gratefulh/  tendered. 

Frederick  R.  Falkiner. 

Axi^i'.st,  igoC. 


I.     Thomas,  Earl  of  Ossory     . .  Frontispiece. 

{F'/om    engraving    by    Vandervane — Sir    Pder    Lely, 


IT.     Edward  Wettenhall,  Bishop  of  Cork,  1678,       page 
KiLMORE,  i6gg  . .  . ,  . .  . .       41 

{From  original  Portrait  by   Vander   Vaert.) 

III.  Map  OF  St.   Stephen's  Green,  as  allotted, 

1664  ..  ..  ..43 

{From  Rental  Maps  in  King's  Hospital.) 

IV.  Map    OF    Oxmantown    Green,    as    allotted, 

1665  . .  . .  • .       44 
{From  Rental  Maps  in  King's  Hospital.) 

V.     Original  Blue  Coat  School,  as  completed, 

1675  ..  ..  ..70 

{From  Old  Engraving  in  King's  Hospital.) 

VI.     Charles  Lucas,  M.D.  . .  , .  . .     199 

{Photograph  of  Statue  by  Edward  Smyth  in  the 
City  Hall,  Dublin.) 

VII.     Front  Facade  of  present  King's  Hospital,  as 

designed  by  Thomas    Ivory       . .  . ,     208 

{From  Original  Plans  in  British  Museum.) 

VIII.     Very  Rev.  Walter  Blake   Kirwan,  Dean  of 

Killala  . .  . ,  . .     222 

{From  Engraving  by  Dr.  Ward  from  Painting 
by  Hugh  Hamilton.) 

This  was  painted  in  1806,  after  Kirwan's  death,  and 
dedicated  in  his  honour  to  Lord  Hardwick.  It  ideahzes 
a  famous  scene  when  Kirwan,  after  an  outburst,  broke 
down,  unable  to  proceed.  Turning  towards  the  orphans 
below  the  pulpit,  he  pointed  to  them,  in  the  rapt  silence, 
with  outstretched  hands — the  effect  was  electrical. 

IX.     King  Charles  II.  . .  . .  . .     293 

{From  Engraving  by  Vertue  of  Original  Portrait, 
by  Sir  Peter  Lely.) 


OF    THE 

Kings  Hospital  of  King  Charles  II 




The  foundation  of  the  King's  Hospital  was  one  of  the 
earUest  symbols  of  the  new  era  of  hope  and  energy,  which, 
notwithstanding  the  prevalent  misery,  awoke  on  the 
restoration  of  the  Monarchy  in  1660,  and  was  destined  to 
transform  the  mediaeval  City  on  the  Hill  into  the  modern 
capital  of  Ireland.  It  is  thus  a  significant  page  in  the 
history  of  Dublin.  For  it  is  safe  to  say,  that  the  face  of 
the  city  changed  more  in  the  thirty  years  which  followed, 
than  in  the  three  hundred  that  preceded.  To  conceive  this, 
needs  to  have  a  mental  vision  of  the  city  at  the  time  of 
the  Restoration,  its  physical,  social,  and  political  conditions. 
To  aid  such  a  conception  is  the  motive  of  these  preliminary 

If  a  citizen  of  to-day,  standing  on  the  central  spot  of 
our  main  thoroughfare,  the  middle  of  Carlisle  or  O'Connall 
Bridge,  could  see  in  vision  the  prospect  eastward  as  his 
ancestor  saw  it  in  1660,  he  could  no  longer  believe  he  was 
in  his  native  city.  The  ancestor  could  only  have  viewed 
from  that  point  if  perched  on  the  rigging  of  an  up-river 

2         FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

craft,  for  then  the  Old  Bridge  alone  crossed  the  Liffey, 
joining  the  Church  Street  and  the  Bridge  Street  on  the  site 
of  the  primaeval  Ford  of  Athcliath.  Our  visionary  might 
rub  his  eyes  and  dream  he  was  looking  seaward  from  a 
railway  carriage  crossing  the  salt  lake  at  Malahide,  at  dunes 
and  sandbanks,  the  glory  of  golfers,  and  level  reaches, 
brown  and  gray  at  the  ebb,  but  regained  by  ocean  at  high 
tide  ;  through  these  the  river  wound  her  channel  deviously 
to  the  bar  and  the  bay.  No  quay  or  sea  rampart  bound 
the  jagged  coasts  of  the  estuary  diverging  north  and  south 
to  Clontarf  and  to  Merrion.  The  north  shore  trended 
obliquely  behind  where  the  O'Connell  statue  stands  to  the 
further  end  of  Abbey  Street,  and  thus  to  the  causeway, 
still  known  as  the  North  Strand,  to  mark  by  its  name  the 
old  sea-line  as  it  passed  to  Ballybough  and  the  estuary  of 
the  Tolka.  The  tides  twice  daily  overflowed  the  sites  of 
Eden  Quay  and  the  Custom  House,  the  Amiens  Street 
station  and  ail  east  of  it,  and  the  miles  of  harbour  causeway, 
now  known  as  the  North  Wall.  Landward  of  tliis  coast 
were  slob  grounds  slashed  with  briny  pools,  behind  which 
rolled  green  houseless  iields  upward  into  the  country  at 
Finglas  and  Artane.  So,  too,  the  south-east  coast  was  an 
unbanked  beach.  Close  to  the  right  of  our  view-point 
was  a  creek  covering  the  sites  of  Westmoreland,  D'Olier 
and  College  Streets,  and  the  Theatre  Royal.  This  was  the 
estuary  of  the  riveret  Steyne,  the  mill  stream  of  the  old 
priors  of  All  Hallows,  precursors  of  Trinity  College.  College 
Green,  so  late  as  1657,  is  said  to  adjoin  the  seaside.  This 
stream  flowed  into  it  opposite  the  College  gates.  The 
space  is  still  traceable  underground.  ^  More  than  thirty 
years  ago  the  writer  had  part  in  a  bitter  battle  about  the 
erection  of  the  Provincial  Bank  in  College  Street.  The 
contract  assumed  the  foundations  would  be  on  ordinary 
terra  firma,  but  the  diggers  went  down  down  through 
nineteen  feet  of  sludge,  till  the  cost  of  the  foundations  nearly 
equalled  the  superstructure,  and  the  fight  of  bank  and 
builder  raged  through  many    Courts  for  the  benefit  of  the 

*  Gilbert's  Calendar  of  Dublin  Corporation  Records,  iv.  121. 


law.  Charles  Haliday  tells  of  a  poor  servant  maid  drowned 
some  sixty  years  ago,  when  a  high  tide  broke  into  a  basement 
at  foot  of  Grafton  Street.  From  this  creek  the  coast  went 
eastward  under  the  causeway  of  Lazars  or  Lazie  Hill  in  the 
line  of  Townsend  Street,  between  which  and  the  University 
precincts  lay  cattle-sprinkled  pastures.  Lazie  Hill  was 
so  called  from  a  very  ancient  hospice  at  the  far  and  isolated 
end,  projected  for  lepers  under  vow  to  embark  for  the 
shrine  of  St.  James  of  Compostello.  Near  the  present 
S.  Mark's  Church,  the  coast  swerved  to  the  right  by  the 
back  of  where  Merrion  Square  stands,  as  famous  then  for 
snipe  as  now  for  ladies,  under  the  upland  of  Holies  and  Lower 
Mount  Street,  by  the  site  of  Sir  Patrick  Dun's  Hospital 
to  the  Beggar's  Bush  and  the  Dodder ;  here  it  met  a  ridge 
of  land  running  back  to  the  bay  in  a  spit,  shaped  like  a  hockey 
staff,  the  twist  of  which  was  the  Ringsend.  This  was 
corruptly  spelled  even  in  1660,  for  it  means  the  end,  not  of 
the  "  Ring,"  but  of  the  "  Rinn  or  point."  Thus  between 
S.  Marks  and  Ringsend  a  great  gulf  was  fixed,  flooding  all 
the  first  mile  of  the  now  Wicklow  railway,  the  Lansdowne 
football  ground,  the  gas  works  and  canal  harbour.  Here 
a  collier  was  wrecked  on  the  site  of  Dun's  hospital  two 
hundred  years  ago.  Into  this  gulf  rushed  the  rapid  Dodder, 
"  the  brook  of  Refarnham,"  without  respect  of  persons  in 
time  of  floods,  for  in  1629  it  drowned  the  hope  of  one  of  the 
first  families  of  the  city,  son  of  Sir  William  Usher,  who  was 
clerk  of  the  Privy  Council  and  kinsman  of  the  great  Primate. 
The  lad  was  crossing  the  ford,  where  Ballsbridge  crosses 
now,  on  his  way  to  town  from  the  port  at  Ringsend,  whence 
a  car  fared  to  Lazie  Hill,  carrying  passengers  at  fourpence 
each,  and  passing  over  the  sands  at  low  water.  Young 
Usher's  fate  forced  the  building  of  a  stone  bridge,  on  Sidney 
Smith's  principle  that  the  sacrifice  of  a  bishop  in  a  railway 
smash  alone  would  force  directors  to  take  requisite  pre- 
caution. In  the  very  year  our  Hospital  was  completed, 
1674,  our  founders,  the  Corporation,  projected  the  forming 
in  this  Dodder  gulf  the  great  harbour  of  Dublin,  and  imported 
a  famed  engineer  from  London,  Andrew  Yarranton,  whose 

4         FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

plans,  comprising  a  royal  fort  on  the  site  of  Merrion  Square, 
are  still  extant.  Behind  the  Ringsend  spit  spread  the 
dunes  of  the  south  Bull,  stretching  in  flats  to  Merrion  and 
Booterstown,  sweeping  over  the  low-lands  of  Sydney  Parade 
and  to  the  coniines  of  Old  Dunleary — Fort  of  Leoghaire 
Arch-King  of  Erin,  when  Patrick  our  first  saint  came — to  be 
changed  to  Kingstown,  when  George,  first  gentlemati 
in  England,  came  to  visit  us  in  1821.  Through  these 
eastern  sands  the  river  channels  wound,  forming  four  pools — 
Clontarf  Pool  and  Salmon  Pool,  north  and  south  of  a  flounder- 
shaped  sandbank,  and  further  east  between  the  roaring 
North  and  South  Bulls,  the  Poolbeg  or  Little  Pool, 
and  the  Iron  Pool,  where  the  estuary  merged  in  the 
ocean. - 

But  we  are  not  to  think  of  this  eastern  Dublin  as  of  a 
dismal  swamp,  Dantean  Cocytus  of  slush  and  sands.  Dublin 
has  always  had  a  faculty  of  being  jolly  under  creditable 
circumstances,  and  it  is  a  question  whether  this  scene  had 
not  in  the  Stuart  times  an  animated  variety,  which  for  all 
its  increase  it  lacks  to-day.  At  Ringsend  the  larger  vessels 
lay  stranded  at  ebb,  till  lifted  by  the  tide  ;  they  transhipped 
their  cargoes  into  gabbards  and  barges  which  sailed  up 
the  Estuary  to  the  Wood  and  Merchant's  Quays,  which  stood 
as  now,  to  unload  at  the  old  Custom  House,  which  then 
was  at  the  foot  of  the  present  Parliament  Street.  Even 
sea-going  vessels  to  a  draught  of  six  feet  could  go  up  on 
high,  spring  tides.  Maps  3  of  the  age  show  the  pools  at 
Ringsend  crowded  with  three  masted  ships,  and  perhaps 
there  were  more  of  these  direct  from  foreign  parts  than  now, 
when  Dublin  imports  come  chiefly  in  cross-channel  steamers. 
The  wide  space  on  Wood  Quay  still  attests  where  the 
wine  barrels  were  trundled  straight  from  Bordeaux  and 
the  Tagus  to  the  foot  of  the  old  Vicus  Tabernorum,  Wine- 
Tavern  Street.  Viceroys  in  the  eighteenth  century  landed 
and  left  in    state  at  Ringsend.        In  1649  iron  Oliver  in 

2  Capt.  Grenville  Collins'  Map,  1686  ;  Haliday's  Scandinavian  Kingdom 
of  Dublin,  p.  233. 

■■' Yarr  ant  ton's  Map,  1674;  Gill  Cal.,  Vol.  V.;  Rocque's  Map,  1776, 
Scan.  Dub.,   113 


person  disembarked  with  his  13,000  Ironsides  for  the  terrible 
campaign,  the  echoes  of  which  still  roll  at  times  through 
the  imperial  parliament.  In  1657,  when  his  son,  Henry, 
was  Lord  Deputy,  the  good  frigate  of  war,  Lambay  Castle, 
was  launched  so  far  up  river  as  Lazie  Hill.  There  was  a 
thriving  herring  fishery  at  Ringsend,  salmon  were  netted 
in  the  Salmon  Pool,  and  in  the  Clontarf  Pool  was  a  famous 
oyster  bed,  which  survived  till  sanitation  and  sewer  gas 
poisoned  it  to  death.  The  Lord  Mayor  and  Recorder  had 
large  admiralty  jurisdiction  under  royal  charters,  and  their 
chronic  conflicts  with  the  royal  Admiralty  at  Ringsend, 
where  the  jurisdictions  joined,  gave  a  lively  interest  even 
to  Coroner's  inquests. 

And  in  1660  these  sands  were  still  wTitten  with  great 
memories,  for  they  were  then  nearly  as  on  that  Good  Friday, 
1014,  when  King  Sitric  Silkenbeard  and  his  Queen,  the 
daughter  of  the  Great  Brian,  watched  from  the  city  battle- 
ments the  fearful  drawn  battle,  surging  from  Mary's  Abbey 
to  Clontarf,  watching  all  day  in  tremulous  tension  like 
the  chorus  from  the  towers  of  Thebes,  when  the  Seven 
Champions  were  storming  the  walls,  he  to  see  his  Ostmen 
allies  driven  to  their  ships  or  into  the  sea,  she  to  learn  at 
night  of  the  three  generations  of  her  kinsmen  in  the  battle 
slain,  the  grand  old  Boroimhe  himself,  his  hero  son,  Murrough, 
his  grandson  boy  Turlough  transfixed  and  drowned  in  the 
Tolka  weir  at  Clonliffe.  There  on  the  south  bank  still 
stood  in  1660,  the  Pillar  Stone  of  the  Steyne  by  the  creek, 
marked  by  Sir  Philip  Crampton's  swan  fountain  now,  just 
as  it  had  been  erected  eight  hundred  years  before  by  the 
invading  Vikings,  the  symbol  of  their  conquest,  and  the 
signal  for  their  fleets,  where  they  would  land  and  draw 
up  their  war  canoes  on  the  beach,  like  the  Argives  at 
Ilium.  The  Steyne  gave  its  name  to  all  the  confines  between 
the  sea-shore  and  road  to  Baggot's  rath,  now  the  Baggot 
Streets  ;  in  the  centre  lay  Trinity  College,  the  old  All  Saints 
Juxta  Dublin  ;  its  Nassau  Street  boundary  was  then  the 
depressed  causeway  of  S.  Patrick's  Well  Lane.  The  pillar 
of  the  Steyne  was  the  story  of  three  hundred  Scandinavian 


years  written  in  stone,  it  still  lives  only  in  the  parchments 
of  some  of  our  old  city  leases. 

Westward  of  our  point  of  vision,  was  more  to  identify  the 
Dublin  of  1660  with  that  of  1906.  Both  coasts,  indeed, 
were  still  pebbly  and  embanked,  and  behind  the  northern  slobs 
were  green  meadows  to  the  line  of  Capel  Street  where  S. 
Mary's  Abbey  rose.  This  shore  is  still  commemorated 
by  the  Strand  Street  of  to-day,  though  now  severed  from 
the  water  by  the  houses  and  embankment  of  Ormond  Quay, 
but  the  shores  were  now  converging  towards  river  shape, 
and  beyond  the  Abbey  rose  the  tower  of  S.  Michan's  Church 
as  now,  and  opposite  to  it  the  tower  of  Christchurch  on  the 
hill  of  the  High  Street  ;  and  behind  these  the  sunset  sky, 
seen  sometimes  then  as  sometimes  now,  a  sky-scape  of  glory, 
more  pathetic  for  the  luminous  city  vapours,  and  which  is 
not  to  be  surpassed  in  Ireland  and  therefore  in  the  world. 
The  south  shore  coursed  along  Fleet  Street,  then  known  as 
the  Strete  of  the  Strand,  but  close  by  the  old  Custom^  House* 
where  Dollard's  paper  factory  stands  now,  it  turned  into  a 
creek  piercing  up  to  the  Lower  Castle  Yard,  forming  the 
estuary  of  the  Poddle,  which  flow^ed  in  through  the  low 
ground  below  the  Castle  Creek,  most  noteworthy  in  this, 
that  this  was  of  old,  the  Blackpool  or  Dhubv  Lynn,  from 
which  our  beloved  city  is  named.  At  its  land  end  was  an 
ancient  mill-pond  and  dam,  which  gave  name  to  the 
gate,  chief  portal  of  the  city  proper  close  by,  and  to  Damas, 
now  Dame  .Street,  which  ran  through  little  more  than  a 
narrow  lane  to  the  corner  of  Trinity  Street,  where  was  the 
extreme  portal  the  Blind  Gate,  opening  to  Hoggen  Green^ 
which  adjacent  to  the  aew  university  had  alread\'  begun 
to  be  called  College  Green.  No  relic  of  this  pristine  Dhubvlin 
now  lingers  visibly,  save  the  sluice  gate  of  the  Poddle,  under 
the  wall  of  Wellington  Quay,  familiar  only  to  the  seagulls 
hovering  immemorially  from  the  cliffs  of  Howth  and  Lambay 
to  dance  their  airy  minuets  round  the  entrance,  aiding  the 
tides  in  their  daily  task  of  ablution,  and  our  sanitary 
authority  pending  the  long  promised  main  drainage. 

To  the  left  of  our  stand  point,  the  sight  was  pleasant, 


where  the  shore  ran  along  the  Fleet  or  Strand  Street,  with 
the  bright  gardens  and  villas  of  a  few  magnates  behind  with 
watergates  to  the  river,  their  front  gates  in  Hoggen  Green 
and  Damas  Street,  The  eastern  end,  now  the  site  of  the 
Bank  of  Ireland,  had  been  granted  sixty  years  before  to 
Sir  George  Carey,  to  whom  Falkland  was  kin,  on  the  terms 
of  his  building  a  bridewell  and  Free  School.  These  proved 
abortive,  and  Sir  Arthur  Chichester,  first  Lord  Belfast,  was 
granted  the  site  in  fee  farm  for  six  and  eight  pence  a  year^ 
Sir  Arthur  telling  the  city  that  he  might  have  it  as  well  as 
any  one  else  ;  he  too  was  under  terms  to  complete  the 
abortive  bridewell  into  a  school,  but  instead  Chichester 
House  was  built — "  just  opposite  the  College  " — This  was 
one  of  our  chief  mansions  at  the  Restoration,  and  here  sat  the 
Court  of  Claims  and  other  public  functionaries.  Near  it 
was  the  villa  of  Sir  ^Arthur  Annesley,  representative  of 
Dublin  in  Richard  Cromwell's  Parliament  of  1659.  In  the 
city  gift  it  is  said  to  be  adjoining  the  seaside.  Annesley 
was  created  Earl  of  Anglesea,  and  his  gardens  are 
commemorated  in  Anglesea  Street.  Further  west  was  the 
mansion  of  the  Lord  Chancellor  Eustace,  given  him  by  the 
King  on  the  restoration,  and  still  marked  by  the  street  of 
his  name,  and  beyond  this,  reaching  to  the  Black  Pool  and 
Damas  Gate,  lay  the  home  of  Sir  John  Temple,  Master  of 
the  Rolls,  father  of  Swift's  Sir  William,  and  ancestor  of 
Lord  Palmerston  ;  this  fronted  to  Damas  Street  and  its 
memory  is  preserved  in  Temple  Bar. 

On  the  further  side  of  these  villas  spread  the  Hoggen 
Green,  between  the  city  walls  and  the  University,  and  back 
to  the  south  as  far  as  old  Stephen  Street,  and  the  waste 
common  of  St.  Stephen's  Green.  It  was  pierced  on  the  city 
side  by  S.  George's  Lane,  now  South  Great  George's  Street. 
Though  sprinkled  with  some  homesteads,  it  was  still  the 
chief  pleasance  of  the  to\\'n.  On  the  left  it  merged  in  the 
Mynchen  Fields  that  covered  the  space  of  Dawson  and 
Kildare  Streets  to  the  marshes  of  Merrion  Square,  the  old 
lands  of  the  Mynechen's  Mantle,  or  S.  Mary  del  Hoggen, 
founded  for  elderly  nuns  by  Dermot  MacMurrough,  before 


the  Anglo-Norman  Invasion.  Where  St.  Andrew's  Church 
now  stands  was  the  Bowhng  Alley,  a  primaeval  recreation 
ground,  where  the  archers  shot  in  Plantagenet  times,  and 
behind  this  another  place  of  sport,  called  Tib  and  Tom, 
where  merry  makings  of  the  city  youth  were  held  before  the 
Restoration  and  after.  But  right  in  front  of  the  Bowling 
Alley  facing  Chichester  House  rose  the  most  striking 
historic  Memorial  in  the  city  bounds. — The  Danish 
Mount.  Under  the  enlightened  regime  of  Strafford, 
the  City  Assembly  passed  an  Ordinance  "  that  no 
parcel  of  the  Greenes  or  Commons  of  the  City,  Hoggen 
Green,  S.  Stephen  Green,  and  Oxmantown  Green  shall 
henceforth  be  lett,  but  wholly  kept  for  the  use  of  the 
citizens  to  walk  and  take  the  air,  by  reason  this  citie  is  at 
this  present  very  populous,"  and  the  Mayor  was  forbidden 
even  to  read  any  petition  to  the  contrary,  under  the  then 
dread  penalty  of  £40.  Such  a  law  was  of  course  doomed  to 
mutability,  even  Lord  Meath  could  not  have  preserved  such 
a  policy  of  open  spaces,  which  the  march  of  time  was  sure 
to  trample  down,  but  it  is  a  sore  pity  that  it  could  not 
preserve  one  of  our  most  ancient  landmarks,  which  any  city 
in  the  world  might  be  jealous  to  uphold.  This  was  the  Thin- 
mote  or  Thing-mount,  which  gave  name  to  the  Green,  the 
Ostman  Hogge  or  hill,  which  still  in  1660  rose  seventy  feet 
over  the  river  level. 

Here  the  townspeople  gathered  in  the  summer  evenings, 
for  the  prospect  was  splendid  over  land  and  city  and  sea. 
The  Ordinance  was  passed  when  the  city  was  prosperous, 
but  the  necessities  of  the  Restoration  times  compelled 
sales  of  the  city  lands.  In  1661  the  Corporation  therefore 
leased  the  Hill  site  to  the  Bishop  of  Meath,  Dr.  Jones, 
who  was  then  contemplating  the  erection  of  St.  Andrew's 
Church,  as  the  old  parish  Church  at  the  Damas  Gate  was 
ruinous,  and  who  had  also  bought  the  Bowling  Green  for 
that  purpose,  but  in  the  lease  of  the  Hill  was  a  reservation 
to  the  city  of  a  passage  from  the  top  to  the  bottom  of  the 
'Mount — "  for  their  common  prospect,"  and  a  covenant  that 
no     building     or     other    thing    should    be      erected     for 


obstructing  of  said  prospect.  But  in  1685,  alas !  the  whole 
was  removed  by  the  most  flagrant  act  of  Vandalism  of  that 
improving  age.  A  fine  view  might  be  had  elsewhere,  but 
not  the  Thingmount,  thronged  with  reminiscences  that  should 
never  have  been  effaced. 

For  this  was  the  Hill  of  Council  of  our  Norse  makers  of 
Dublin,  their  centre  of  legislature  and  judicature,  of  public 
meeting  and  moot,  their  House  Things  or  Hustings,  their 
place  of  games  and  of  doom.  Sanctified,  too,  by  religious 
awe,  for  the  Vikings,  pro  more  raised  these  "  Things  "  in 
correlation  to  their  Landing  Steynes,  erecting  near  them 
stone  circle  temples  to  Thor  and  Freya,  and  we  may  well 
think  that  the  Churches  of  St.  Andrew's  and  St.  Mary,  both 
on  Hoggen  Green  in  Plantagenet  times,  and  known  as  St. 
Andrew  Thingmote,  and  St.  Mary  del  Hogge,  replaced  these 
temples  here  when  the  North  men  turned  Christian.  For 
the  rule  of  the  missionaries,  as  counselled  by  Gregory  the 
Great,  was  not  to  destroy  pagan  temples,  but  to  transform 
them,  conciliating  their  converts  by  following  old  forms, 
and  replacing  stone  circles  by  rounded  Campaniles  ;  and 
it  is  scarcely  a  coincidence  that  this  new  St.  Andrew's  Church 
was  circular  in  form,  and  was  known  as  the  Round  Church, 
till  burned  in  Queen  Victoria's  time.  The  Mount  was  the 
scene  of  a  very  high  comedy  in  the  Strongbow  Conquest- 
His  lieutenant  Milo  de  Cogan,  about  to  join  battle  with 
Hasculf  Mac  Torkill,  our  Ostman  King,  just  relanded  at  the 
vSteyne  with  Scandinavian  reinforcements,  to  expel  the 
invaders,  feared  an  attack  in  the  rere  from  the  O'Byrne's 
clansmen  of  the  Wicklow  and  Dublin  hills.  So  he  made 
treaty  with  Gylemeholmoc,  then  chief,  and  lord  of  Glencree 
and  Kilruddery,  by  which  the  O' Byrne  and  his  clan  were 
to  look  on  at  the  battle,  and  "  if  God  grant  us  (Norman)  to 
defeat  these  folk  (Ostmen),  you  are  to  help  us  to  follow  them, 
but  if  we  prove  recreant,  you  are  to  join  them  to  slay  and 
torture  us."  On  this  pledge  Gylemeholmoc  "  gaily  went 
out,  and  now  is  this  King  truly  seated  with  his  people  upon 
the  Hoggen  over  Steyne  outside  the  city  in  the  plain  to 
behold  the  melee."    Here  he  sat  on  the  top  of  the  Thingmote, 


impartial  as  a  Nationalist  leader  at  a  Ministerial  crisis, 
waiting  events,  whether  he  will  join  Tory  or  Radical  in  the 
lobbies.  And  next  year  when  Henry  II.  came  in  person  to 
win  the  lordship  of  Ireland,  the  wily  Plantagenet  knowing 
the  Thingmote  was  the  scene  of  election  of  the  Ostman 
Kings,  and  its  religious  sanctity,  chose  it  rather  than  the 
the  fortress  at  the  Castle,  where  to  meet  the  Irish  Chiefs, 
and  obtain  their  homage.  Here  "  he  caused  a  royal  palace 
to  be  constructed  wonderfully  by  wythes  after  the  manner 
of  the  Country,  close  by  the  Church  of  St.  Andrew  the 
Apostle  outside  the  city,"  feasted  there  the  Chieftains, 
entertained  them  with  military  sepctacles  and  games  on 
the  Green,  and  dismissed  them  with  presents,  having  held 
with  them  the  solemn  festival  of  Christmas,  1172.4  At  the 
Thingmote  in  later  Plantagenet  years,  was  erected  under 
statutes  of  the  Pale,.^  butts  for  Archery,  wheie  all  men 
between  sixty  and  sixteen  would  muster  and  shoot  up  and 
down  three  times  every  feast  day  in  summer,  which  at  the 
Restoration  had  become  the  Dublin  Bowling  Green. 
The  Thingmote  was  "  the  fortified  hill  near  the  College," 
the  scene  of  a  fierce  meeting  of  Cromwell's  soldiers  in  1647, 
which  the  mutineers  seized  as  a  place  of  vantage,  and  held  it 
until  at  midnight  they  were  received  to  mercy. 

The  removal  of  the  Thingmount  and  the  Pillar  of  the 
Steyne  was  of  a  landmark,  that  had  connected  Dublin 
with  all  the  misty  romance  of  the  Northmen,  with  the 
Tingshogen  of  Sweden,  the  Pillar  Stones  of  the  Shetlands 
and  Orkney,  with  Staines  and  Runnymede,  and  with  La 
Hogue  in  Normandy,  and  thus  they  tied  us  to  the  times 
when  the  Ivars,  Godfreys,  Sitrics,  Olafs  were  kings  at  once 
both  in  Dublin  and  Northumbria,  Lords  of  the  Isles  whose 
war  cries  were  heard  often — 

Breaking  the  silence  of  the  seas, 
Amongst  the  farthest  Hebrides  : 

in  the  times  when  King  Olaf  sailed  from  Athcliath  to  contest 
the  crown  of  England  with  Athelstane  at  Brunnanburgh, 

■*  Hoveden,  cited  in  Haliday's  Scand.   Duh.,    183. 
^  5   Edw.  4. 


when  contingents  from  the  Liffey  joined  Rollo  up  the  Seine, 
when  he  went  to  win  the  Duchy  of  Normandy,  and  to  breed 
the  iron  race  of  Wilham  the  Conqueror.  The  Ostmen  who 
raised  this  Thingmount  we  call  Goths,  but  surely  they  were 
Vandals  who  displaced  it,  and  it  is  sad  to  record  that  a 
distinguished  Recorder  was  the  chief  Vandal.  Sir  William 
Davys'  house  was  opposite  the  College,  where  the  Provost's 
house  is  now,  in  restoration  times,  then  he  took  up  the 
Bishop  of  Meath's  lease  of  the  Thingmount,  and  had  a  grant 
of  the  mount  free  of  the  conservative  covenants  ;  he  became 
Chief  Justice  of  the  King's  Bench,  and  to  enlarge  his  garden 
carted  away  our  Mons  Sacer  to  make  the  embankment  on 
S.  Patrick's  Well  Lane  to  be  named  Nassau  Street,  after 
King  William  came.*^ 

But  the  life  of  the  town  was  in  the  little  walled  city  on 
the  hill,  and  the  few  streets  raying  out  thence  in  starfish 
wise  ;  little,  but  packed  with  varied  vitality,  quaint  mediaeval 
and  signally  picturesque,  its  area  occupied  forty-five  acres 
only.  The  ancient  wall  was  just  a  statute  mile  in  its  devious 
girth,  pierced  by  eight  towered  gates,  loop-holed  and  port- 
cullised,  between  which  rose  sixteen  other  pinnacled  turrets 
bristling  along  or  in  front  of  the  curtain.  Three  of  the  Gates 
were  in  the  eastern  Wall  :  the  Damas  Gate,  leading  up  to 
the  Castle  ;  the  Pole  Gate,  adjoining  S.  Werburgh's  Church, 
giving  access  from  Bride  Street  by  a  bridge  over  the  Poddle. 
It  was  through  this  Milo  de  Cogan  made  his  decisive  charge 
which  broke  the  Ostmen  and  secured  the  English  invasion. 
S.  Nicholas  Gate,  with  double  towers,  one  hundred  and  fifty 
yards  further  west,  had  also  a  bridge  over  the  Poddle  with 
access  to  S.  Patrick's  Street,  and  S.  Nicholas'  Church  close 
by  within  the  walls.  Between  Damas  and  the  Pole  gates 
was  the  Bermingham  Tower,  alas,  alone  and  but  partially 
surviving,  and  Stanihurst's  Tower,  seventy  yards  beyond  the 
Castle  wall.  Between  the  Pole  Gate  and  S.  Nicholas,  was 
Genevel's  Tower  round,  three  stories  high,  with  timber  lofts 

''  The  exact  site  of  the  Thingmount  is  fixed  by  a  comparison  of  the 
leases  made  by  the  city,  which  are  specified  in  the  4th  and  5th  volume 
of  Gilbert's  Citv  Calendars       Messrs.  Walpole's  warehouses  occupy  it  now. 

12        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

above.  The  three  ports  in  the  south  wall  were  the  New  Gate, 
at  the  end  of  Cornmarket,  from  which  the  great  city  prison 
was  called;  beyond  which  S.  Thomas  Street  ran  out  into  the 
country,  Gormond's  Gate  at  the  west  end  of  Cooke  Street, 
and  the  Bridge  Gate  close  near,  south  of  the  Old  Bridge  of 
Dublin.  Between  S.  Nicholas  and  the  New  Gate  were  three 
towers — Sarsfield's,  Segrave's,  and  Pagan's.  Fitzsimon's 
tower,  between  New  Gate  and  Gormond's,  and  Harbard's 
tower,  between  Gormond's  and  the  Bridge.  On  the  northern 
wall  behind  the  Merchant's  and  Wood  Qua3^s,  w^ere  the 
Wine  Tavern  Gate  and  S.  Audeon's  Gate,  added  to  the 
more  ancient  defences  about  the  time  of  Bannockburn, 
when  the  city,  alarmed  by  the  invasion  of  Edward  Bruce, 
and  not  content  with  the  river  protection,  built  them  out 
of  the  stones  of  the  Dominican  Abbey,  the  site  of  the  present 
Four  Courts,  burnt  to  the  ground  some  years  before.  Along 
these  two  quays,  and  between  wall  and  river,  were  Prichett's 
tower,  Fyan's  Castle  at  the  end  of  Fishamble  Street,  then 
Casey's,  Isoult's,  and  Buttevant's  towers  in  succession, 
the  last  where  the  south  end  of  Essex  Bridge  is  now,  with 
Bysses'  tower,  completing  the  circuit,  between  this  and  the 
Damas  Gate. 

The  graphic  aspect  of  the  walls  was  enhanced  by  the 
architectural  diversities  :  neither  gates  nor  towers  were  of 
like  pattern  ;  some  were  square,  some  round,  some  demi- 
round  ;  some  were  three  storied,  some  two  ;  some  were 
nearly  level  with  the  ramparts  ;  some  had  five  loop-holes, 
some  three,  some  two  ;  some  had  wooden  attics,  rising  over 
the  storied  walls  ;  some  were  only  seventy  yards  distant 
from  the  neighbouring  tower,  the  intervals  varied,  but 
one  hundred  and  fifty  yards  was  the  maximum.  The 
Castle  Gate  and  New  Gate  were  occasionally  decorated  with 
the  heads  of  eminent  rebels.  And  the  names  of  the  many 
towers  were  various  as  their  styles.  It  was  a  very  old 
custom  for  the  city  to  lease  them  to  eminent  citizens  or 
guilds,  by  whose  names  they  were  called  from  time  to  time, 
just  as  government  sometimes  have  dealt  with  the  Martello 
towers,   the  lessees   being   bound  to   preserve  or  surrender 


them  if  needed  for  defence.  Thus  Stanihurst  was  leased 
to  the  old  recorder,  father  of  Richard,  who  wrote  the  Irish 
section  for  Holinshed's  chronicles  ;  Buttevant  was  known 
as  Newman's  in  the  Stuart  period,  from  Jacob  Newman, 
the  father  of  Sir  James  Ware's  wife.  Fyan's  Castle  became 
Proudfoot's  after  the  Restoration.  Bysse's  was  leased  in 
Strafford's  time  to  the  father  of  Sir  John  Bysse,  Chief  Baron 
at  the  Restoration,  to  whom  the  city  renewed  in  respect  of 
his  eminent  services  as  recorder,  adding  the  tower  over 
Damas  Gate,  all  for  ninety-nine  yeais,  at  six  and  eight- 
pence  yearly.  Then  Gormond's  Gate,  legendarily  referred 
to  Gormo  the  Ostman,  was  corrupted  into  "  Ormond's " 
in  the  great  Duke's  day,  and  then,  again  to  Wormwood 
Gate,  the  name  which  still  abides  to  mark  the  site  of  our 
vanished  bulwark." 

But  the  name  which  charms  most  is  Isoult's  Towers, 
Stanihurst  says  it  took  the  name  from  "  La  Belle  Isoult, 
daughter  to  Angus,  King  of  Ireland."  How  came  this  Irish 
beauty  into  the  Arthurian  legend  ?  There  was  an  Angus, 
King  of  Munster,  about  the  time  of  Patrick,  and  the  shadowy 
Arthur's,  and  the  best  opinion  now  bases  the  Table  Round  on 
the  traditions  of  the  Celtic  bards,  Welsh,  Irish,  or  of 
North  Britain,  indubitably  then  connected  with  Armorica 
and  Brittany,  where  the  romance  expanded  under  the  harps 
and  the  lutes  of  the  troubadours  of  France.  Scarlet  Lane 
threaded  up  west  of  the  present  Parliament  Street  from 
Isoult's  Tower  to  the  Castle.  Outside  the  Walls  were  at 
least  six  other  gates  at  furthest  end  of  the  radiating  streets. 
S.  James'  still  marked  by  the  name  of  the  great  brewery, 
S.  Thomas  guarding  the  precincts  of  S.  Thomas  and  Donore, 
S.  Patrick's  close  by  the  great  Cathedral,  S.  Kevin's  near  hand, 
guarding  the  Archbishop's  Palace  of  S.  Sepulchre.  The 
Hogs,  closing  the  entrance  to  the  White  Friars  by  S.  Stephen's 
Street,  and  the  Blind  Gate  at  the  further  end  of  Damas 
Street  leading  into  the  Hoggen  or  College  Green. 

"^  When  the  above  was  written,  the  writer  had  not  seen  Mr.  Leonard 
Strangways  admirable  map  of  the  old  walls,  prefixed  to  C.  Litton  Falkiner's 
Illustrations  of  Irish  History.  Our  nomenclatures  do  not  all  coincide,  for 
many  gates  and  towers  were  differently  known  at  different  periods. 

14        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

The  main  artery  of  old  Dublin  pierced  the  walled  city 
from  Damas  to  New  Gate,  through  dense  congestion. 
Passing  the  Castle  to  the  top  of  the  Fish  Shambles  Street, 
it  contracted  into  the  streetlet,  Skinner's  Row,  running  in 
the  present  line  of  Christ  Cliurch  Place  to  the  High  Street, 
narrow  as  the  Ghetto  of  a  Continental  town,  only  seventeen 
feet  from  house  to  house,  which,  with  basement,  cellars  below 
and  projections  above,  gave  only  twelve  feet  for  the 
carriages,  which  could  scarcely  pass  each  other.  Yet  this  was 
the  very  heart  of  Mid-Dublin,  for  on  the  right  between  it 
and  the  Cathedral  were  the  Four  Courts,  for  which  James  I. 
took  lease  of  the  old  house  of  the  Priors  of  Holy  Trinity  and 
Deans  of  Christ  Church,  whilst  on  the  left  corner  next  High 
Street  was  our  Guildhall  or  City  Tholsel,  where  the  Mayors 
were  chosen,  and  the  Corporation  met,  where  the  Recorder's 
Court  held  unlimited  jurisdiction — Civil  and  Criminal — 
within  the  City,  often,  too,  used  by  the  King's  Courts  and 
at  times  by  the  Parliament.  Here,  too,  was  the  home  of  the 
Publishers  ;  their  trade  fared  ill  in  the  Civil  Wars,  but  after 
the  Restoration  they  swarmed,  so  that  the  narrow  streets 
were  busy  like  Paternoster  Row  and  Ava  Maria  Lanes,  and 
there  were  far  more  Publishers  within  the  limits  of  the  old 
walls  than  in  all  broad  Dublin  to-day. 

In  the  open  between  Skinner's  Row  and  High  Street, 
where  Nicholas  Street  intersects,  was  "  the  chief  and 
ancientest  monument  of  this  city  "  ;  repaired  as  such  some 
forty  years  before,  for  our  memorials  were  held  in  honour 
of  old.  This  was  the  High  Cross,  the  very  core  of  the  city, 
where  the  public  proclamations  were  read  and  the  public 
penitents  would  stand,  clothed  in  white  sheets,  white  wands 
in  their  hands,  white  paper  caps  on  their  heads  inscribed 
with  their  sins.  The  atonement  of  Constance  Kynge  and 
her  paramour  here  in  Elizabeth's  time  reads  dour  and  quaint 
as  a  chapter  of  Hawthorne's  Scarlet  Letter.  One  of  the  latest 
ordeals  here  was  that  of  Eliza  Jones,  her  forehead  inscribed  : 
"  For  harbouring  a  Collegian,"  contrary  to  an  Act  of  State 
of  Strafford  forbidding  any  Fellow,  student,  or  scholar,  to 
enter  an  Ale-house  without  permission  under  the  Provost's 


hands.  How  many  such  hcences  the  Provost  issued  we  are 
not  informed. 

The  area  round  the  High  Cross  was  the  centra]  market. 
The  Cross  had  steps  about  it  like  Nelson's  Pillar,  and  a  vivid 
scene  was  here.  So  as  "not  to  pester  the  market,"  the  flour 
sellers  were  to  stand  on  those  steps,  the  butter  sellers  with 
firkins  in  front  must  stand  out  in  the  street  in  lines  of  six 
each  to  allow  passage  between  the  intervals  ;  the  bacon- 
sellers  in  like  lines  on  stools  in  front  of  them  ;  the  bakers 
were  to  stand  along  the  wall  of  S.  Michael's,  whilst  larger 
wares  were  relegated  outside  the  walls.  At  the  Castle  Street 
end  of  the  strait  Skinner's  Row  was  the  great  lantern-shaped 

Thus  this  centre  was  like  the  Forum  at  Rome,  the  focus  of 
intellectual,  commercial  and  civic  life. 

It  was  the  centre  of  other  things,  notably  strong  drink, 
wherein  Dublin  has  ever  held  high  place. '^  Here  was  "  Hell  " 
in  a  sunk  passage  between  tlie  Four  Courts  and  Cathedral, 
far  below  the  aisles,  further  from  God  by  reason  of  the 
propinquity.  Some  thought  it  was  so  called  in  compliment 
to  the  law,  but  it  certainly  reeked  of  the  drink-demon. 
Famous  or  infamous,  it  caught  the  fancy  of  Burns  to  im- 
mortalize it  in  his  satire  on  the  Doctors,  Death  and  Dr. 
Hornbook,  saying  his  tale  "  is  just  as  true  's  the  Deils  in  Hell 
or  Dublin  City."  The  place  was  soaked  with  cellar  taverns 
in  the  basements  of  the  Cathedral,  with  whose  rulers  rested 
the  original  blame.  In  early  Tudor  times  they  leased  them  for 
wine  taverns,  and  a  century  after  there  were  seven  of  these 
paying  rent  to  the  Chapter.  The  Dragon,  Red  Lion,  Red 
Stag,  Star,  Ship,  Half  Moon,  and  Hell.  These  things  vexed 
the  great  soul  of  Strafford,  who  did  his  own  "  thorough  " 
best  to  suppress  them  ;  his  denunciatory  letter  to  Archbishop 
Laud  is  like  the  scourge  of  small  cords  that  purified  the 
Temple.  But  even  Strafford's  strength  could  not  prevail 
against  the  gates  of  hell.  In  the  days  of  the  Restoration 
there  were  1,180  public  houses  and  91  public  breweries  in 
the  little  city,  and  in  a  Celtic  letter  from  an  Irish  priest  in 

*  Gilbert's  History  of  Dublin,  i.,    t,^. 

i6        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

Rome,  in  1667,  it  is  called  the  city  of  the  Wine  Flasks. 
Wine  was  the  old  staple,  it  is  fluent  even  in  the  Charters  of 
King  John,  and  for  the  Scottish  War  of  his  son,  Henry  III., 
fifty-four  hogsheads  of  red  wine  were  actually  exported 
from  Dublin  to  his  army.  In  Mary  Tudor 's  reign,  Patrick 
Sarsfield,  ancestor  of  the  hero  of  Limerick,  most  hospitable 
Mayor  of  Dublin,  spent  twenty  tuns  of  claret  in  his  year, 
1554,  over  and  above  white  wine,  sack,  malvoisie  and 
muscatel.  In  the  next  reign,  Blount,  Lord  Mountjoy,  sold 
the  wines  of  France  and  Spain  by  pints  and  quarts  in  his 
own  cellars.  The  very  drovers  would  not  return  from  the 
fairs  till  they  had  drunk  the  price  of  cow  or  horse  in  the 
"  King  of  Spain's  daughter,"  as  sherry  was  called.  She 
was  also  known  as  Usquebaugh,  for  the  time  of  whiskey  was 
not  yet  fully  come.  But  that  of  ale  was  with  a  vengeance. 
Tempore  James  I.  we  read  "  it  had  sale  every  day  in  the 
week,  every  hour  in  the  day,  and  every  minute  in  the  hour, 
for  every  woman  is  free  to  brew,  and  as  many  householders 
in  Dublin  so  many  brewers.  The  better  sort  are  the  alder- 
men's wives,  and  their  husbands  wink  at  it."  This  was  pro- 
bably because  they  thus  earned  their  own  pinmoney.  Barnaby 
Rych,  who  writes  this,  concludes  that  the  whole  profit  of  the 
town  rests  on  ale  houses.  If  alive  to-day  he  could  say  little 
else.  At  the  Restoration  the  drink  river  ran  in  rival  currents 
like  the  Rhone  and  Arve.  <  When  the  Duke  of  Ormonde  entered 
as  Lord  Lieutenant  in  1665,  a  conduit  was  set  up  in  the 
Corn  Market,  from  which  wine  flowed  free  for  the  citizens 
at  large. 

If  churches  could  have  checked  it  there  were  plenty  of 
these,  for  this  was  church  centre  too.  Five  clustering  round 
the  Mother  Cathedral : — S.  John's,  separated  by  a  lanelet  only, 
on  the  river  side  ;  St.  Michael's  close  by  at  the  corner  of  High 
Street  on  the  site  of  our  Synod  Hall ;  S.  Audeon's,  or  Owen's, 
further  down  the  street.  On  the  opposite  of  the  main  artery 
S.  Werburgh's  as  now,  but  near  and  within  the  Pole  Gate  ;  and 
S.  Nicholas,  similarly  within  the  gate  of  that  name,  all 
parishes  at  the  Restoration  as  they  had  been  for  ages.  The 
Cathedral,  S.  Michael's,  S.  Nicholas',  founded  by  theOstmen, 


S.  Audeon's  by  the  Strongbow  conquerors,  for  the  paladins 
De  Courcy  and  Armoric  de  S.  Lawrence  had  taken  their 
oaths  of  chivalry  at  S.  Ouen  in  Rouen,  where  the  bones  of 
Coeur  de  Lion  not  long  after  lay,  and  so  S.  Ouen's  was  founded 
here  to  connect  Dublin  ever  after  with  one  of  the  fairest 
Gothic  Churches  in  Christendom. 

Outside  the  Damas  Gate  was  old  S.  Andrew's ;  S.  Bride's 
outside  the  Pole  Gate,  with  S.  Patrick's  Cathedral  at  the 
foot  of  the  long  street  ;  S.  Peter's  and  S.  Stephen's  not  far 
eastward  ;  S.  Catherine's  in  James'  Street.  Thus  the  old  city 
had  some  claim  to  be  Capital  of  the  Island  of  Saints. 

And  the  little  city  was  merry  with  music.  For  a 
century  before  the  Restoration  the  city  maintained  a  band, 
not  merely  official  trumpeters  and  drummers,  but  "  a 
full  concert  of  good  musicians,"  clothed  in  light  blue  livery 
of  broad  cloth,  which  was  voted  them  yearly  with  ninepence 
quarterly  each  by  rents  of  the  twenty-four  aldermen,  six- 
pence from  each  of  the  forty-eight  of  the  Upper  and  four- 
pence  from  each  of  the  Lower  houses  of  the  Council.  For 
this  they  must  work  hard,  every  Sunday,  Tuesday  and 
Thursday  in  the  year,  and  at  all  civic  functions  beside. 
But  then  they  had  a  monopoly,  being  authorised  to  arrest 
all  stranger  musicianers.  The  band  sank  low  in  the  Civil  War, 
but  the  city  music  reappeared  at  the  Restoration  on  the 
entry  of  the  Duke  of  Ormonde.  A  restoration  of  the  custom 
might  settle  something  now  such  as  the  nuisance  of  the 
Greman  bands  and  the  organs. 

Nearly  everyone  lived  in  town  from  the  Viceroy  down 
until  the  renaissance  of  the  Restoration.  How  they  were 
packed  is  hard  to  say,  unless  they  slung  hammocks  in  the  bed- 
rooms, like  berths  in  steamers.  So  through  the  narrow  ways, 
ports  and  passages,  sauntered  or  pressed  the  motley  crowds, 
perriwigged  courtiers,  ermined  judges,  civic  magnates, 
fur  robed  in  scarlet  and  violet,  gowned  churchmen,  wigged 
lawyers,  doctors  alert  or  grave,  hurrying  merchants 
obstructed  anon  by  the  "  idle  women  and  maydens,"  the 
apple  women  and  orange  girls  wherever  they  could  plant  a 
stool,  and  who  survived  to  our  day  round  the  College  Gate 



and  Carlisle  Bridge.  And  with  these  the  "  idle  boys  without 
any  lawful  calling,"  precursors  of  the  corner  boys  who  are 
still  with  us.  For  all  these  casuals  a  law  was  made  only  the 
year  before  the  Restoration,  unfortunately  obsolete  now, 
by  which  beadledom  was  to  arrest  and  set  them  in  a  cage 
in  the  Cornmarket  built  at  the  city  charge,  for  as  yet  we  had 
no  Zoological  Gardens,  where  the  happy  family  would  well 
repay  a  visit.  Soldiers'  uniforms  brightened  the  scene,  for 
there  were  two  city  regiments,  of  which  the  Mayor  and  one 
of  the  Sheriffs  were  respective  colonels  ;  Kiliarch's  both, 
for  there  were  a  thousand  men  in  each,  and  soon  came 
Ormonde's  Royal  Guards.  And  all  were  in  perpetual  peril 
of  the  carmen  furiously  driving  through  streets  and  unpaved 
strands.  In  the  previous  reign  "  their  speediness  "  was 
repressed  by  law,  but  at  the  Restoration  they  were  badged 
and  reduced,  first  to  thirty,  then  fifty,  of  whom  the 
majority  were  to  hazard  outside  the  Walls,  only  a  few  being 
admitted  to  stand  within  the  city.  But  this  asphyxia  could 
not  hold  out  in  the  face  of  modern  ideas.  The  open  spaces 
laws  were  repealed  spite  of  the  shrieks  of  the  vested 
interests  within  the  city,  where  the  house  rents  were 
enhanced  by  the  want  of  room.  Already  the  tide  had  set 
suburbwards,  then  it  came  with  a  rush.  One  by  one  the 
old  gates  vanished  like  cloud  castles  in  the  air.  Verily  the 
thoroughfares  that  have  replaced  them,  now  chiefly  slums, 
are  but  sorry  equivalents.  Mediaeval  Dublin  died  with  the 
dismantling  of  her  towers. 

r   10  ] 



The  Blue  Coat  School  still  bears  this  name    which    once 
comprised  the  whole  of  Dublin  north  of  the  Liffey. 

Place  names  are  the  hieroglyphics  of  history.  Osmantown, 
the  villa  Ostmanorum,  is  the  sole  word-record  here  of  the 
race  that  founded  Dublin  and  ruled  it  three  hundred  years 
with  an  influence  upon  our  history  more  potent  than  is  often 
recognized.  For  the  maritime  Ostmen  having  made  Dublin 
their  chief  place,  the  maritime  English,  by  its  capture,  were 
able  to  make  it  the  fulcrum  of  their  power.  It  was  the  genius 
of  the  Norse  colonies  to  merge  with  the  natives  when  thev 
were  allowed  to  do  so,  as  they  did  in  Normandy,  in 
England,  and  in  Italy,  but  which  the  Irish  were  slow  to 
allow,  though  the  merging  was  beginning  when  the  English 
came  ;  but  coalescing  with  the  vanquished,  the  victors  made 
Dublin  their  capital,  and  seat  of  their  empire  through  all 
the  ages  since. 

The  victors  did  not  purport  to  conquer  Ireland.  Henry  II. 
was  content  with  the  homage  of  the  Irish  Chiefs,  whom  he 
banqueted  on  College,  then  Hoggen,  Green,  under  the 
Ostman  Thingmount  ;  he  even  confirmed  O'Connor  as 
Arch  King  of  Ireland.  Leinster,  indeed,  he  left  to  Strong- 
bow,  not  as  conquered,  but  by  right  of  his  wife,  Eva,  the 
daughter  of  MacMorrough,  the  Leinster  King,  but  the 
Ostman  dominion  he  appropriated,  probably  to  the  joy  of 
their  Irish  enemies.  This  reached  over  the  lowlands  of 
Wicklow  and  Dublin,  from  Arklow  south  to  Skerries  and 
Gormanston  north,  and  east  to  west  from  Howth  to  Leixlip, 
all  Ostman  names,  amongst,  perhaps,  not  fift}^  which 
still  abide  in  Ireland.  Their  realm  is  still  marked  by  the  See 
of  Dublin,  whose  limits  are  the  same  ever  since  Gregory,  the 
Ostman,  became  Archbishop  of  Dublin  in  1152  ;  it  was  also 
marked  for  ages  by  the  admiralty  jurisdiction  of  the  ]\Iayor 
and  Recorder  along  the  coast-line  from  Wicklow  to  ]\Ieath. 
The  Liffey  plain  to  the  Meath  borders  was  Fingal,  the  fi^ie 
or  district  of  the  stranger,  or  perhaps,  simply  the  finn,  or 

20        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

white  stranger,  many  of  the  people  of  which  still  in  their 
light  hair  and  impassive  mien  bear  the  traces  of  their 
Ostman  lineage.  It  was  largely  owned  by  the  Thorkills,  of 
the  family  of  the  King  Hasciilph  Mac  Thorkill,  whom 
Strongbow  conquered— Thor  Gille,  Votary  of  the  God  of 
Thunder.  The  city  and  its  suburbs  by  the  sea  from  Black- 
rock  to  Clontarf,  Henry  gave  to  his  men  of  Bristol,  and 
afterwards  to  his  citizens  of  Dublin,  as  defined  by  the  charter 
of  Prince  John,  his  son,  in  1192,  and  as  perambulated  for 
centuries  by  the  Corporation  triennially  in  festive  cavalcade. 
The  Ostmen  were  not  driven  from  the  city,  but  the  walled 
fortress  on  the  Castle  Hill  was  held  and  colonized  by  the 
victors.  As  a  community,  the  Ostmen  were  confined  to 
the  north  bank  of  the  Liffey,  where  they  had  long  since 
formed  a  suburb  round  the  church  built  by  IMichan,  their 
saint,  in  1095,  and  S.  Mary's  Abbey  founded  by  them  pro- 
bably about  the  same  time,  and  where,  just  outside  the  north 
boundary,  they  had  granted  lands  to  their  foundation  of  the 
Holy  Trinity,  Christ  Church.  Here  they  were  hemmed  in  ; 
for  the  victors  not  only  confirmed  S.  Mary's  and  Christ 
Church  and  enhanced  them,  but  they  founded  Kilmainham 
in  the  west,  All  Hallowes  on  the  south-east  bank,  S.  Thomas 
and  Donore,  and  S.  Sepulchre  to  the  south  of  the  city.  Ruth 
for  their  rapine  may  have  been  their  motive,  but  if  there 
was  religion  there  certainly  was  policy,  for  they  thus  girdled 
the  Ostmen  with  a  cordon  of  holy  ground,  bulwarks  against 
Ostmen  within  and  Irish  without,  who  had  both  now  come 
to  regard  these  with  more  awe  than  fortress  or  stone  walls. 
Thus  the  rule  and  the  tongue  of  the  Northmen  went  into 
oblivion  within  a  generation,  for  they  kept  no  chronicles, 
which  the  Irish  surely  did. 

They  were  not  named  Ostmen  here  merel}^  because  their  old 
home  is  east  of  Ireland.  The  Irish  called  them  Galls, 
Strangers,  Black  Strangers,  White  Strangers,  Danes. 
There  were  tribes  in  Livonia,  whom  the  Greeks  called 
Ostiones  and  the  Latins  Aestii,  perhaps,  because  they  lived 
by  the  Eastern  Baltic,  perhaps  from  the  cradle  of  the  Goths 
in  farthest  Orient.      Ware's  high  authority  attributes  the 


name  to  these.     At  any  rate  the  Norse  were  called  Easter- 
lings  in  England  from  very  olden  time. 

So  Ostmantown  was  founded.  The  name  in  its  larger 
sense  covers  all  the  north  bank  from  Kilmainham  bridge  to 
the  sea  within  the  chartered  city  bounds,  for  the  Abbey  in 
the  centre  is  that  of  St.  Mary  of  Osmanbury,  or  town  of 
the  Ostmans,  and  the  city  records  apply  the  name  to  all  the 
north-east  space  behind  and  around  the  Abbey  and  its 
meadows  to  the  east  where  the  Abbey  streets  now  run,  and 
the  whole  north  bank  was  the  single  parish  of  St.  Michan's, 
but  we  may  generally  confine  the  term  to  what  lies  between 
the  Park  and  the  line  of  Capel  and  Bolton  Streets.  At  the 
restoration  it  had  but  one  street  from  the  old  bridge  known 
as  St.  Michan's  or  Ostmantown  Street  running  north  to  the 
Broadstone,  each  side  of  this  was  chiefly  waste,  though 
dotted  with  homesteads  and  some  villas  of  notables.  After 
the  Abbey  was  dissolved  by  Henry  VIII.,  it  passed  to 
Matthew  King,  Clerk  of  the  Cheques  of  the  Armies  of  Ireland, 
in  1561,  from  whose  family  the  lordship  was  bought  by 
Garret,  first  Viscount  Moore  of  Drogheda,  and  the  abbot's 
house  became  the  home  of  the  Drogheda  family.  At  the 
restoration,  Henry,  first  Earl,  built  a  new  mansion  near 
where  St.  Mary's  Church  now  stands  hard  by  the  Abbey, 
and  its  Little  Green,  still  marked  by  Little  Green  Street, 
and  the  Recorder's  Court,  brought  thither  in  1796,  and  thence 
eastward  the  Drogheda  estate  spread  to  form,  under  Henry, 
the  third  Earl,  Henry  Street,  Moore  Street,  Drogheda  Street 
(changed  to  Sackville  Street,  when  Duke  of  Dorset  was  Lord 
Lieutenant),  and  Earl  Street  away  to  the  north  Strand. 
Archbishop  Bramhall  had  a  mansion  in  Oxmantown  at  the 
restoration,  even  before  the  Cromwellian  magnates  were 
building  villas  here— Sir  Theophilus  Jones,  brother  of  the 
Bishop  of  Meath,  Charles  Coote,  afterwards  Lord  Mountrath ; 
and  Clotworthy,  Lord  Massareene,  Cromwellians  ennobled 
by  Charles :  and  there  were  parks,  enclosures,  Phipoes  Park, 
Ancaster  Park,  ancient  spaces  but  only  half  built  on.  In 
the  far  west  of  the  Ostman  bounds  was  a  triangular  meadow 
in  the  valley  of  the  Liffey,  its  apex  near  the  Island  Bridge 

22        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

of  Kilmainham,  with  the  river  for  its  south  side,  the  other 
trending  north-east  along  the  slopes  of  the  plateau,  where 
now  rises  the  Wellington  Column.  Passing  at  the  meadow 
corner  the  Fountain  of  La  Belle  Isoult,  our  shadowy  heroine 
of  Arthurian  romance,  fossilized  in  Chapelizod,  the  boundary 
mounted  the  highland  and  crossed  an  angle  of  the  present 
Phoenix  Park,  into  the  ravine  by  the  Military  Hospital, 
called  of  old  the  Gybbett's  Slade  from  an  ancient  gallows  on 
Arbour  Hill.  Leaving  this  on  the  right  it  passed  on  through  the 
orchards  and  barns  of  Grangegorman,  of  Christ  Church,  and 
thence  north,  and  then  east  to  the  Tolka  and  the  sea,  whence 
it  turned  back  along  strand  and  river  to  the  Church  of  Our 
Lady  of  Ostmaneby  and  the  strete  of  Ostmantown,  thus  com- 
pletely circling  the  Abbey.  These  borders  were  a  little 
fluctuous,  for  there  were  no  maps ;  they  were  preserved  by 
the  city  magnates  in  triennial  jolliiication  for  centuries 
known  as  "  Ryding  the  Franchises."  The  Mayor  and  Re- 
corder took  horse  with  the  Aldermen  and  Sheriffs  and  the 
Swordbearer,  and  the  Clerk  armed  with  the  Plantaganet 
Charter,  by  which  with  a  bush  here  and  a  stone  there  they 
felt  their  way,  halting  now  to  take  counsel  and  then  for  a 
banquet,  but  at  times  for  a  dispute  with  the  powers  of 
Kilmainham,  or  tlie  Priors  of  Christ  Church  or  S.  Mary's. 
The  western  triangle  was  Ellen  Hore's  meadow,  so, named 
in  the  "  Rydings  "  of  1448  and  1603.  Afterwards  it  was 
owned  by  Sir  William  Parsons,  who  succeeded  Strafford, 
when  sent  to  his  doom,  and  who  held  many  city  acres  through 
Alderman  Lang,  the  father  of  his  wife.  In  his  hands  it  is 
said  to  be  adjoining  Ostmantown,  and  when,  after  the 
Restoration,  the  Park  was  in  formation,  the  Lord  Lieutenant 
Essex  writes  to  the  King,  who  was  much  interested  in  the 
scheme,  that  a  part  of  the  new  lands  proposed  to  be  enclosed 
belongs  to  Sir  Richard  Parsons,  the  Lord  Deputy's  great 
grandson,  and  cannot  be  purchased  during  his  minority. 
This  minor  became  the  first  Baron  Oxmantown  and  Viscount 
Rosse,  and  when  on  failure  of  the  line  of  the  old  Deputy,  the 
honours  were  renewed  in  that  of  his  brother  Lawrence, 
both  titles  were  conferred,  and  the  present  Earl  of  Rosse  in 


his    second    title    pi    Lord   Oxmaiitown    alone    represents 
to-day  the  ancient  Villa  Osmanorum." 

The  highest  ground  east  oftheGybbett  Slade  over  Arbour 
Hill  is  called  in  John's  charter  Knocknaganhoc^  the  site  of 
a  tale  by  Richard  Stanihurst  in  liis  Irish  contribution  to 
Holinshed's  Chronicle  in  1577,  and  told  with  a  humour 
too  quaint  to  abbreviate  : — "  In  the  the  further  end  of  the 
Ostmantowne  Greene  is  there  a  hole,  commonl}^  called 
Scaldbrother's  Hole,  a  labj^rinth  reaching  two  large  miles 
under  the  earth.  This  was  in  old  tyme  frequented  by  a 
notorious  thief  named  Scaldbrother,  wherein  he  would  hide 
all  the  bag  and  baggage  that  he  could  pilfer.  The  varlet 
was  so  swift  on  foot,  as  he  has  eftsoon  outrun  the  swiftest 
and  lustiest  young  men  in  all  Ostmantown  maugre  their  heads 
bearing  a  pot  or  pan  of  their's  on  his  shoulders  to  his  den. 
And  now  and  then  in  derision  of  such  as  pursued  him,  he 
would  take  his  course  under  the  gallows  which  standeth  very 
nigh  his  cave,  a  fit  sign  for  such  an  inne,  and  so  being 
shrouded  within  his  lodge  he  reckoned  himself  cocksure, 
none  being  found  at  that  tyme  so  hardie  as  would  venture 
to  entangle  himself  in  so  intricate  a  maze.  But  as  the 
pitcher  that  goeth  often  to  the  water  cometh  at  length  home 
broken,  so  this  lustie  youth  would  not  surcease  from  open 
catching,  forcible  snatching,  and  privie  prolling,  till  time  he 
was  by  certain  gaping  groomes  that  lay  in  wait  for  him  inter- 
cepted fleeing  towards  his  couch,  having  on  his  apprehension 
no  more  wrong  doone  him  than  that  he  was  not  sooner 
hanged  on  that  gallows,  through  which  in  his  youth  and 
joUitie  he  was  wont  to  run."  In  a  little  book^'*  published 
anonymously  in  1845,  it  is  said  that  even  then  when  digging 

^  After  some  research  I  have  been  unalile  to  find  any  other  trace 
of  the  Parsons  in  Oxmantown.  I  have  tracked  these  boundaries  on  foot 
and  by  comparison  of  the  Charter  of  Prince  John,  1 192,  the  very  quaint 
Ridings  of  the  Franchises,  1488  and  1603,  in  Gilbert's  Calendar,  Vol.  I., 
pp.  3,  190,  492,  also  the  Inquisition  of  Richard  II.,  and  the  modern 
Perambulation,  continued  nearly  to  the  passing  of  the  Municipal  Corpora- 
tions Act,  1840,  described  in  Warburton  and  Whitelaw's  Hist,  of  Dublin, 
Vol.  I.,  p.  103.  Lord  Essex'  Letter  to  Charles  II.,  is  amongst  the  Essex 
papers  printed  for  Camden  Society,  1S90. 

10  Note. — Oxmantown  and  its  Environs,  Dublin,  1843.  It  is  by  the 
Rev.  Nicholas  Burton. 

24        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

the  foundation  for  houses  in  Oxmantown,  they  often  came 
upon  Scaldbrother's  Hole,  that  in  Smithfield  it  is  sometimes 
made  use  of  as  vats  by  the  brewers,  and  in  Queen  Street 
some  vaults  of  the  houses  are  formed  from  it,  and  boys  play- 
ing on  the  hill  have  been  known  to  fall  up  to  their  necks  in 
it  where  the  ground  is  thin.  The  tradition  still  lives  with 
the  usual  variations,  and  the  Blue  Coat  boys  still  have  a 
legend  that  caverns  underlie  their  schoolroom. 

From  Arbour  Hill  the  Ostman  bounds  crossed  Stony- 
batter.  This,  centuries  before  the  Ostman  came,  had  been 
part  of  one  of  the  five  main  roads — Slighs — of  Erin,  that 
which  reached  from  royal  Tara  to  saintly  Glendalough ;  it 
crossed  the  old  Ford  of  Ath  Cliath,  passing  into  Fercullen 
and  the  Dublin  and  Wicklow  hills.  It  entered  Dublin  by 
Cabra,  and  thus  Boher-na-cloghan — the  stony  road— 
Stonybatter,  is  one  of  the  oldest  streets  of  Europe.  From 
Stonybatter  the  boundary  went  on  to  the  granaries  of 
Gormo,  called  in  Prince  John's  charter,  the  Barnes  of  the 
Holy  Trinity.  They  were  large  and  long  lived,  and  seem  to 
have  trespassed  over  the  line  ;  for  riding  the  bounds  in 
Henry  VIL's  time,  the  Mayor  and  his  brothers  met  the 
Prior  of  Christ  Church,  who  was  fain  to  admit  the  macebearer 
by  a  ladder  and  a  window  into  the  barn,  where  was  found  on 
the  floor  a  stone  which  was  the  landmark  between  town 
and  prior,  whence  they  went  on  east  through  the  orchard 
and  so  into  Ostmantown  Green.  And  when  in  the  first 
of  James  L  the  function  recurred.  Sir  Henry  Harrington, 
who  had  been  one  of  Elizabeth's  magnates,  was  owner  of  the 
barns  and  the  manor  house  hard  by,  the  calvacade  went 
straight  for  the  stone  in  the  "  ould  barne,"  and  then  to 
another,  when  the  Mayor  ordered  the  swordbearer  to  thrust 
the  King's  sword  through  a  window,  telling  Sir  Henry  that 
but  they  had  made  him  lately  free  of  the  city,  they  had 
broken  a  greater  passadge.  Sir  Henry,  however,  was  a  states- 
man, he  made  a  banquet  to  the  Mayor  in  the  Manor  Hall, 
yet,  when  they  had  dined,  the  persistent  guests  passed  the 
sword  through  a  hole  in  the  south  wall  and  then  went  on 
through  the  orchard  into  the  green.     The  manor  came  after 


to  the  family  of  John  Stanley,  sheriff  in  1632,  they  held  it 
for  two  hundred  years,  and  in  one  of  the  more  modern  ridings 
some  hundred  and  thirty  years  ago,  the  Lord  Mayor  and 
suite  passed,  like  their  predecessors,  through  Colonel  Stanley's 
house.  The  name  is  preserved  in  the  little  Stanley  Street 
not  far  from  the  broadway  of  Manor  Street,  but  an  heiress 
of  the  Stanley's,  in  1663,  became  the  wife  of  Henry  Monck, 
whose  family  ever  since  have  been  Stanley  Moncks,  and  the 
present  amiable  Viscount  is  lord  of  one  half  of  the  ancient 

The  manor  house,  however,  came  in  time  to  the  Sisters 
of  Charity.  The  site  is  now  a  Girl's  Training  School,  managed 
by  the  nuns,  surrounded  by  high  walls,  but  the  writer,  track- 
ing the  old  bounds  lately,  was  most  kindly  shewn  over  the 
precincts  by  the  Lady  Superioress.  Old  things  have  passed 
away,  but  a  beautiful  new  chapel,  designed  by  Mr.  Ashlin, 
has  recenttybeen  built,  a  truly  architectual  gem,  like  a  pearl 
in  the  shell,  secluded  from  the  world,  where  the  barns  of 
Christ  Church  so  long  stood.  But  the  orchard  eastward, 
where  the  city  rulers  rode  through  the  ages,  now  a  pro- 
cession of  Banquo's  ghosts,  has  a  special  grace  for  us,  for  it 
was  one  of  the  early  gifts  to  our  King's  Hospital,  devised 
by  a  Mrs.  Taylor,  in  1686.  Our  rental  still  calls  it  the 
Dean's  Orchard,  but  that  also  is  a  lucus  a  non  luccndo.  It 
bears  the  fine  name  of  Fitzwilliam  Place,  a  cul  de  sac  to  the 
west  of  the  wall  of  the  Richmond  Asylum. 

Behind  the  manor  stretched  the  sylvan  land  of  Gormo, 
known  in  middle  ages  as  Grangegorman  in  Sylvis,  and  the 
Wood  of  Salcuit,  reaching  from  Ostmantown  Green  to  the 
hamlet  of  Phibsborough,  called  from  the  Anglo-Norman 
Faipoes  or  Phipoes,  vast  grabbers  of  Ostman  lands.  There 
is  a  fine  tradition  of  these  woods,  which,  for  the  honour 
of  our  Hospital,  so  near,  we  fain  were  proveable,  that 
from  these  came  the  oak  of  the  glorious  roof  of 
Westminster  Hall,  invincible  by  time  or  worm,  or  as  Hanmer 
savs : — "No  English  spider  webbeth  or  breedeth  to  this 
day."  II 

'I  Dalton's  History  of  Co.  Dub.,   517. 

26        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

There  are  legends  all  round.  Gormo  himself  looms  in 
romantic  chronicles,  a  mythical  hero,  an  African  prince, 
who  came  from  Spain  and  conquered  Ireland,  and  then  with 
an  Irish  host,  joining  Hengist  and  Horsa,  conquered  England. 
The  myth  is  a  manifest  travestie  of  the  Viking  invasions  of 
both  countries,  the  Paynim  Moors  taking  the  place  of  the 
Paynim  Northmen,  and  yet  it  was  seriously  used  by  Queen 
Elizabeth's  cunning  lawyers  as  a  support  of  her  claims  as 
Queen  of  both  islands  in  the  rebellions  of  O'Neill  as  successor 
of  our  Ostman  of  Grangegorman. 

Another  myth  ^  2  less  traceable,  connects  us  with  Sherwood 
Forest,  telling  how  when  Robin  Hood's  merry  archers  were 
broken  up,  Little  John,  his  First  Lieutenant,  drifted  to  Dublin. 
Prayed  by  the  natives  to  show  his  prowess,  to  their  joy  he 
shot  a  shaft  from  the  Bridge  of  Dublin  to  Arbour  Hill,  the 
fame  of  which  has  been  flying  through  the  ages  since.  In 
Elizabeth's  time  was  still  shown  where  "  standeth  in 
Ostmantown  Green,  an  hillock  named  Little  John  his  Shot." 
The  legend  says  that  being  pursued  by  the  English  to  eschew 
dangers  of  the  laws,  he  fled  into  Scotland.  This  is  indeed 
mythical  :  to  avoid  English  law  surely  Ireland  was  his 
sanctuary.  More  likely  is  the  other  legend  that  makes  his 
ending  on  the  gallows  by  Gibbet  Slade.  But  traces  surer 
than  legend  have  lasted  nearly  till  to-day,  though  doomed  to 
perish  to-moriow.  Very  old  records  speak  of  the  orchards  of 
Grangegorman ;  between  the  Royal  Barracks  and  North 
Circular  Road,  was  an  open  space  known  to  very  few,  for 
it  was  built  all  round,  yet,  four  years  ago  it  contained  more 
than  twenty  acres,  which  in  the  spring  were  rosy  and  radiant 
with  apple-blossoms,  a  paradise  in  this  obsure  corner  of  the 
city.  It  has  belonged  to  the  Palmerston  Temples  and  has 
been  now  sold  to  the  Artisan's  Dwellings  Company,  and 
already  the  golden  groves  have  been  sawn  down  to  the  earth 
level ;  but  the  circles  of  dark  wood  wreathed  with  shoots  of 
apple  leaves  could  still  be  measured,  and  many  were  two  feet 
in    diameter    denoting  for   fruit  trees,   a   growth  of   many 

13  Gilbert's  History  of  Dub.,    i,   341. 


centuries.  The  folk-lore  of  the  neighbourhood  holds  them  to 
have  been  planted  by  the  Danes.  The  workmen's  homes 
will  prove  a  blessing,  but  it  is  a  pity  the  red  brick  or  gray 
monotony  should  not  be  relieved  by  a  few  of  these  old 
Ostmen,  who  renewed  their  youth  each  recurrent  spring,  and 
kept  venerable  memories  green.  We  were  fortunate  in 
finding  these  reliquiae  Danaum  (forgive  the  word)  before 
they  were  doomed  to  oblivion. 

The  old  Ostmantown  street  ran  to  the  hamlet  of 
Glasmenogue  and  the  Broadstone.  Beyond  the  church,  and 
west  of  the  strete,  rises  in  the  old  records  a  tower.  Young's 
Castle,  like  a  lighthouse  over  a  vague  sea,  perhaps  named 
from  Younge,  Abbot  of  S.  Mary's  in  1467.  East,  west,  and 
north  of  this  urban  wedge,  spread,  as  we  have  said,  fields  and 
meadows,  pastures  arid  orchards. 

North  of  S.  Michan's,  and  west  of  the  street,  was  an 
immemorial  swamp,  Loughboy,  the  Yellow  Lake.  It  was 
caused  by  the  riveret  Bradogue,  which  entering  the  suburbs, 
as  now  where  Grangegorman  Lane  joins  the  North  Circular 
Road,  it  coursed  by  the  lane  and  under  the  site  of  the  future 
prison,  thence  to  the  Broadstone,  where  it  probably  accounts 
for  the  glas,  or  watery  ground,  of  Glasmenogue.  Thence 
it  spread  deviously  down  the  slopes  toward  the  river, 
forming  a  marsh,  which  drained  into  the  Pile,  a  narrow 
estuary,  long  marked  by  Pill  Lane,  now  Chancery  Street, 
filled  in  when  the  Ormond  Quay  and  Market  were  formed  by 
the  Duke.  So  late  as  168 1  the  city  Militia  could  not  march 
to  their  parade  on  Ostmantown  Green  by  reason  of  the  swamp. 
Then  the  Bradogue  was  forced  into  regular  channels 
running  to  the  river,  the  main  stream  by  Bolton,  Halston 
and  Arran  Streets  ;  another  by  Brunswick  Street,  then  and 
thence  called  Channel  Lane.  At  the  Restoration,  when  the 
Cromwellian  royalists  were  in  the  ascendant,  Clotworthy,  first 
Lord  Massereene,  had  a  grant  of  Loughboy  from  the  city 
confirmed  in  fee  farm  to  his  widow,  from  whom  it  passed  to 
a  great  great  great  grandfather  of  the  writer,  whose 
relatives  now  possess  a  part. 

But  the  pride  of  the  place  was  Ostmantown  Green,  the 

28        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

great  lung  of  the  old  city  within  the  walls,  all  to  it  that  the 
Phoenix  Park  is  to  Dublin  of  to-day,  and  more  ;  its  Champ 
de  Mars,  the  musterground  of  the  civic  and  royal  regiments 
for  parade,  for  pageant,  or  for  war,  in  it  Charles'  Corona- 
tion was  proclaimed  in  1660,  and  here  was  the  great  cattle 
fair,  its  common  of  pasture,  the  rendezvous  of  civic 
festivities,  public  and  private.  A  lane  passed  through  it  by 
the  river  from  St.  Michan's  to  the  Gallows  by  the  Slade, 
known  in  the  Middle  Ages  as  Honkeman's,  Hongman's, 
Hangman's  Lane,  still  cryptogrammed  in  Hamon's  Lane  to- 
day. In  Henry  VIIL's  time  a  law  is  passed  that  the  market 
of  all  quycke  cattle  shall  be  only  in  the  green  ;  this  meant 
live  bo  vines,  for  sheep  and  poultry  were  sold  in  the  city 
market,  and  pigs  were  ever  favourites  in  Dublin  streets. 
When  after  the  Restoration  the  Green  was  enclosed,  the  old 
usage  was  maintained,  and  Smithiield  and  the  Haymarket, 
ever  since  kept  open,  are  now  the  sole  remnants  of  the 
olden  Green.  In  Elizabeth's  days  there  were  angry  com- 
plaints to  the  Corporation  that  the  cattle  of  foreigners 
wTre  trespassing  on  the  Commons ;  foreigners  meant  people 
not  free  of  the  city,  as  the  rest  of  the  world  were  as 
Barbarians  to  the  Greeks,  and  orders  were  given  to  John 
Usher,  one  of  the  worthies  of  the  period,  to  see  the  Green 
pastured  by  none  but  freemen,  and  that  proportionable. 

South  of  the  Green  was  the  river,  which  here  strayed 
westward  in  a  wide  reach,  mudbanks  on  each  side  with  a 
double  channel  embracing  a  ^reat  island,  lizard  shaped, 
six  acres  in  extent,  which  ran  from  the  old  bridge  at  Ath- 
cliath  to  opposite  the  site  of  the  royal  barracks.  This  was 
Usher's  Island,  which  was  afterwards  merged  in  the 
southern  quays,  but  it  still  preserves  memories  that  should 
not  be  lost,  of  one  of  the  worthiest  of  our  Dublin  names. 
The  Ushers  were  city  magnates  in  Plantagenet  times, 
John  Usher,  Mayor  in  1561,  merits  a  niche  even  in  the 
Elizabethan  Temple  of  Fame  :  statesman,  philanthropist, 
promoter  of  learning,  he  won  the  confidence  of  Lord 
Burleigh  and  of  Walsingham,  and  as  one  of  the  first  who 
pressed  upon  them  the  project  of  the  Dublin  University, 


may  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  founders  of  the  College  of 
which  his  greater  kinsman  was  one  of  the  first  fellows.  By 
him  was  published  the  first  book  e\'er  printed  in  Irish  type, 
of  which  only  one  copy  is  supposed  to  exist.  It  was  the 
Church  Catechism.  Archbishop  Adam  Loftus  writes  to 
Walsingham  in  London — "  my  only  suite  to  your  honour 
is  for  the  speedie  return  of  Mr.  Usher,  the  citie  in  these 
times  standeth  in  such  need  of  him."  He  was  Warden  of 
Oxmantown.  His  son.  Sir  William,  followed  in  his  steps, 
published  the  first  extant  version  of  the  New  Testament 
in  Irish.  The  male  line  of  this  family  failed,  but  from  their 
ladies  descend  the  great  Duke  of  Wellington,  and  the  Dukes 
of  Leinster.  But  the  name  shall  not  die  as  long  as  learning 
lives  embalmed  in  the  memory  of  the  great  Primate  of 

To  the  east  of  the  Ostmantown  or  S.  Michan's  Street 
rose  by  the  river  side  on  the  site  of  the  old  monastery  of  '^  ^  i-" 
S.  Saviour's,  "  the  Innes  "  not,  however,  to  be  used  as  tt^:.  , 
tribunals  till  when  one  hundred  and  thirty  five  years  later, 
the  Four  Courts  were  thither  removed  from  Christ  Church, 
much  to  the  disgust  of  the  city  houseowners,  to  erect  the 
temple  of  British  Justice  in  the  centre  of  the  homes  of  the 
Dublin  Danes. 



The  poverty  of  the  city  was  complicated  and  intense,  the  /  /_ . 
misery  not  merely  of  the  poor,  the  precipitates  of  misfortune 
or  fault,  who  are  always  with  us,  but  penury  born  of  twenty 
years  of  terrible  unrest  which  had  spread  through  all  society 
like  a  malaria.  Dublin  twice  beleaguered  and  perpetually 
harassed,  conflict  within,  and  war  without,  her  suburbs 
the  scenes  of  many  fights  and  of  a  desolating  battlefield, 
found  her  commerce  prostrate,  her  provincial  trade  paral\'zed, 
her  capital,  public  and  private,  vanished  away,  unable  now 
to  maintain  her  own  natural  population,  much  less  the 
forlorn    who    flocked    to    her   recurrently   from     the    chaos 


fltside.  When  the  rebelhon  burst  hundreds  of  "  poor 
uistressed  English,"  with  their  famihes,  repaired  to  the  city 
"stript,  denuded  and  destitute  of  everything.  The  Assembly 
Rolls  testify  gratefully  to  the  unparalleled  humanity  of 
Ormonde  at  this  time,  though  himself  then  a  chief  sufferer. 
After  the  first  ten  years,  in  1651,  half  the  houses  in  the 
city  were  destroyed,  and  Cromwell's  Government  were 
obliged  to  import  a  colony  of  artizans  from  England 
to  rebuild.  Numbers  of  houses  were  derelict,  and  the 
records  are  replete  with  petitions  of  the  city  lessees 
to  be  forgiven  their  rents  or  allowed  to  surrender  ;  as  they 
could  not  get  a  shilling  from  the  occupiers.  One  of  these 
is  Francis  Aungier,  first  Lord  Longford,  who  owned  the 
quarter  in  which  ran  the  street  still  called  by  his  name. 
In  1657  Lord  Mayor  Tighe,  who  had  been  sent  as  repre- 
sentative to  Oliver's  last  Parliament,  is  clamouring  for 
the  unpaid  iTioo  granted  him  by  the  city,  but  the  salaries 
of  the  humbler  city  officers  were  left  unpaid,  and  in  the 
year  of  the  restoration  there  is  a  plaint  from  all  the  city 
beadles,  that  they  have  had  nothing  for  ten  months,  and  are 
starving.  The  rebellion  was,  no  doubt,  chargeable  with  these 
calamities,  but  the  retribution  was  terrible  indeed. 

For  the  Restoration  at  first  only  enhanced  the  trouble, 
when  many  thousands  were  looking  to  it  as  to  a  millennium, 
and  motley  throngs  were  crowding  to  the  Courts  of  Clairns, 
which  would  have  needed  such  miraculous  power  as  fed  the 
■  five  thousand  to  satisfy  all.  The  Commissioners  might 
have  envied  the  lot  even  of  the  Land  Commissions  of  our 
dav,  for  their  problem  was  a  Gordian  knot,  which  time 
only  could  unravel  when  the  threads  were  out-worn.  The 
position  was  something  thus  : — 

The  Cromwellian  settlers  were  in  possession  viva  manu 
of  thousands  and  thousand  of  acres  in  the  three  nearer 
provinces  assigned  them,  nominally  for  their  arrears  of 
pay,  and  they  thus  claimed  by  double  title  of  conquest  and 
purchase  ;  many  of  them  had  resold,  and  the  vendees 
thus  had  a  further  title  by  purchase.  But  the  confiscated 
owners,  whether  exiled  to  Connaught  or  wandering  at  large. 


were  not  merely  rebel  Irishry ;  they  comprised  the  lealest 
and  noblest  of  the  Royalists,  such  as  Ormonde  himself, 
his  titled  cousins,  and  Clanricarde,  who  were  penalized 
by  the  Protector  as  delinquent.  These,  of  course,  must 
be  restored.  Then  there  were  the  Confederate  Catholic 
lords  and  leaders,  who,  when  the  king  was  doomed,  made 
peace  with  Ormonde  in  1648,  under  articles  providing  for 
their  restoration  when  the  monarchy  should  be  restored. 
These  are  known  as  the  Article  Men.  Then  there  were  the 
hundreds,  women,  children,  lunatics,  who  could  not  have 
rebelled,  and  the  relatives  of  rebel  leaders  entitled  in  re- 
mainder who  had  not  taken  arms,  and  then  there  were  the 
Ensignmen,  rebel  warriors  at  first,  who,  allowed  by  Oliver  to 
emigrate  as  soldiers  of  fortune,  had  joined  Charles  in  his  exile, 
and  fought  under  his  nominal  ensigns  in  the  low  countries 
for  France  and  against  France,  for  Spain  and  against  Spain, 
according  to  the  shifting  interests  of  our  fugitive  Prince. 
Many  had  served  for  years  in  battalions  personally  com- 
manded by  James  himself,  and  several  had  become  adherents 
of  the  phantom  Court  of  Charles  at  Breda,  and  were 
thus  more  Royalist  than  the  Royalists  themselves.  Beside 
these  were  a  select^  list  nominated  by  the  king  for  favour 
and  restitution.  All  were  included  in  his  Gracious 
Declaration  of  November,  1660,  and  were  in  high  hope. 

But  restitution  could  only  be  at  the  expense  of  the 
Crom^ellian  settlers,  and  these  were  many-hued  also. 
The  regicides,  of  course,  were  outside  mercy,  and  Cook, 
who  as  Solicitor  General,  had  prosecuted  the  king  in  West- 
minster Hall,  and  had  been  made  Lord  Chief  Justice  in 
Ireland,  Miles  Corbett,  who  had  been  assigned  the  Castle 
of  the  Talbots  of  Malahide,  and  named  Lord  Chief  Baron, 
and  Colonel  Axtell,  Commandant  of  the  halberdiers  at  the 
King's  execution,  who  had  been  rewarded  with  the  Kilkenny 
estates  of  the  Butlers,  were  carried  to  London  to  be  hanged, 
drawn  and  quartered  at  Tyburn.  But  the  moderates  who 
had  worked  with  Henry  Cromwell  had  joined  in  the  recall 
of  Charles  on  the  express  terms  that  their  estates  should  be 
confirmed,  and  they  now  posed  as  the  King's  best  friends. 


32        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Then  there  were  the  old  Royalist  families;  settlers  under 
James  I.  and  Elizabeth,  who  had  gone  over  to  the  Common- 
wealth when  it  prevailed,  such  as  Roger  Boyle,  Lord  Broghill, 
son  of  the  first  Earl  of  Cork ;  he  joined  Cromwell  in  person 
on  his  coming  to  Ireland,  and  had  Lord  Muskerry's  Manor 
of  Blarney,  for  his  guerdon  ;  and  Sir  Charles  Coote,  Chief 
Commissioner  of  Cromwell's  plantation,  now  rewarded  with 
a  Galway  estate  of  the  Clanricardes,  and  Gormanstown  Castle 
in  Co.  Dublin  ;  such  as  Dr.  Henry  Jones,  bishop  of  Clogher, 
and  his  brother,  Colonel  Theophilus,  sons  of  the  old 
centenarian  bishop  of  Killaloe.  Bishop  Henry  had  con- 
sented to  replace  the  Prayer  Book  with  the  Presbyterian 
Directory.  He  became  Oliver's  Scout-master  General, 
and  acted  as  herald  of  the  engagement  to  the  government 
as  then  established,  without  King  or  House  of  Lords,  and 
his  prize  was  Lynch's  Knock,  or  Summerhill,  near  Trim, 
lately  famous  as  the  hunting  lodge  of  the  beautiful  ill- 
starred  Empress  of  Austria.  Sir  Theophilus,  with  Sir 
Charles  Coote,  had  acted  as  Commissioners  for  punishing 
any  who  should  promote  the  interests  of  Charles  Stuart. 
He  got  the  Sarsfield  demesne  at  Lucan  for  his  pains. 

But  there  are  "  Vicars  of  Bray  "  whose  government  never 
goes  out.  Seeing  how  the  cat  jumped  in  1659,  Broghill,  Coote 
and  Sir  Theophilus  Jones  seized  Dublin  Castle  in  December, 
and  summoned  a  convention  of  the  estates  in  February, 
1660,  to  the  Four  Courts  in  Christchurch  Place.  They 
declared,  like  Monk,  for  an  open  Parliament,  and  treated 
personally  with  Charles  for  restoration  on  the  terms  of 
confirming  their  estates.  Now  they  were  seeking,  not 
merely  confirmation,  but  rewards,  seats  on  the  Privy 
Council,  new  dignities  and  ennoblement,  and  they  got  them 
mostly.  Henry  Jones  was  made  Bishop  of  Meath,  Sir 
Charles  Coote  Earl  of  Mountrath,  Theophilus  was  sworn 
of  the  Privy  Council,  and  behind  these  Cromwellians,  noble 
and  ignoble,  were  "  Oliver's  dogs,"  most  formidable  of  all — 
Ironsides,  who  had  not  forgotten  the  use  of  pike  and  musket,, 
and  who  were  not  to  be  displaced,  but  "  that  they  would 
have  a  knock  for  it  first."       They  were  furious  when  they 


learned  that  any  Irishry,  new  Royalist  or  Innocents,  held 
the  letters  of  the  king.  As  to  the  Remainder  Men,  they  said 
"  they  would  know  how  to  cut  off  their  tayles."  If  a  Crom- 
wellian  must  be  dispossessed,  he  must,  at  least,  have  reprisal 
out  of  the  Connaught  lands  to  be  vacated  by  the  return  of 
the  exiles  or  otherwise  somehow. 

Verily  a  motley  flock,  plaintiffs  and  defendants,  thronging 
to  the  Courts  of  Claims. 

Of  these,  there  were  three.  The  first,  of  thirty-six 
Commissioners,  sat  from  March  1661,  for  nearly  a  year  ; 
their  work  was  ratified  by  the  Act  of  Settlement  of  1662. 
But  they  chiefly  represented  the  Royalist  and  Royalist 
Cromwellians,  who  were  now  dominant,  and  did  little  for 
anyone  else,  so  by  Ormonde's  influence  they  were  super- 
seded, and  a  new  court  of  five  gentlemen  sat  in  September 
1662,  to  further  consider  the  claims  of  the  Innocents, 
Article,  and  Ensign  men. 

But  there  were  more  than  eight  thousand  of  these, 
and  when  many  claims  had  been  acknowledged,  there  were 
no  lands  available  to  meet  the  multitudinous  residue,  so  the 
court  was  obliged  to  declare  a  closure  after  a  twelve-months' 
sitting,  and  they  did  not  re-open  until  1666  to  administer 
the  Act  of  Explanation  of  1665,  the  supplement  of  the 
settlement  of  three  years  before.  Meanwhile  the  city 
swarmed  with  piteous  crowds.  These  were  not  the  claimants 
merely,  but  their  wives  and  families,  and  their  retainers, 
for,  as  Thackeray  says,  "  there  is  never  an  Irishman  so 
wretched,  but  he  has  some  more  wretched  dependent 
hanging  upon  him."  When  Ormonde  came  back  as 
Lord  Lieutenant  in  July,  1662,  he  found  the  country 
"  as  divided  and  unsettled  as  is  or  ever  was  in  Christendom." 
When  the  first  Court  was  sitting,  in  1661,  Lord  Chancellor 
Eustace  writes  to  Ormonde  of  the  unrestored  Innocents, 
"  our  streets  be  full  of  those  miserable  creatures  of  all 
sorts,  noble  as  well  as  of  inferior  degree."  When  the 
Law  Courts  opened  next  year,  there  were  scenes  fit  for 
Lucian  or  Dante  to  imagine,  tattered  nobles  and  officers 
scarred  and  sunburnt,  with  buff  coats  patched,  jack-boots 


34        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

and  Bilboa  blade,  and  broken-hearted  followers  around 
them,  heart-sick  with  hope  deferred  ;  and  so  on  for  the 
miserable  years,  till  for  too  many  hope  was  dead. 

Bourke,  Baron  of  Castleconnel-on-Shannon,  had  fought 
under  Ormonde,  his  relative,  against  Cromwell  in  1650, 
and  afterwards  for  five  years  trailed  a  pike  in  James's 
regiment  in  the  Netherlands.  As  an  Ensignman,  he 
petitioned  the  king  in  1662,  stating  he  was  in  debt  for  food, 
raiment,  and  "  unable  to  subsist  if  your  Majestie  relieve  me 
not  ;  "  five  years  afterwards,  he  tells  Ormonde,  who  had 
at  last  procured  him  a  pension,  that  he  had  been  forced  to 
pawn  his  very  clothes  for  twenty  pounds  to  bring  him  out  of 
Dublin,  and  was  unable  to  appear  for  want  of  dress,  "  my 
wife  and  children  ready  to  forsake  house  and  home,  and 
the  little  stock  I  had  being  taken  for  rent."  MacCarthy 
Reagh  of  Bandon,  connected  by  marriage  with  Ormonde, 
was  a  married  Ensignman.  He  writes  in  1665  to  the  Duke, 
that  he,  his  wife,  and  seven  children,  had  been  forced  for 
want  of  a  home  to  come  to  Dublin  ;  where  they  had  not  a 
penny  or  penny's  worth  to  relieve  them,  and  in  a  condition 
ready  to  perish  with  starving,  with  no  other  subsistence, 
but  wandering  from  house  to  house,  looking  for  bread." 

The  O'Dempsey,  Viscount  Clanmalier,  of  the  Queen  and 
King's  Counties,  had  fought  as  a  rebel,  but  was  amongst 
the  Aoiicle  Men  ;  he  had  been  imprisoned  by  the  Cromwell 
Government  five  years  in  Dublin,  and  so  could  not  join 
the  Ensigns  abroad.  He  had  nothing  now  to  live  on,  but 
his  claim  was  abortive,  for  his  great  estates  had  passed  to 
Bennett,  afterwards  Lord  Arlington  of  the  Cabal,  who 
formed  the  Queen's  County  lands  into  the  Manor  of 
Portarlington,  for  his  distinguished  self.  Andrew  Tuite, 
Lord  of  Cullanmore  Castle,  Westmeath,  a  Confederate  chief, 
who  had  been  imprisoned  by  the  opposite  Irish  faction  of 
the  Nuncio,  was  reinstated  at  the  Restoration  by  the  king's 
letter,  but,  dying  soon  after,  his  son  Walter  was  dispossessed 
by  a  Cromwellian  claiming  under  the  Act  of  Settlement.  In 
1666  his  petition  states  he  had  been  in  Dublin  twelve 
months  with  not  sixpence  for  six  months  to  relieve  him  ; 


two  of  his  sons  in  the  city,  who  from  cold  and  want,  had 
sickened  to  the  point  of  death,  whilst  his  mother,  daughter, 
and  two  other  sons  were  the  Lord  knows  where,  having  not 
a  bit  to  put  in  their  mouths. 

These  were  magnates.  There  was  no  land  to  reprize  them; 
how  was  it  with  the  starving  others  ? 

Charles  and  Ormonde  have  incurred  the  obloquy  of 
ingratitude  and  breach  of  the  promises  which  they  were 
really  anxious  to  fulfil,  but  the  truth  is  this  would  have 
needed  another  Ireland,  and  a  new  army  ;  for  sejfishness 
and  tapacity  were  rampant.  A  general  displacement  of 
the  Cromwellians  would  indubitably  have  evoked  another 
Civil  War  ;  as  it  was  they  projected  one,  and  a  plot  to  seize 
Ormonde  and  Dublin  Castle,  and  to  restore  the  Covenant 
was  only  suppressed  by  the  hanging  of  Colonel  Alexander 
Jephson  and  his  co-conspirators.  In  several  instances 
restored  Innocents  were  evicted  by  forcible  entry,  and  the 
ejectors  could  never  be  displaced.  It  was  hoped  that  the 
estates  of  the  regicides  and  of  some  noted  rebels  still  un- 
punished, might  have  proved  large  assets  for  redistribution, 
but  to  secure  Court  influence,  the  Cromwellian  faction  had 
the  regicides'  lands  assigned  to  James  of  York,  w4io,  it  was 
hoped,  would  have  served  his  old  comrades  out  of  these, 
but  he  for  whom  they  had  bled,  for  whom,  as  king,  the  Irish 
afterwards  staked  their  all,  would  not  surrender  an  acre, 
and  when  five  thousand  acres  of  Oliver's  own  assignment 
in  Meath  were  resettled  on  a  Royalist,  he  claimed  to  be 
recouped  elsewhere.  Henry  Cromwell  had  been  so  moderate, 
so  generously  kind,  to  the  Duchess  of  Ormonde,  that  he  was 
permitted  to  sell  his  great  estate  in  Tipperary,  and  the 
purchasers  were  confirmed.  So  with  many  another  expected 

So   Dublin   was   filled  with  a  ruined  rabble  of  famished 
strangers,     and  natives   little   better   off.        This   was   the 
misery  that  led  to  the  Letter  of  Lord  Ossory,  that  led  to  ^ 
the  founding  of  the  King's  Hospital. 




King's  Hospital  was  a  rebirth  or  continuation  of  the  old 
Free  School  of  Dublin,  which  is  thus  a  part  of  our  storv, 
and  one  which  throws  odd  light  and  shade  on  the  educa- 
tional and  financial  conditions  of  the  Caroline  age,  which 
might  cause  wonder  to  the  Commissioners  of  Education  and 
the  School  Committees  of  our  time. 

A  lanelet  still  tumbles  down  the  hill  of  Dublin,  from  High 
Street  to  Cook  Street,  like  a  turbid  brook  ;  there  is  a  mound 
at  one  side  of  ruined  masonry,  the  stones  are  the  fossils  of 
the  old  "Free  Schole  of  the  Cittie,"  this  street  was  Rame 
Lane  in  the  middle  ages,  it  is  called  Schoolhouse  Lane 
still,  though  the  School  ceased  there  so  very  many  years 
ago. I  The  City  Assembly  Rolls  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII. , 
and  for  a  century  after,  have  entries  giving  the  names  of  the 
masters  appointed  by  the  Corporation  and  their  salaries, 
these  range  from  £20  Enghsh  to  /lo  Irish,  with  the  duty  of 
teaching  twenty  children  of  freemen,  and  the  rights  of 
receiving  from  the  parents  from  three  shillings  to  eighteen 
pence  a  quarter,  for  each  child  ;  for  anything  beyond  this 
they  were  referred  to  "  the  curtesies  of  the  parentes  according 
to  their  dysposycions  ;  "  they  might,  however,  take  pupils 
from  the  country  for  whatever  they  could  get.  They  had 
residence  in  the  garrets,  over  the  big  draughty  School  room, 
which  would  seem  to  have  been  held  by  the  Corporation 
under  covenant,  to  be  kept  continually  out  of  repair,  for 
there  is  an  enquiry  into  the  ruins  of  the  free  School  house 
in__i6^i5,  and  the  complaints  of  the  successive  masters  are 
piteous  and  recurrent.      Yet  these  teachers  were  no  hedge 

1  Gilb.   Cal,   2,   438. 

THE    FREE    SCHOOL    OF    DUBLIN.  37 

schoolmasters,  nor  were  the  pupils  mere  charity  boys.  The 
master  was  to  "  teach  the  children  of  the  free  citizens  in 
humanytie,  and  others  the  liberal  Sciences  and  frealtyes," 
and  he  did  it,  at  least  sometimes. 

In  1588,  the  year  after  Mary  Stuart's  death,  two  Scotch- 
men, James  Fullerton  and  James  Hamilton,  came  here  as 
secret  emissaries  on  behalf  of  her  son,  James  VL,  to  pro- 
mote his  succession  to  the  English  crown.  But  the  king 
could  not  support  them,  and  so  Fullerton  became  master 
of  the  City  School  and  Hamilton  assisted  there ;  clever 
Scotchmen  can  live  on  little. 

When  James  became  King  of  England,  both  had  large 
grants  of  forfeited  estates  in  Ireland.  Hamilton  was  made 
Lord  Clandeboye,  his  teeming  posterity  includes  Lord 
Dufferin,  Lord  Holmpatrick,  and  the  Hamilton  Rowan 
family.  Fullerton  was  knighted,  became  first  gentleman  of 
the  Royal  bedchamber,  and  was  buried  in  Westminster 

But  they  had  a  pupil  far  greater  than  themselves, 
in  that  year,  1588,  a  little  boy  of  eight  years,  James  Usher, 
entered  the  School  and  remained  there  five  years,  and  there 
was  laid  the  basis,  as  the  great  Primate  often  acknowledged, 
of  a  learning  perhaps  the  vastest  and  deepest  of  his  day. 
He  too  lies  in  the  great  Abbey,  not  far  from  his  old  master 
of  the  Dublin  Free  School. 

Poor  as  was  the  pittance,  the  office  was  deemed  of  great 
public  importance,  for,  in  1642,  Thomas  Coffie  is  recommended 
as  master  by  both  houses  of  Parliament,  yet,  shortly  after  he 
complains  that  the  slating  of  the  roof  is  off.  And  the  pittance 
was  often  in  arrear.  Even  Fullerton  had  to  petition  "  for  £26 
being  dewe  unto  him  as  well  for  his  stipent  as  his  dyet," 
at  last  in  165 1,  at  the  close  of  Oliver's  Conquest,  the  City 
couldn't  even  promise  to  pay  anything,  and  appointed  John 
Carr  on  the  express  terms  that  he  was  to  have  no  salary 
beyond  what  he  might  get  from  the  parents.  We  hear  no 
more  of  him,  and  may  hope  he  didn't  starve  ;  the  school  did. 

So  the  new  regime  took  up  the  question  magniloquently  "1 
enough   at   least.       After   electing   their   new    Mayor,   the 

38       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

Assembly,  in  October,  1660,  passed  a  law  that  the 
Reverend  William  Hill,  Doctor  of  Divinity,  shall 
have  the  place  of  Schoolmaster  of  the  Cittie,  and 
that  the  Mayors  and  Sheriffs  be  visitors,  who,  once 
a  year  or  oftener  as  they  see  cause,  shall  see  the  said 
School  well  ordered  and  governed.  At  £15  a  year,  he  was  to 
teach  twenty  poor  freemen's  children  to  be  nominated  by 
the  Mayor,  for  eighteen  pence  per  child,  per  quarter,  and 
other  men's  children  as  he  can  agree.  The  Dominie  does 
not  seem  to  have  had  a  good  time  of  it. 

In  the  May  following  he  is  asking  the  Corporation  to  lay 
down  a  course  for  the  speedy  reparation  of  the  roof  ;  they 
ordered  the  Masters  of  the  City  Works  to  repair  it,  to  be 
paid  on  the  warrant  of  the  Mayor,  but  though  the  warrant 
went  the  Treasurer  had  no  money,  and  the  poor  Doctor 
was  forced  to  spend  £25  himself  to  make  the  place  a  con- 
venient habitation  for  himself  and  family.  It  is  not  strange, 
therefore,  that  in  1664  he  resigned,  accepting  a  prebend's 
stall  in  St.  Patrick's,  glad,  we  presume,  to  be  put  back  into 
the  priest's  office  that  he  might  eat  a  piece  of  bread.  Yet, 
Dr.  Hill,  too,  had  an  illustrious  pupil.  In  1662  Sir 
Winston  Churchill  was  in  Dublin  as  one  of  the  Commissioners 
of  the  Court  of  Claims.  His  eldest  son,  John,  was  a  boy  of 
twelve,  and  was  placed  suh  ferula  of  the  Free  School 
here.  Hill  was  the  Helicon  at  which  the  great  Duke  of 
Marlborough  took  his  early  draughts,  and  here  was  taught 
the  hand  that  wrote  the  despatches  of  Blenheim  and  Ramilies. 
It  is  curious  to  think  of  this  boy  and  of  what  he  was  think- 
ing as  he  plodded  daily  by  Christ  Church  and  the  precints 
of  the  now  Synod  Hall.  His  enemies  in  his  greatness  said  he 
couldn't  spell,  and  possibly  this  School  is  responsible,  for 
Dr.  Hill  seemingly  spells  "  School  "  and  "  repair  "  with 
final  "  ees,"  and  "  especially  "  and  "  speedy  "  end  in  "  ie," 
but,  as  Lord  Wolseley  justly  says,  orthography  was  then 
fluctuous  ;  it  was  Addison  and  Steele,  Swift  and  Pope  that 
fixed  the  standard,  and  even  with  Swift,  '•  asparagus  "  is 
"  sparrowgrass."  At  any  rate,  Marlborough  shares  this  blame 
with  Napoleon  and  Wellington. 



Hill  was  starved  out,  but  a  place  in  Dublin  is  never  vacant 
without  many  clamouring  to  fill  it.  The  hint  of  Hill's 
resigning  brought  many  rivals  into  the  field.  Mr.  Fletcher 
was  the  fortunate  candidate,  his  scholarship  being  approved 
by  Primate  Margetson,  and  in  the  grand  language  of  the 
rolls,  he  was  ""  invested  in  the  said  Free  School  and  the 
Salary  thereto  belonging,"  which  sounds  queorly  with  the 
arrears  due  Dr.  Hill  still  left  unpaid.  Fletcher  fared  no 
better  than  Hill,  he  is  soon  bleating  over  the  repairs.  "  There 
is,"  he  says,  "  a  Schoolroom  and  a  large  fay  re  room  over  it, 
but  the  latter  has  no  chimney,  and  it  would  be  very  con- 
venient if  the  chimney  should  be  built,  which  would  not  be 
very  chargeable,  for  the  tender  children  frequently  made  their 
address  in  cold  weather  in  a  strait  little  kitchen,  scarce  suitable 
for  his  own  family."  -  There  is  pathos  in  that  plea  of  the  little 
strait  kitchen  sufficient  for  his  own  family,  though  scarcely  so. 

He  seems  to  have  come  to  grief,  for  in  1668  there  was  a 
petition  for  the  appointment  of  Matthew  Spring,  M.A., 
founded  on  reasons  "  therein  set  forth,"  but  which  do  not 
appear  in  the  rolls  ;  on  this  the  grant  to  Fletcher  was  declared 
to  be  void,  and  Spring  reigned  in  his  stead,  the  Assembly 
ordering  that  the  School  should  henceforth  be  visited  by  the 
Mayor  and  Sheriffs  twice  in  the  year,  in  June  and  September, 
instead  of  once  as  in  Hill's  time.  But  Spring,  too,  seems 
to  have  been  a  failure.  Very  shortly  after  his  appointment, 
there  is  a  rather  angry  order  by  the  Assembly  that  no  usher 
whatever  be  placed  in  the  Free  School  under  Matthew 
Spring,  without  the  authority  of  the  City,  and  in  1671  he  was 
discharged.  For  the  Corporation  had  meanwhile  taken  up 
the  education  question  in  real  earnest.  Early  in  that  year  they 
commissioned  the  Lord  Mayor,  Sir  W.  Davys,  the  Recorder, 
and  the  Sheriffs  to  confer  with  Lord  Berkeley,  the  Lord 
Lieutenant,  and  the  Lord  Chancellor  for  establishing  and 
regulating  such  a  Free  School  as  the  Assembly  desired. 
These  gentlemen  reported  chat  His  Excellency  and  the 
Chancellor  were  most  desirous  of  the  same,  and  would 
recommend  that  some  dignity  should  be  conferred  on  some 

-  Gilb.   Cal.,  4,    522. 

40       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

able  Schoolmaster,  and  allow  out  of  his  revenue  four  score 
pounds  for  his  support,  and  assign  for  the  Schoolhouse  the 
great  house  in  Back  Lane,  called  the  Hospital,  then  in  his 
hands,  which,  however,  would  cost  £400  to  repair.  The 
report  was  ratified,  the  Dean  of  Christ  Church,  Dr.  Parry, 
'  lp-i1  ■  who  became  Bishop  of  Ossory  in  the  following  year7~waS 

appointed  under  the  city  seal,  to  contract  with  a  School- 
master in  England,  and  the  Lord  Lieutenant  applied  to  the 
King  for  letters  patent  for  a  new  Free  School.  Poor 
Matthew  Spring  was  discharged,  and  the  old  School  in  Rame 
Lane  was  closed  and  for  ever. 

The  King's  letter  followed  to  Lord  Berkeley  in  May ;  it 
dates  from  Whitehall,  and  recites  :  "  We  are  given  to  under- 
stand there  is  an  extraordinary  want  of  a  good  Schole  in 
Dublin,  the  metropolis  of  our  Kingdom  of  Ireland,  by  reason 
whereof  our  loving  subjects  of  all  ranks  and  conditions 
inhabiting  in  our  sayd  city  and  other  places  of  that  King- 
dome  are  forced  for  the  education  of  their  children  to  send 
them  to  remote  parts,  and  sometimes  beyond  the  seas  from 
their  own  oversight  not  only  to  the  great  hasard  of  their 
lives  and  health,  but  of  having  their  youth  corrupted  with 
evil  principles  in  religion  by  persons  who  may  take  advantage 
with  their  learning  to  instil  erroneous,  dangerous  and 
destructive  opinions."  It  then  states  the  King's  pleasure  in 
conformity  with  the  advice  of  Dr.  Michael  Boyle,  Lord 
Archbishop  of  Dublin,  and  the  Lord  Mayor  of  our  said  city 
that  there  be  for  ever  a  Free  Grammar  School  in  the  city, 
with  fit  and  able  Schoolmasters  to  be  approved  from  time 
to  time  by  the  Lord  Archbishop  and  Lord  Mayor.  To 
augment  the  Corporation  grants  and  to  insure  masters  "  in 
a  more  than  ordinary  measure  qualified  for  instructing 
youth  after  the  best  manner  in  School  learning,"  the  advow- 
son  of  the  first  of  the  three  dignities,  Chanter,  Chancellor,  or 
Treasurer,  of  Christ  Church  which  shall  be  vacant  is  to  be 
settled  for  ever  so  that  the  Master  from  time  to  time,  and  no 
other,  shall  be  incumbent.  The  Hospital  in  Back  Lane, 
called  Kildare  House,  for  whicli  it  is  stated  the  King  pays 
£12  yearly  to  the  Dean  and  Chapter,  is  allocated  for  the 


First  designate  Chaplain  of  tlie  Blue   Coat. 
Bishop   of   Cork,   1678;    Kilmore,    1699, 

Obiit,   1714;   ^t.,   78. 

From  an   Original   Picture  b\'   Vander  Vaert. 

Liuitton  :   Piiblisticci  by  S.  Woodbnrn.   1S13. 

[To  fat-e  page  41 

THE    FREE    SCHOOL    OF    DUBLIN.  41 

SchooL  Pending  a  vacancy  in  one  of  the  dignities,  the  King 
will  allow  £80  a  year  for  the  chief  Schoolmaster  out  of  the 
Irish  Exchequer.  The  Archbishop,  Lord  Mayor,  Deans  of 
Christ  Church  and  St.  Patrick's  and  the  Provost  of  Trinity 
College  for  the  time  being,  are  made  visitors,  and  Letters 
Patent  are  directed  to  issue. 

Dean  Parry  went  to  England  and  secured  a  first-class  man. 
This  was  the  Rev.  Edward  Wettenhall,  resident  Canon  of 
Exeter.  He  had  been  a  pupil  of  that  ideal  swishtail.  Dr. 
Busby,  of  Westminster  School,  thence  he  entered  Trinity, 
Cambridge,  but  passing  to  Lincoln,  Oxon,  graduated  B.D, 
there  in  1669.  He  was  a  fine  scholar,  author  of  Wettenhall's 
Greek  Grammar,  which  with  Dorey's  Prosody,  and  the 
Latin  Delectus,  held  its  place  in  English  and  Irish  Schools  for 
mor%  than  a  century  and  a  half.  Resigning  everything  in 
England,  he  came  here  in  1672,  with  his  family  and  an 
assistant  Master,  Walter  Neale,  to  whom  he  was  himself  to 
pay  £50  a  year.  But  there  w^as  no  School  for  him,  nothing 
in  the  city  coffers  to  pay  his  £80  salary,  much  less  to  trans- 
form Kildare  Hall,  or  provide  for  the  pupils.  The 
Corporation,  furthermore,  were  then  building  our  Hospital 
and  Free  School,  as  we  shall  presently  see,  and  had  not 
enough  for  that.  They  were,  however,  ashamed  of  them- 
selves and  the  Assembly  in  June  considering  it  would  tend 
much*  to  the  loss  and  dishonour  of  the  city  if  the  master 
should  be  forced  to  turn  into  England  again,  ordered 
accommodation  for  the  master  and  scholars  to  be  provided 
in  the  new  Hospital,  if  the  Lord  Lieutenant's  consent  should 
be  obtained.  Wettenhall  must,  therefore,  be  regarded  as 
dejure  our  first  Headmaster.  But  our  Hospital  wasn't  ready, 
so  meanwhile,  he  hired  rooms  himself,  at  £20  a  year,  where 
with  Walter  Neale  "  he^Jtaught  School  in  the  City  in  as 
publique  manner  as  he  could,"  as  he  tells  in  his  petition  in 
January,  1674,  wherein  he  plaintively  sets  forth  his  wrongs, 
and  prays  for  his  arrears  of  salary,  and  that  steps  may  be 
taken  to  give  him  a  house  and  school  somewhere.  The 
Assembly  ordered  his  arrears  to  be  paid,  and  referred  his 
petition  to  the  Sub-Governors  of  our  Blue  Coat,  of  whom 

42        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

anon,  and  paid  his  rent  out  of  the  revenue  of  the  City 
waters.  In  this  year  our  Hospital  was  approaching  com- 
pletion, but  theie  was  no  room  for  him  yet.  His  petitions 
were  entered  in  the  Journal  of  the  Blue  Coat  Governors  ;  but 
Dublin  could  not  afford  two  Free  Schools,  and  he  must 
wait  for  another  year.  He  had  held  his  ground,  working 
like  a  man,  and  thinking  while  he  taught  in  his  temporary 
lodging,  yet  earning  high  repute  as  clergyman  and  scholar. 
But  only  a  few  months  before  our  building  was  about  to 
open  and  ready  to  receive  him,  he  preached  a  famous 
sermon  in  Christ  Church  called  "  Collyrion  "  at  a  time  when 
he  needed  a  heart  salve  himself.  And  the  King,  as  he  told 
the  City,  kept  his  promise  to  him,  for  he  was  now  installed 
Precentor  of  Christ  Church  in  1675,  and  Prebendary  of 
Castleknock  in  St.  Patrick's,  and  in  1679  with  iiigh 
acclaim  became  Bishop  of  Cork,  eight  Prelates  taking  part 
in  the  Consecration,  the  Primate  Margetson,  Archbishop 
Boyle,  the  Bishops  of  Meath, ,  Kildare,  Raphoe,  Killaloe, 
and  Dr.  John  Parry,  his  sponsor,  now  Bishop  of  Ossory.  In 
1699  he  was  translated  to  Kilmore.  In  both  positions 
eminent,  he  rebuilt  at  Cork  the  old  Bishop's  Court,  which  he 
used  as  his  palace ;  at  Kilmore  he  built  the  Episcopal  House 
at  the  west  end  of  the  Church,  and  began  the  restoration 
of  the  ruined  Cathedral  of  St.  Patrick  at  Ardagh.  He 
died  in  1713,  full  of  honours,  and  lies  in' Westminster  Abbey. 
Brave  old  City  Free  School,  three  of  your  memories  amongst 
the  ashes  of  the  great. 3 

The  collapse  of  the  Free  School  was,  in  truth,  because 
the  City  had  in  mind  the  combination  of  an  Hospital  with 
the  School,  to  maintain  wnich  separately  was  utterly  beyond 
their  means,  nor  could  they  have  attempted  either,  but  for 
the  allotment  of  Stephen's  and  Oxmantown  Greens,  a 
further  breach  of  Strafford's  ordinance,  yet,  one  of  vital  and 
lasting  moment  to  our  Hospital,  for  it  gave  us  a  home  and  a 

^  This  account  of  the  Free  School  and  Dr.  Wettenhall  is  drawn  from 
Gilbert's  Calendar,  \'ols.  IV.  and  V.  ;  his  History  of  Dublin,  Vol.  I.  Sir 
James  Ware's  Irish  Bishops  ;  the  Minute  Books  of  King's  Hospital. 
Lord  Wolseley's  Life  of  Marlborough,  and  Elrington's  Life  of  Usher  have 
been  consulted. 

6/;n/^'i/.  J/i/',/V.,^AV6:v/A.s/y/;;AAA7:i//;. ,  .s- ^n-riiEXsCRKKX. 

St.  Stephen's  Green,  as  allotted  in  1664 

(The  adjoining  Streets  were  inserted  in  the  Map  many  years  afterwardsV 

[To  face  page  Vi 

THE    FREE    SCHOOL    OF    DUBLIN.  43 

permanent  endowment.  In  1663  the  Assembly,  reciting 
that  ''  by  the  late  rebellion  and  long  continued  troubles  of 
this  Kingdom,  the  treasury  of  this  Cittie  is  cleerly  exhausted," 4 
resolved  that  by  letting  the  outskirts  of  S.  Stephen's  Green 
and  other  waste  lands,  a  considerable  rent  may  be  reserved. 
In  the  next  year  they  had  these  skirts  laid  out  in  parcels, 
for  which  lots  were  drawn  by  the  City  IVIagnates  themselves 
and  other  Notables,  whose  names  appear  in  the  Assembly 
Rolls.  It  may  seem  a  mighty  job,  but  the  Corporation  in 
fact  had  no  money  to  build  on,  or  even  to  enclose  the  wastes. 
Each  allottee  was  to  pay  one  penny  per  foot  on  three  sides 
of  the  green,  and  one  halfpenny  on  the  south,  or  country 
side,  and  fines  of  ten  shillings  for  each  shilling  of  the  ground 
rents.  All  were  given  grants  in  perpetuity,  but  each  was 
bound  to  erect  his  portion  of  the  boundary  wall  opposite  his 
lot,  and  to  plant  six  sycamore  trees  alongside.  Next  year 
Oxmantown  Green  was  similarly  dealt  with,  the  allottees 
paying  forty  shillings  tine  and  twenty  as  head  rent,  but  in 
the  lists  we  find  Nos.  88  and  89  marked  "  Free  School," 
showing  what  was  in  mind  even  then. 5  The  space  for  the 
great  market,  now  Smithfield,  is  also  reserved  and  the 
residue  of  the  green,  at  the  instance  of  the  Duke  of  Ormonde, 
was  levelled  as  an  exercise  ground  for  his  new  regiment  of 
Irish  Guards,  and  the  City  Militia,  after  the  City,  who  had 
nothing  but  waste  lands,  had  presented  to  the  Duke  himself 
seven  Irish  acres.  The  feeling  of  gratitude  towards  him  was 
intense,  and  the  city  wished  him  to  have  a  palace  and  to  live 
in  Dublin.  These  acres  are  just  to  the  west  of  the  present 
Blue  Coat  playground,  on  the  site  of  the  Royal  Barracks, 
erected  in  1706 ;  for  the  Duke's  calls  to  London,  and  his 
son  Ossory's  death,  prevented  his  building  here,  and  the 
second  Duke's  life  was  chiefly  in  England. 

The  maps  of  the  allotments  which  we  insert  may  be  of 
interest  to  some  of  the  present  residents,  as  they  certainly 
are  to  the  King's  Hospital,  part  of  whose  title  deeds  they 
are,  though,  as  with  many  Irish  landlords,  our  rents  are  small. 
"The  skirts"  of  Stephen's  Green  thus  allotted,  amounted 

*  Gilb.  Cal,,  4-256,  271,  299.  ^  Gilb.  Cal.,  4,  358. 

44        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

to  seventeen  Irish  acres,  from    which    the    aspect  of    the 
original  expanse  may  be  partially  realized. 

The  outsider  allottees  in  Oxmantown  were  more  numerous 
in  Oxmantown  than  in  Stephen's  Green,  because  Oxman- 
town was  then  becoming  the  fashionable  West-end.  Lots 
there  were  drawTi  by  Lords  Dungannon  and  ^lassareene, 
Chief  Baron  Bysse,  who,  as  an  old  recorder,  had  asked  leave 
to  draw.  Sir  Hercules  Langford,  ancestor  of  the  Rowleys, 
Lords  Langford,  and  Warner  Westenra,  ancestor  of  the 
Lords  Rossmore.    He  was  then  a  member  of  the  Corporation. 

> >/:.\/:/,:ii.  ( /rri,i.\i-: Mai-  ,.■///.„■.  t 

■■J  //.,<:    /  '/■/>////(//  /,t'/..Y  nj'      ( JXM.l.X  J  <j/i:\' . 


Oxmantown  Green,  as  allotted  in  1665 

[To  face  page  44 

[     4S     ] 


TEMP.   CHARLES  II.,   1668-1675,   TO  THE  OPENING   OF 

Our  Hospital  bears  the  name  of  Charles  II.,  but  we  may 
claim  a  purer  eponymus  than  he,  for  its  originating  impulse 
came  from  one  of  the  very  noblest  soldiers  and  statesmen  of 
that  not  very  noble  age  ;  one  of  the  choice  spirits  who  rescue 
it  from  the  shame  of  ignobility,  Thomas,  Lord  Ossory,  the 
Duke  of  Ormonde's  eldest  son,  the  darling,  not  only  of  courts 
but  of  nations,  of  navies,  as  well  as  armies.  Paladin  sans 
pcur  at  sans  reprochc,  Laudatus  a  laudato,  his  epitaph  is 
written  by  John  Evelyn — himself  perhaps  the  worthiest  of 
English  worthies  of  his  time,  in  a  page  which  even  now  can 
hardly  be  read  without  emotion  : — "  No  one  more  brave 
more  modest  ;  none  more  humble,  sober,  and  every  way 
virtuous.  Unhappy  England  in  this  illustrious  person's 
loss ;  universal  was  the  mourning  for  him,  and  the  eulogies 
on  him.  I  stood  night  and  day  by  his  bedside  to  his  last 
gasp,  to  close  his  dear  eyes."^  He  is  imm.ortalized  by  Drydcn 
in  Abso/om  and  Achitophc/,  as  one  of  the  handful  of  states- 
men who  redeemed  the  times, and,deploring  his  early  loss,  he 
sings  : — 

"  Yet  not  before  the  goal  of  honour  won, 
All  parts  fulfilled  of  subject  and  of  son. 
Swift  was  the  race,  but  short  the  time  to  run." 

Swift,  writing  to  Pope  fifty  years  afterwards, says:- — ""  The  old 
Duke  used  to  sav  he  would  not  change  his  dead  son  Ossory 
for  the  best  living  son  in  Europe."  In  1668  he  was  in  Dublin, 
Deputy  for  his  father,  then  Lord  Lieutenant.    Struck  w'th 

^  Diary,  August,   1680.  2  Correspondence.    1735. 

46        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

the  dearth  and  misery  in  the  city,  partially  depicted  in 
Chapter  I.,  he  wrote  on  8  February  to  the  Corporation  calling 
attention  to  the  numbers  of  strangers  who  had  crowded  into 
the  cit^^increasing  the  destitution  of  the  native  citizens,  and 
suggesting  that  steps  should  be  taken  to  banish  the  strange 
beggars,  and  to  make  provision  for  the  poor  who  were 
entitled  to  be  maintained  in  it.  This  letter,  nearh^  a  century 
afterwards,  is  styled  by  Charles  Lucas  as  the  laying  of  the 
first  stone  of  the  Blue  Coat  School.  The  Corporation 
responded  with  enthusiam.  In  the  assembly  of  March,  the 
subject  was  debated  on  a  petition  setting  forth  that  for  want 
of  an  hospital  for  the  poor  and  aged  men  and  women,  and 
for  the  fatherless  and  motherless  children  without  friends 
or  estates  to  live  on,  the  city  is  much  annoyed  with  beggars, 
to  its  discredit  and  dishonour.  It  was  stated  that  -{200  was 
already  placed  in  the  hands  of  Alderman  Mark  Ouin,  Lord 
Mayor  of  the  year  before,  and  now  City  Treasurer,  by  a 
person  who  desires  that  the  needful  work  should  go  on.  A 
ver}^  strong  committee  was  thereon  appointed,  consisting  of 
the  Lord  MayorTSheriffs,  all  the  Aldermen,  and  forty-eight 
of  the  Commons,  to  select  a  site  for  the  hospital,  "appoint 
overseers,  collect  subscriptions,  do  all  other  matters  for  the 
speedy  carrying  on  of  the  said  good  work,  and  to  report  to 
Lord  Ossory  and  the  Council,  as  also  to  the  next  Assembly. 
The  committee  was  empowered  to  consider  how  orphan's 
propertv  could  be  secured  as  in  London,  and  they  were  to 
act  under  the  advice  of  Sir  Wm.  Davys,  the  Recorder. 
Ossory's  government  ceasing  with  his  father's  in  1669,  the 
Corporation  presented  him  with  the  freedom  of  the  city  "  as 
a  monument  of  their  gratitude  and  affection."  In  acknowledg- 
ment he  writes  : — "  The  beginning  of  my  life,  if  infancy  can 
be  so  called,  was  within  your  jurisdiction,  and  my  first 
entrance  into  public  emploj^ment  was  the  care  of  that  king- 
dom of  which  your  own  is  the  first  and  most  considerable.  I 
shall  ever  be  to  the  city  of  Dublin  a  most  faithful  citizen  and 
affectionate  servant." 

The  Committee  worked  with  a  will  ;    their  first  mandate 
was  for  an  hospital,  but  they  contemplated  with  this    to 

TEMP.    CHARLES    II.,    1668-1675.  47 

combine  a  great  city  school  as  part  of  the  project,  and  as 
they  were  of  the  whole  House  they  had  a  free  hand.  They 
immediately  selected  as  the  site  the  Lots  87  and  88  on  Oxman- 
town  Green,  which  had  been  left  unallotted  in  1665,  and 
then  marked  in  the  Maps  as  for  the  Free  School,  and  without 
waiting  for  any  report  they  began  to  work  on  this  site  on  the 
28  MAY,  1669,  which  may  be  regarded  as  the  birthday  of 
King's  Hospital,  for  the  first  report  to  the  Assembly  of 
January,  1670,  states  that  on  that  day  "  the  pious  work 
first  began."  This  report  gives  a  full  account  of  the  steps 
already  taken,  with  lists  of  subscribers  and  of  subscriptions, 
amounting  to  more  than  ri,ioo,  which  it  asks  to  be  made  a 
record  of  the  cit}^  "  whereby  a  lasting  memory  may  be  perpetu- 
ated of  the  present  benefactors,  which  will  be  an  encourage- 
ment to  others  to  follow  their  good  example."  The  Committee, 
asking  that  their  past  dealing  may  be  preserved  from  calumny, 
which,  through  ignorance,  may  be  cast  upon  them,  prays"] 
that  a  Charter  be  procured  from  the  Crown  conformable  to 
that  of  Christ's  Hospital  in  London,  and  that  as  an  endow- 
ment the  headrents  of  the  lots  in  Oxmantown  and  St.  ' 
Stephen's  Green  may  be  leased  in  trust  for  the  Hospital  for 
ever. 3 

The  Assembly  at  once  declared  their  good  acceptance  of 
the  diligence  and  faithful  actings  of  the  Committee  in 
carrying  the  good  work  so  far  forward  through  God's  bless- 
ing, beyond  expectation,  and  ordered  the  lists  of  benefactors 
to  be  recorded.  An  instrument  prepared  by  Davys,  the 
Recorder,  was  executed,  conveying  the  headrents  of  both  the 
Greens  to  feoffees  to  be  nam.ed  in  the  Royal  Charter,  wliich 
the  City  was  at  once  to  apply  for,  and  the  rents  were  ordered 
to  be  payable  from  the  preceding  Michaelmas. 

Our  founders  were  evidently  in  earnest,  for  the  actual 
grant  from  the  Corporation  bears  on  it  the  very  date  of  this 
Assembly,  January,  1670.  It  is  made  to  Alderman  Richard 
Tighe  and  others,  as  trustees  for  the  King's  Hospital,  and 
conveys" all  the  headrents  oTthe  99  lots  in  Oxmantown,  and 
the  89  lots  in  St.  Stephen's  Green,  to  hold  in  perpetuity. 

^  Gilbert's   Calendar.  4-485. 


[8        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

/The  primary  list  of  subscribers  was  entered,  as  directed,  in 
the  Assembly  rolls,  and  is  printed  in  full  in  Sir  John  Gilbert's 
Records  A  There  are  in  all  eighty-one  donors.  It  has  a  column 
of  annual  endowments,  tottiiTgT;o  £§2  iosT?  and  a  second  for 
the  money  gifts.  This  latter  does  not  include  the  /200,  the 
primary  subscription  placed  in  Mark  Quin's  hands  ;  this 
had  been  already  invested  at  ten  per  cent,  and  appears  in 
the  first  column  as  /20  a  year  ;  in  our  own  records  it  heads 
our  endowments  as  granted  b3'  "  a  person  of  quaUty  who 
would  be  nameless,"  and  who  in  all  probability  was  Lord 
Ossory  himself,  for  there  is  no  other  gift  from  him.  His  father 
the  Duke  gave  £100  a  year  for  several  years,  and  Quin  gave 
personally  £100  and  an  annuity  of  f,'^  a  year.  Davys,  the 
Recorder,  and  Aldermen  Smith,  Preston  and  Lewis  Desmy- 
nieres  gave  their  allotments  in  Oxmantown  Green,  six  in  all, 
in  fee-simple,  towards  the  perpetual  endowment,  but  these, 
being  still  waste,  yielded  no  present  revenue.  The  general 
subscribers  were  chiefly  aldermen  and  merchants,  but  Sir 
Edward  Smith,  Chief  Justice  of  Conmion  Pleas,  subscribed 
£50,  and  Sir  Henry  Tichbourne  £70.      He  was  grandson  of 

"Sir  ITenry,  one  of  the  four  sons  of  Sir  William  Tichbourne  of 
Tichbourne,  Hampshire,  ancestoi  of  the  lost  young  Sir  Roger, 
was  personated  by  the  base  claimaat  Orson  in  the  great 
Cause  Celebre  of  thirty-six  years  ago.  Sir  William  on  the 
death  of  Elizabeth,  as  High  Sheriff  of  Hampshire,  had 
proclaimed  James  L,  and  the  grateful  King  knighted  all  his 
four  sons.  Of  these  Sir  Henry  settled  in  Ireland,  his  grandson, 
our  benefactor,  was  afterwards  created  Lord  Ferrard.  By  the 
beginning  of  1670  £1,200  had  been  spent  on  the  building.  The 
start  was  good,  but  the  work  begun  in  May,  1669  was  not 
completed  till  May,  1675.  The  delay  was  not  due  merely  to 
want  of  funds  or  size  of  the  building,  but  in  much  to  a  civic 
conPiict,  which  paralysed  the  Corporation,  our  governors,  for 
more  than  two  years  ;  it  therefore  becomes  part  of  our 
history,  and  whilst  the  Hospital  is  being  built  we  venture  to 
recall  it. 

^  Gilbert's   Calendar,   4-49.2. 

TEMP.    CHARLES    II.,    1668- 1675  49 

E.xpuLsiON  OF  Early  Founders. 

The  commotion  here  was  a  vibration  of  the  chords  of 
court  intrigue  in  London.    In  1669  James,  the  King's  brother, 
had  secretly  clianged  his  religion,  and  Charles,  inclining  to 
follow  him,  but  wavering  to  risk  his  crown  for  his  creed,  had 
imparted  liis  doubts  to  his  sympathisers  in  the  Cabal,  which 
was  then  in  power.      With  them  he  was  breaking  off    the 
Uutcli  alliance,  and  joining  Louis  XIV.  as  his  pensionary  m 
his  war  for  the  conquest  of  the  Low  Countries.     Pursuing  the 
policy  of  superseding  the  Duke  of  Ormonde    here.    Lord 
Berkeley  of  Stratton  was  sent  as  Lord  Lieutenant  in  1670,      v 
anH^with  him  as  secretary.  Sir  Ellis  Leighton.      They"~were~     . 
both  supporters  of  royal  prerogative,  and  inclined  to  favour 
the  Catholics.    The  heads  of  the  Corporation  were  all  most 
loyal,  and  devoted  to  Ormonde,  but  many  were  opponents  of 
arbitrary  power,  and  still  breathed  the  spirit  of  the  Common- 
wealth ;     the    City     Commons     numbered     many     Roman 
Catholics.       Of  the  twelve  aldermen  who  had  subscribed 
towards  the  Hospital  Mark  Quin,  Sir  Francis  Brewster,  Enoch       y 
Reader,  Richard  Tighe,  Daniel  Hutchinson,  Lewis  Desmy-    j 
nieres,  and   Sir  Joshua  Allen  had  been  or  were  to  be  Lord    ' 
Mayors  and  chairmen  of  our  board,  and  Davys  the  Recorder 
was  an  original  benefactor.     About  this  time  there  had  been 
some  riotous  meetings  of  the  City  x\ssembly,  of  which  tlie 
new  government  now  took  advantage. 

By  the  Act  of  Explanation  of  the  Act  of  Settlement  the 
Lord  Lieutenant  in  Council  was  empowered  to  make  Rules 
with  statutory  efficacy  for  regulating  all  corporations,  and 
the  election  of  their  officers  and  members,  and  in  1671  New  j  1^ 
Rules  were  accordingly  published  by  Lord  Berkeley. 5  As  to 
him  our  Charter  of  the  following  year  is  addressed  by  the  \[f^V'L 
King,  his  name  is  perpetually  connected  with  our  Hospital, 
and  gives  us  some  interest  in  his  career. 

Pepys  tells  how  he  dined  with  him  and  Leighton  in  1663, 
and  "  there    was  admirable  good  discourse    of    all    kinds, 

•^  'J'hese    Rules  are  printed    in    Gilljert's   Calendar ^   5-548. 



pleasant  and  serious. "6  Berkeley  was  somewhat  of  a  swash- 
buckler, and  would  boast  that  he  had  fought  more  set  fields 
than  any  man  in  England,  and  this  was  true  enough,  for  he 
had  great  merit  withal,  and  was  one  of  the  most  slashing 
cavaliers  in  the  Civil  War. 7  He  had  fought  the  Scots  in  the 
Covenanter  Campaign  of  1639,  and  was  knighted  at  Berwick 
by  Charles  I.  After  the  war  broke  out  in  England  he  had  a 
command  in  the  west,  where  he  defeated  Cromwell,  and  won, 
he  said,  five  pitched  battles,  overran  Devon  and  part  of 
Somerset,  taking  Exeter  and  Taunton,  but  after  Naseby  his 
career  of  victory  ceased  and  he  was  obliged  to  surrender 
Exeter  to  Fairfax  in  April,  1646,  departing,  however,  with 
the  honours  of  war.  He  was  one  of  the  counsellors  of  poor 
Charles  when  he  made  his  tragic  visit  to  the  Isle  of  Wight, 
for  in  his  vanity  he  believed  he  could  win  over  the  Parlia- 
mentary generals.  During  Cromwell's  regime  he  served 
under  Turenne  in  the  Low  Countries,  fighting  Conde  and  the 
Spaniards.  Then  he  rejoined  the  exiled  Royal  Family  in 
Holland,  was  made  Controller  of  James's  household  and  was 
ennobled  at  Brussels  in  1658,  as  Baron  Berkeley,  of  Stratton, 
which  was  one  of  the  chief  scenes  of  his  victories  in  Cornwall. 
j,.^  On  the  Restoration  he  was  m.ade  Lord  President  of  Connaught, 
an  office  he  held  for  life,  master  of  the  Ordnance,  and  a  Com- 
missioner of  Tangier.  His  repute  in  London  was  that  he  had 
all  along  been  a  fortunate  man,  though  a  passionate  and  weak 
one  in  policy,  and  Lord  Clarendon,  whilst  admitting  his 
military  merit,  exposes  his  vacuity,  want  of  tact,  and 
ignorance  of  human  nature.  Pepys^  tells  how  his  friend 
W^ren  told  him  of  how  Berkeley  controlled  the  household  of 
James.  Duke  J  amies  had  a  perquisite  of  the  Wine  licences  ; 
these  were  farmed  out  at  a  high  rent,  but  Berkeley  found  he 
could  get  a  higher,  and  then  perpetrated  a  job  flagrant  even 
in  those  days.  The  lessees  surrendered  for  a  fixed  annual 
payment  of  £1,500,  and  the  licences  were  re-let  to  the  higher 
bidder,  but  the  private  arrangement  was  that  the  lessees 
were  to  have  only  /800  a  year  of  the  ;{i,5oo,  Berkeley  taking 
/700  for  himself.     He  came  here  with  strong  leanings  to  the 

^  Diary  2,  p.  141.  '^  lb.,  345.  ^  lb.,  4-175. 

TEMP.    CHARLES    II.,    1668-1675  51 

Catholics  ;  he  caused  a  scandal  by  lending  the  Castle  i 
plate  to  the  Roman  Catholic  Archbishop  Peter,  for  a  1^ 
religious  function,  and  he  told  that  prelate  he  hoped  himself 
to  see  High  IMass  in  Christ  Church.  He  built  in  the  sixties  a 
magnificent  palace  in  Piccadilly,  where  Devonshire  House 
now  stands,  at  a  cost  of  £20,000,  with  glorious  gardens  behind. 
How  much  of  this  cam.e  from  the  revenues  of  Connaught  and 
the  wine  licences  ?  It  was  close  by  the  still  more  splendid 
palace  of  Lord  Clarendon.  Both  had  tragic  ends.  Evelyn  9 
deplores  how  in  1684  Clarendon's  was  demolished,  and  how 
at  Lady  Berkeley's  request  he  himself  laid  out  sweet  Berkeley 
gardens  for  streets  where  Berkeley  Square  is  now.  The 
house  was  reserved.  Princess  Anne  lived  there  when  William 
w^as  King,  but  it  went  away  in  fire  in  1733.  After  his  return 
to  England  he  was  sent  ambassador  to  France  to  negotiate 
the  treaty  of  Nimeguen.  He  died  in  1678 ;  his  three  sons 
succeeded  to  his  title,  but  the  peerage  became  extinct  in  the 
third   generation. 

Lcighton,  the  son  of  a  Scotch  divine,  once  pilloried  for 
malignancy  towards  the  Crown  and  the  bishops,  was  brother 
of  the  saintly  Archbishop  Leighton  of  Glasgow' ;  he  was  not 
a  saint  himself,  rather  a  scampish  courtier  of  the  Sedley  type, 
though  with  a  Scotsman's  eye  to  the  main  chance.  Sir  Ellis 
had  begun  his  career  as  a  soldier,  but  in  the  exile,  became 
secretary  to  the  Duke  of  York  in  Holland,  and  was  knighted 
there.  His  real  Christian  name  was  the  old  testam.ent  Elias 
or  Elisha,  which  he  softened  to  the  more  mundane  Ellis 
when  a  man  of  fashion.  After  the  Restoration  he  w'as  made 
secretary  to  the  Duke  of  York,  and  to  the  Prize  Office  in 
connection  with  the  Admiralty,  got  himself  called  to  the  Bar, 
made  a  doctor  of  laws,  and  practised  in  the  court  of  Ad- 
miralty. In  a  note  to  Evelyn's  Diary  he  is  said  by  one  to  be 
"  a  mad  freaking  fellow,"  by  another,  "  one  for  a  speech  of 
fortv  words  the  wittiest  man  that  ever  he  kne\\',  and  one  of 
the  Dest  companions  at  a  meal  in  the  world."  He  was 
counsel  for  Pepys,  as  Secretary  to  the  Navy,  in  an  Admiralty 
cause  in  1667,  and  made,  Samuel  says, 10  a  very  silly  m.otion 

'  Diary,  2-197.  ^"^  Diary,  27th  March,   1667. 

52        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

on  our  behalf  which  did  neither  hurt  nor  good  ;  but  in  the 
Castle  Tavern  by  Exeter  Honse  that  day,  '  1  find  him  a 
wonderful  witty  ready  man,  for  sudden  answers  and  little 
tales  and  sayings,  very  extraordinary  witty.'  "  He  was 
certainly  vcr}'  versatile.  Evelyn^  i  in  1663  goes  to  see  Sir  Ehas 
Leighton's  project  of  a  cart  with  iron  wheels,  and  Pepys  also 
tells  how  he  saw^  at  Lord  Berkeley's  new  house  the  new 
experiment  of  a  cart  with  little  wheels  in  the  axle  tree  to 
make  it  go  with  half  the  ease.  He  also  was  said  to  favour  the 
Roman  Catholics,  probably  from  his  connection  with  the 
Duke  of  York.  He  came  here  seemingly  with  the  intent, 
attributed  by  Dr.  Johnson  to  Scottisli  immigrants,  of 
living  on  the  natives  without  animo  revert endi  to  his  native 

So,  riots   having   occurred   in   our    Corporation,    "  Lord 
f  Berkeley's    Rules  '"   were   issued    to    curb     the   Commons. 
^  These  ordained  that  all  Assemblies  should  be  held  with  due 
'■   respect  to  the  Lord  Mayor  and  x\ldermen  without  clamour, 
disturbance,   or  contention.       The  Lord   Mayor,   Recorder, 
Sheriffs,  Town  Clerk,  and  Auditors  were  to  be  elected  by  the 
Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen  only,  subject  to  the  approval  of 
the  Government.      Nothing  was  to  be  debated  save  on  a 
petition    previously    submitted   to     the      Aldermen.       All 
members,  including  the  Commons,  v/ere  to  take  the  Oath  of 
Supremiacy,  and  the  famous  Oath  of  Non-resistance,  then 
devised  by  the  Cabal,  declaring  abhorrence  upon  any  pre- 
tence whatever  of  taking  arms  against  tlie  King  or  those 
commissioned  by  him.     The  sanction  of  the  Rules  was  dis- 
franchisemerit  of  any  who  disobeyed  them. 

The  Rules  of  course  increased  the  popular  commotion. 
A  cry  was  raised  that  they  were  passed  to  enable  Davys  the 
Recorder  to  get  a  lease  from  the  Corporation  of  the  city  water 
rates  and  to  exploit  these  in  his  own  interest.  Perhaps  there 
was  some  truth  in  the  cry.  With  the  Recordership  Davys  held 
the  lucrative  office  of  Clerk  of  the  Tholsel,  equivalent  to  Town 
Clerk,  bur  lie  was  a  magnate,  son-in-law  of  /\rchbishop 
Michael  Boyle,  who,  as  Lord  Chancellor,  then  dominated  the 

1^  Diary,    17th  September,    1663, 

TEMP.    CHARLES    II.,    1668-1675  53 

Privy  Council.  Sir  Ellis  Leigliton  utilized  the  opposition  ; 
he  got  at  Sir  John  Tottie,  the  Lord  Mayor,  and  a  little  plan 
was  formed  by  which  Sir  Ellis  was  to  be  Recorder,  and  Sir 
John  Clerk  of  the  Tholsel,  vice  Davys  cashiered.  So  in  April,  ,  . 
1672,  an  Assembly  was  held,  afterwards  decided  to  be  wholly 
illegal.  There  were  only  four  Aldermen  with  the  Lord  ]\Ia3'or; 
on  a  petition  of  some  of  the  Commons  Davys  and  eight 
Aldermen  were  charged  with  crimes  and  misdemeanours  ; 
they  were  not  summoned  to  make  defence,  they  were  not 
heard,  no  proofs  were  adduced,  but  they  were  all  expelled. 
Sir  Wm.  Davys,  our  subscribing  governors  IMark  Quin  and  ' 
Sir  Francis  Brewster,  Tighe,  Hutchinson,  Reader,  Desmy-  -< 
nieres,  and  Sir  Joshua  Allen  were,  in  modern  phrase,  fired 
out  of  the  Corporation,  though  they  had  loyally  accepted 
Lord  Berkeley's  Rules.  Sir  Ellis  was  proclaimed  Recorder, 
and  Tottie  clerk  of  the  Tholsel. 

But  if  any  of  the  Corporation  thought  Leighton  was  their 
tribune  they  reckoned  without  their  host.  On  4  April  he  miade 
a  charming  inaugural  speech  to  the  Corporation,^-  he  told  them 
that  he,  as  their  good  Recorder,  would  be  their  good 
counsellor,  and  then  that  corporations  are  the  creatures  of 
the  monarchy,  bound  to  depend  upon  and  to  uphold  it ;  that 
the  aldermen  were  the  creatures  of  the  Corporation,  an 
abstract  of  the  wdsest  and  wealthiest  amongst  them,  whose 
duty  it  was  to  ease  the  Commons  of  the  burthen  and  dis- 
turbance of  numerous  assemblies,  but  especially  it  ^vas  their 
duty  to  depend  upon  the  King,  to  have  no  politic  maxims 
of  their  own,  no  headiness  or  restiness  but  leave  all  affairs 
of  State  to  the  piet}-  and  i)nidcnc('  of  the  prince.  The  ejected 
members  he  jauntily  alluded  to  as  a  few  who  affected  an 
oligarchy,  and  linking  to  themselves  factions,  bred  in  the 
Commons  an  unnatural  stiffness,  contrary  to  the  temper 
they  should  show  to  his  least  intimation  of  the  King's 

"^ut  Davys  and  his  father-in-law,  Boyle,  to  say  nothing 
of  our  aldermen  governors,  were  not  the  men  to  submit  to 
all  this.     Mandamuses  were  at  once  applied  for  in  the  King's 

1-  Gilbert's  Calendar,   5-558. 

54        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Bench,  and  petitions  to  King  Charles  were  addressed  by  the 
evicted  officers  and  backed  in  London  by  Ashley,  Lord 
Shaftesbury,  who  had  now  become  arch  champion  of  the 
Protestant  interests.  The  result  was  that  Lord  Berkeley's 
Viceroyalt}'  ceased  in  May,  1672,  and  Arthur  Capel,  Earl  of 
Essex^succeeded,  not,  however,  coming  over  here  till  August. 
To  him  and  his  Council  the  King  in  Council  in  London  re- 
ferred the  petitions,  with  a  counter-petition  of  the  newly 
constituted  Corporation. 

The  cause  came  on  before  the  Privy  Council  here  on  11 
September.  There  was  a  strong  board  of  fourteen  members, 
including  Primate  Margetson,  Archbishop  Boyle  Lord 
Chancellor,  the  Earl  of  Arran,  and  several  otlier  peers,  Jones, 
Bishop  of  Meath,  and  Sir  John  B^'sse,  Chief  Baron,  ci-devant 
Recorder.  Little  chance  for  Leighton  in  such  a  court.  At 
the  first  hearing  the  new  Corporation  were  silent,  but  they 
then  petitioned  to  have  counsel  assigned,  and  to  be  allowed  to 
prove  that  the  evicting  Assembly  was  a  lawful  one,  and  that 
the  evicted  had  been  expelled  for  just  cause.  Six  counsel 
were  accordmgly  assigned  them,  Sir  Nicholas  Plunkett,  who 
had  been  a  chief  of  the  Confederates  in  the  Civil  Wars  of  the 
forties,  was  their  leading  counsel.  The  case  was  resumed  in 
the  Privy  Council  on  18  September,  fromi  nine  o'clock  to  two, 
and  on  the  20th  from  nine  to  six,  when  the  Council  unani- 
moush^  decreed  that  the  expulsions  were  illegal,  that  Davys 
and  our  seven  other  founders  should  be  restored,  and  the 
intruders  expelled  in  turn,  and  that  all  their  acts  should  be 
expunged  from  the  city  records.  The  costs  of  the  evicted 
tenants  were  to  be  paid  by  the  City  Treasurer,  in  which  office, 
Enoch  Reader  was  now  reinstated.  He  had  been  forced  to 
give  up  the  keys  on  pain  of  breaking  open  the  doors  of  the 
Treasury.  The  election  of  Tottie  to  the  Mayoralty  for  the 
second  year  was  annulled,  and  Alderman  Dee}^  appointed  for 

Leighton  now  disappears  from  our  scene.  The  scars  of 
this  warfare  are  still  apparent  in  our  city  records,  for  two 
parchments  were  removed  from  the  Assembly  Rolls  under 
the  expimging  order  of  the  Privy  Council,  though  this  was 

TEMP.    CHARLES    II..    1668-1675  55 

disobeyed  for  two  years,  and  there  is  a  gap  of  twelve  months 
in  the  annals  now. 

Berkeley's  successor,  Arthur  Capel,  first  Earl  of  Essex 
of  that  famih',  remained  Lord  Lieutenant  to  1677.  In 
September,  1 672, he  issued  New  Rules  superseding  Berkeley's. 
These  proved  of  lasting  historical  moment  in  the  cit}^  for 
more  than  a  century,  notably  when  James  II.  was  King,  and 
in  the  agitations  of  Charles  Lucas.  They  are  printed  in  the 
Public  Statutes,  appended  to  the  Act  of  Explanation.  They 
are  very  accurateh^  framed  and  are  known  to  have  been 
drawn  by  Chief  Baron  Bysse.  B}^  them  the  Common 
Council  was  to  consist  of  twenty-four  aldermen,  sitting 
apart,  eight  being  a  quorum,  the  Commons  were  to  sit  in 
a  separate  room,  the  sheriffs  presiding,  forty-eight  being 
sheriffs'  peers,  and  ninety-six  members  chosen  triennially 
by  the  city  guilds.  All  members  were  to  take  the  Oatjis  of  ' 
Allegiance,  Supremacy,  and  Non-resistance,  but  the 
restrictions  of  debate  to  subjects  sanctioned  by  the 
aldermen  contained  in  Berkeley's  Rules  is  not  repeated. 
The  election  of  Lord  Mayor,  Recorder,  Sheriffs,  and 
Town  Clerk  are  made  subject  to  the  approval  of  the 
Lord  Lieutenant  and  Privy  Council,  which  if  not  accorded 
within  ten  days  of  presentation  a  new  election  must 
be  held,  and  so  from  time  to  time.  The  (hoice  of 
Lord  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  and  Treasurer,  was  vested  in  the 
aldermen  alone.  But  on  the  side  .of  liberality  the  Oath  of  ? 
Stipronacy  coidd  he  dispensed  with  by  the  Viceroy,  and  all  I 
resident  traders  and  artificers,  irrespective  of  creed,  and  even  ,  "^ 
if  foreigners  and  aliens,  were  to  be  admitted  to  the  freedom 
of  the  city  on  payment  of  twenty  shillings  and  taking  the 
Oath  of  Allegiance  alone.  The  rumiblings  of  this  civic  earth- 
quake muttered  on  for  a  good  while  and  angered  Lord  Essex 
much.  His  Rules  were  denounced  from  many  quarters,  by 
the  great  jurist,  Dudley  Loftus,  as  unconstitutional,  by  the  1 
strong  Protestants,  because  allowing  dispensations  from  the 
Oath  of  Supremacy  to  be  given  by  the  ViceroV  fo  some  Catholics, 
by  Presbyterians  of  the  Covenant,  as  contauiing  the  doctrine 
of  passive  obedience.     Then  some  of  the  Guilds  presented  a 

56        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

gold  chain  to  Sir  John  Tottie  for  his  pams  in  supporting  the 
privileges  of  the  city,  and  two  of  the  Leighton  corporators, 
though  expelled,  had  silver  cups  cast  with  the  inscriptions  : — 
"  Made  in  the  year  when  Philpot  and  Gressingham  were 
aldermen."  Then  the  Privy  Council  Order  to  erase  the 
mutinous  records  of  1672  long  remained  unexecuted,  for 
Tottie,  who  seems  to  have  been  a  general  favourite,  was 
reinstated  in  the  clerkship  of  theTholsel,  and  as  such  refused 
to  expunge  them.  Lord  Essex,  in  1674-75,  writes  to  Sir  Henry 
Coventry,  now  principal  secretary  of  State,  and  to  Lord 
Arlington,  his  predecessor,  who  was  now  the  King's 
ChamDerlain,  comiplaining  of  Philpot,  the  haberdasher,  as 
one  of  the  ringleaders  of  mutin}/,  and  that  his  silver  cups 
were  being  constantly  used  in  the  feasts  of  the  city.  Of 
Tottie  he  speaks  "  as  a  person  of  as  much  disloyalty  as  any 
about  in  this  city,  which  he  has  brought  into  a  mutinous 
temper."  He  bitterh^  describes  how,  when  in  obedience  to  a 
second  order  of  the  Privy  Council  to  erase  the  illegal  records 
the  Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen  were  ready  to  comply,  the 
Commons  had  refused,  and  when  the  third  order  menacing 
penalties  came,  and  the  aldermen  proceeded  to  obey,  the 
Commons  tumultuously  broke  up  the  Assembly.  Lord 
Essex  advises  the  council  that  there  will  be  no  peace  till  the 
chief  incendiaries  smart  for  it,  and  that  it  will  be  necessary 
for  the  Crown  to  revoke  the  City  Charters.  This  threat 
brought  the  opposition  to  their  senses,  and  the  cancellation 
was  effected  at  last  in  1675. 

There  were  certainly  counter  currents  at  work  in  the 
movement,  and  it  is  not  quite  clear  how  far  old  political 
aninms  had  inspired  the  expulsion  of  tliese  eiglitjounders. 
Five  of  themjiad  indeed  been  members  of  the  Corporation  of  the 
Commonwealth,  but  Sir  Wm.  Davys  had  been  made  Recorder 
on  the  Restoration,  and  Sir  Francis  Brewster  and  Sir  Joshua 
Allen  had  become  aldermen  afterwards,  but  two  of  the  other 
five  at  least  had  been  Cromwelhan  notables.  Richard  Tighe 
was  Mayor  in  165 1,  and  was  succeeded  next  year  by  Daniel 
Hutchinson.  Tighe  and  Hutchinson  were  summoned  to 
represent  Dublin  in  Oliver's  two  parliaments  of  1654  and 

TEMP.    CHARLES    II.,    1668-1675  57 

1656.  When  Henry  Cromwell  came  to  Dublin  Castle  as 
Lord  Lieutenant,  he,  in  1659,  formed  two  regiments  in  the  city, 
in  view  of  a  suspected  Royalist  uprising  ;  they  were  of  ten 
and  nine  companies  respectively,  with  the  Mayor  for  the  time 
being  Commander-in-Chief.  Tighe  was  named  Colonel  of  one, 
and  Hutchinson  Captain  of  the  Horse,with  po\\<  i-  to  nominate 
his  own  officers,  but  with  these  they  joined  in  the  celebration 
of  the  King's  coronation  on  Oxmantown  Green.  Enoch 
Reader,  another  of  The  Evicted  Eight,  \\?iS  a  Captain  in  one  of 
tlu'  rcuimimts.  Richard  Tighe  acquired  large  estates,  and  is 
ancestor  of  the  eminent  families  of  Woodstock,  Kilkenn}', 
and  Rossana,  Wicklow,  and  a  large  progeny  of  distinguished 
people,  amongst  whom  we  may  include  INIar}'  Tighe,  the 
graceful  poetess  of  Psyche.  John  Preston  also  had  been 
Mayor  in  1653  in  the  Cromwell  regnne.  He,  too,  acquired 
lar^e  estates  in  Meath  and"^ueen's  County,  and  was  ancestor 
of  the  Prestons  of  Ballinter,  of  whom  his  namesake,  John, 
was  created  Lord  Tara  in  1800,  on  the  Union.  John  Preston's 
name  is  memorable  in  the  Blue  Coat  still.  He  granted 
to  the  Hospital  a  charge  on  his  Queen's  County  estate, 
originally  yielding  to  the  School  ^^20  a  year,  but  which 
more  than  a  century  after  brought  upwards  of  twenty-fold 
more,  in  a  startling  litigation  to  be  noticed  in  due  course. '3 
And  his  original  allotment  in  Oxmantown  Green,  which  he 
bestowed  at  once  on  the  Hospital,  is  still  amongst  our  endow- 
ments. It  adjoins  the  site  of  the  present  school.  Hutchinson 
also  made  a  fortune  purchasing  from  a  Cromwcllian 
adventurer,  and  afterwards  obtaining  a  grant  of  lands  in 
King's  County  and  County  Down  under  the  Act  of  vSettle- 
ment.  He,  however,  left  daughters  only,  and  his  name 
cannot  now  be  further  traced.  He  was  member  for  Oueen's 
County  in  the  Irish  Parliament  of  the  Restoration  from 
1661-1666.  He  bequeathed  £300  to  the  Hospital  by  will. 
Lewis  Desmynieres,  another  of  the  eight,  was  a  Dutchman, 
and  had  with  his  brother  John  been  in  the  Corporation  of 
the  Commonwealth,  John  serving  as  Sheriff  in  1654,  but 
Lewis,   with   the   Westenras,   also   Dutch   merchants,   were 

1^  Infra,   Final  Chapter. 

58        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

naturalized  b}^  Act  of  Parliament  in  1662,  John  became  Lord 
Mayor  in  1666,  and  Lewis  in  1670.  He  did  not  make  a  fortune, 
for  we  find  him  a  few  years  after  a  supplicant  for  aid  from 
the  city. 

Sir  Joshua  Allen  was  one  of  the  most  distinguished  citizens 
of  th^~period.M  His  father,  an  eminent  Master  Builder, 
favoured  by  Strafford,  was  of  Dutch  origin.  He  left  a  good 
estate,  which,  in  his  son's  hands,  became  a  large  fortune, 
and  ithus  he  was  the  founder  of  a  noble  family,  which,  in  the 
fem^ale  line,  is  still  represented  by  the  Earl  of  "of  Carysfort. 
He  acquired  the  great  property  which  his  son,  Colonel  Allen, 
enlarged  into  the  finest  demesne  in  the  County  Dublin, 
reaching  from  Foxrock  and  Carrickmines  to  Blackrock  and 
the  sea,  part  of  which  has  been  known  in  our  times  as 
Stillorgan  Park.  Sir  Joshua  remained  for  many  years  a 
useful  governor  of  the  Blue  Coat  ;  he  was  a  strong  adherent 
of  the  Protestant  interest,  to  which  he  probably,  though  a 
royalist,  owed  his  expulsion  by  Leighton,  and  to  this  was 
certainly  due  his  flight  from  Dublin  in  the  acme  of  the 
Tyrconnell  regime  in  1688,  when  he  retired  to  his  wife's 
family  in  Chester.  Here  he  joined  William  III.  in  the 
embarkment  of  whose  army  to  Ireland,  he  took  a  prominent 
part,  and  returning  home  after  the  Battle  of  the  Boyne,  he 
was,  at  once,  nominated  High  Sheriff  of  Dublin  by  William, 
though  he  does  not  seem  to  have  actually  taken  office,  for 
he  was  in  ill-health  and  died  in  the  next  year.  His  son, 
Colonel  John,  who  was  M.P.  for  Dublin,  and  for  Wicklow, 
was  created  Baron  of  Stillorgan  and  Viscount  Allen,  to  be 
followed  by  live  of  the  family  in  succession  till  the  peerage 
became  extinct  with  the  sixth  Viscount,  Joshua  William, 
Colonel  in  the  Guards,  who  fought  at  Waterloo,  and  died 
unmarried.  But  the  sister  and  co-heiress  of  the  third 
Viscount,  who  was  M.P.  for  Carysfort,  married  in  1750  Sir 
John  Proby,  to  whom  she  brought  a  large  share  of  the 
Stillorgan  and  Blackrock  and  Wicklow  estates,  and  he,  in 
1792,   became   first   Lord   Carysfort.       Joshua,   the  second 

^*  See  a  very  interesting  account  of  the  Aliens  in   F.  EIrington   Ball's 
History  of  the  County  Dublin,  Vol.  I.,  120. 

TEMP.    CHARLES    II.,    1668-1675  59 

Viscount,  is  the  Troilus  of  Swift's  Lampoons.  Thev  had 
been  friends,  but  when,  grateful  for  the  Dean's  fierce  fight  for 
Irish  Manufactures,  the  city  presented  him  with  the  freedom 
of  the  city  in  a  gold  box,  Lord  Allen,  who  belonged  to  the 
alarmed  court  party,  violently  assailed  him  as  a  Jacobite 
in  the  House  of  Lords,  and  so  aroused  the  wrath  of  the  past 
master  in  ridicule  and  invective,  who  could  never  endure 
any  criticism  of  himself.  The  last  Viscount  was  a  "  character," 
and  a  hero  of  clubs,  in  which  he  was  known  as  King  Allen. 
He  had  lost  the  remnant  of  the  Dublin  estates  and  became 
insolvent.  A  sketch  of  him  in  Burke's  Romance  of  the 
Aristocracy,  tells  how  having  raised  a  loud  laugh  in  his  club 
by  a  sharp  joke  on  a  brother  member,  a  banker,  the  latter 
next  day  retaliated  with  a  once  famous  repartee.  Address- 
ing Allen  amid  a  large  audience,  he  said  : — "  Why,  Allen, 
I  find  you  are  only  half  a  king."  "  How  is  that,"  said  the 
Viscount,  angrily.  "  Because  I  have  heard  you  have  just 
compounded  with  your  creditors  for  ten  shillings  in  the 
pound,  so  you  are  only  Half  a  Sovereign."  This  was  the 
end  of  the  Aliens. 

Mark__2iuin,  to  whom  Ossory  wrote  the  initial  letter,  and 
to  whom  he  entrusted  the  primal  donation  which  he  followed 
himself  with  £100,  and  a  perpetual  annuity  of  £5,  personally 
organised  the  work  in  i65q.  He  did  not  live  to  see  it  com- 
pleted, he  died  in  1674,  but  he  must  be  held  a  primary 
founder,  and  claims  an  obituary  notice  here,  especially  as 
his  memory  has  been  unjustly  consigned  to  a  grim  im- 
mortality by  Swift  in  one  of  his  most  savage  pasquinades. 
The  Dean  had  himself  no  grudge  against  him,  but  used  his 
tragic  fate  as  a  weapon  to  wound  his  arch-enemy,  Quin's 
grandson,  Chief  Justice  Wliitshed,  on  his  principle  that  any 
stick  was  good  enough  to  beat  a  dog.  He  was  in  truth  one  of 
the  worthiest  citizens  of  his  day  ;  chosen  alderman  in  1654, 
Lord  Mayor  in  1667,  and  Treasurer  in  1668,  he  was  in  the 
Corporation  thirty-two  years,  to  his  death.  He  lived  in  the 
High  Street,  opposite  St.  Michael's  Church,  the  site  of  the 
Synod  Hall,  and  was  its  chief  parishioner  ;  the  church  plate 
was  kept  in  liis  house  for  safe  custodv  ;  a  successful  merchant. 

6o        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

he  left  an  estate  of  £1,000  a  year,  a  large  fortune  ni  those 
times,  but  his  domestic  felicity  was  not  in  proportion.  Mrs. 
Ouin  was  fair  but  frail.  The  alderman,  maddened  with 
jealous}^,  and  rushing  from  his  house  one  morning  at  ten 
o'clock,  bought  a  new  razor  and,  witlidrawing  into  Christ 
Church  Cathedral,  cut  his  own  throat  in  St.  Mary's  chapel. 
His  fortune  passed  to  his  son  James,  who  was  a  graduate  of 
Trinity  College.  This  son  became  a  member  of  the  Bar  in 
England,  where  he  married  a  presumed  widow,  a  lady  whose 
husband  had  been  absent  and  unheard  of  for  many  years. 
In  1693  she  bore  James  Quin  an  only  son,  also  James,  but 
shortly  afterwards  the  supposed  dead  husband  reappeared, 
and,  unlike  poor  Enoch  Arden,  re-entered  and  reclaimed 
his  Penelope,  thus  illegitimatising  her  son,  young  Ouin. 
Old  Mark's  next  heirs  were  the  Whitshed  family5  the  children 
of  his  daughter.  They  appealed  to  the  law,  taking  advantage 
of  the  illegitimacy,  for  they  were  a  famnly  of  lawyers,  and 
succeeded  to  the  Alderman's  estate.  In  1720,  Sir  William. 
Whitshed,  Mark  Quin's  eldest  grandson,  was  Lord  Chief 
Justice  of  the  Irish  King's  Bench.  In  that  year  Swift,  in 
fury  at  the  English  policy  which,  having  prohibited  the 
export  of  Irish  woollen  goods,  went  on  to  prohibit  the  Irish 
from  even  weaving  woollens  for  themselves,  emerged  as  a 
patriot  giant  in  the  land  of  his  adoption.  He  hurled  forth 
his  proposal  for  the  universal  use  of  Irish  manufactures,  in 
which  he  suggests  that  Ireland  would  never  be  happy  till  a 
law  were  made  for  burning  everything  that  came  from 
England,  except  her  people  and  her  coal.  Prospero  had 
raised  the  storm  ;  the  Government  took  alarm  ;  the  printer 
was  prosecuted.  Swift  writes  to  Pope  that  one  in  high  office 
had  personally  gone  to  the  Chief  Justice  and  asked  that  the 
prosecution  might  be  pressed  with  the  utmost  rigour  of  the 
law.  And  so  it  was  :  the  Chief  presided,  but  the  wliole 
country  was  with  the  printer  and  Dean.  The  jury  returned 
a  verdict  of  not  guilty.  The  Chief  Justice  raged  ;  he  sent 
the  jury  back  nine  times  and  kept  them  twelve  hours  till  he 
tired  them  into  giving  him  a  special  verdict  to  be  argued 
in  bank.     Swift  tells  Pope  that  the  judge  had  put  his  hands 

TEMP.    CHARLES    II.,    1668-1675  61 

to  his  breast  and  solemnly  avowed  to  the  Protesant  jury 
that  the  printer's  design  was  to  bring  in  the  Pretender. 
The  case  never  came  on  for  argument.  Piibhc  opinion  in 
Ireland  was  all  one  way,  and, the  Duke  of  Grafton  succeeding 
as  Lord  Lieutenant,  the  Government  entered  a  Nolle 
Prosequi.  The  Dean's  second  duel  with  the  judge  was 
shortly  after,  when  Harding,  Swift's  printer,  was  prosecuted 
for  the  Fourth  D rapier  Letter.  Swift  circulared  the  Grand 
Jury  in  his  own  style  the  night  before  the  trial.  They 
ignored  the  bill  next  day,  despite  the  vehemence  of  the 
thwarted  judge,  who  discharged  the  Grand  Jury,  again  hi  a 
rage.  The  lawyers  of  the  day  regarded  this  as  unconstitutional. 
Through  both  these  contests  the  Dean  assailed  the  judge 
With  all  his  matchless  prowess  of  logic  and  lampoon,  rapier 
and  bludgeon,  shafts,  feathered  with  fun  and  poisoned  with 
rancour,  till  he  is  supposed  to  have  driven  him  to  a  pre- 
mature grave.  He  raked  up  the  buried  griefs  of  Mark  Ouin, 
which  would  have  touched  his  better  nature  in  themselves, 
to  smite  his  grandson. 
Witness  this  Trilogy. 

Tlie  judge  speaks  : — 


1   hate  the  Church,  ami  with  good  reason. 
For  there  my  grandsire  cut  his  vveason  : 
He  cut  his  weason  at  the  altar, 
I  keep  my  gullet  for  the  halter. 

The  T)ean  speaks  : — 


In  Church  your  grandsire  cut  his  throat, 

To  do  the  job  too  long  he  tarried. 
He  should  have  had  my  hearty  vote, 

To  cut  his  throat  before  he  married. 

The  judge  speaks  : — 


I'm  not  the  grandson  of  that  ass,  Quin, 

Nor  can  you  prove  it,  Mistrc  Pasquin, 

My  grand  dame  had   gallants  by  twentie's, 

And  bore  my  mother  by  a  prentice. 

This  when  my  grandsire  knew,  they  tell  us  he 

In  Christcliurch  cut  his  throat  for    jealousy. 

And  since  the  Alderman  was  mad,  you  see. 

Then  I  must  be  so  too,  Ex  traduce. 


Swift's  editors  curiously  have  not  identified  his  ass,  Quin, 
with  our  worthy  Founder,  In  vindicating  his  memory  now, 
we  may  recall  that  that  other  grandson,  the  illegimatised 
young  James  Quin,  lived  to  be  the  greatest  actor  and  wit 
of  his  day.  Intended  for  the  Bar  in  Dubhn,  when  he  was 
disinherited  he  went  on  the  stage.  His  jokes  set  London 
tables  in  a  roar  for  a  generation,  and  he  was  one  of  the 
greatest  Falstaffs  that  ever  trod  Drury  Lane  ;  a  fine  figure 
of  a  man  ;  a  great  elocutionist  ;  he  lived  to  hear  George  the 
Third's  first  King's  Speech,  and  the  old  man  cried  "  I  taught 
the  boy  to  speak."  He  was  sometimes  coarse  and  over- 
bearing, but  he  is  a  creditor  of  Literature,  for  he  once 
redeemed  Thomson  of  the  Seasons  from  a  debtor's  prison, 
paying  the  debt  in  honour  of  the  Poet,  for  personally  he 
didn't  know  him.  And  as  to  the  grandson,  Whitshed,  it  is 
fair  to  remind  that  even  Swift  acknowledges  that,  politics 
apart,  he  was  a  fine  judge.  His  memorial  was  the  last 
which  remained  m  old  St.  Michael's  when  the  church  was 
taken  down  thirty-five  years  ago  to  build  the  Synod  Hall  ; 
a  slab,  v/ith  a  Latin  inscription  that  any  judge  might  be 
proud  of,  telhng  how,  as  Chief  Justice,  first  of  the  King's 
Bench,  and  then  of  the  Common  Pleas,  he  was  "  Judex 
indefessus  perspicax  iiicorriiptns,  who  so  bore  himself  as  a 
man,  who  both  believes  there  will  be  a  Supreme  Judge 
and  hopes  it." 

The  civic  shock  may  now  read  as  a  temtpest  in  a  teacup, 
yet  it  w^as,  as  we  have  said,  the  vibration  of  one  that  shook 
the  crown  and  ministry  and  parliament  of  England  in  1672- 
75  on  the  doctrine  of  passive  obedience,  the  prerogative  of 
the  dispensing  power,  and  the  Test  Act.  The  Oath  of  Non- 
resistance  imposed  by  both  tlie  Berkeley  and  the  Essex 
rules,  agitated  the  House  of  Lords  with  one  of  its  most 
memorable  debates,  that  lasted  lor  seventeen  days  in  1674, 
seeming  to  involve  the  fate  even  of  the  dynasty.  It  gave 
occasion  to  Shaftesbury's  famous  Letter  from  a  Person  of 
Quality  to  a  Friend  in  the  Country,  to  escape  prosecution 
for  which  were  called  out  all  his  consummate  arts  in  keeping 
up  the  agitation.     This  oath  was  framed  by  the  great  Lord 

TEMP.    CHARLES    IT.,    1668-1675  03 

Clarendon  in  the  first  loyal  outbursts  of  the  Restoration, 
but  that  heat  was  cooling,  under  the  intrigues  of  Charles 
and  his  Cabal,  not  only  in  England,  but  here  too-^"? 

But  before  BerkcUv  left  us  the  Charter  had  been  drawn 
by  Davys,  and  read  before  Charles  mXouncil,  and  to  the 
Lord  Lieutenant  came  a  royal  letter,  dated  at  Whitehall, 
24  Oct. ,1671,16  directing  him  to  cause  Letters  Patent, under  the 
Great  Seal  of  Ireland,  to  pass  conveying  to  the  Mayor,  Sheriffs, 
Commons  and  Citizens  of  Dublin,  the  parcel  in  Oxmantown 
Green  on  which  the  Hospital  and  Free  School  is  already 
begun,  "to  be  held  of  us,  our  heirs  and  successors  in  common 
soccage  as  a  mansion  house  and  abode  for^the  relief  of  poor 
children,  aged,  maimed  and  impotent  per)plr,  ])v  the 
grantees,  who  are  to  be  incorporated  as  a  body  politique, 
by  the  name  of  '  The  Governors  of  the  Hospital  and  Free 
School  of  King  Charles  the  Second,  Dublin.'  "  The  Letters 
Patent  are  to  empower  the  Governors  at  their  will  and 
pleasure  from  time  to  time  to  place  therein  such  master  or 
masters  and  such  num.bers  of  poor  people  and  children  and 
such  officers  and  ministers  of  the  Hospital  and  Free  School,  as 
likewise  an  able,  learned,  pious  and  orthodox  minister,  to" 
be  approved  by  the  Archbishop  of  Dublin  for  the  time  being, 
who  shall  read  Divine  service  and  preach  and  teach  the 
word  of  God  to  such  as  shall  reside,  and  catechise  such  of 
the  children  as  shall  be  in  the  school.  The  Governors  are 
enabled  to  hold  lands  to  the  value  of  £6,000,  notwithstanding 
the  statutes  of  mortmain,  and  to  make  leases  of  buildings 
for  41  and  of  lands  for  21  ^-ears,  and  the  letters  are  to  contam 
such  clauses  and  privileges  "as  in  the  Charters  granted  by 
our  Royal  Predecessor,  King  Edward  Sixth  to  Ihe  Mayor 
and  Com.monalty  of  London  for  the  erection  of  Christ's 
Hospital  and  Saint  Thomas,  his  Hospital  and  Bridewell." 

This  was  followed  by  our  Charter.      It  is  dated  the  3rd 

r~^  15  The  materials  of  this  chapter  have  been  mainly  found  in  Gilbert's 
Calendar  of  City  Records  and  his  preface  to  Vol.  V.  The  Journal  of  the 
Hospital,  the  Diaries  of  Evelyn  and  Pcpys,  and  the  Dictionary  of  National 
Biography.  There  is  a  confusion  in  both  the  Diaries,  made  more  con- 
founded by  the  indexes  between  Lord  Berkeley  of  Stratton,  and  Lord 
Berkeley  of  the  great  Berkley  Castle  family. 

16  Pat.  Roll  Chane.,  23,  Cor.  2.,  pt.  i.  (f.  m.  25.) 

64        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

December,  1671,  and  slightly  amplilies  the  royal  letter.  It 
is  in  effectual  force  to-day,  and  is  set  forth  in  full  in  our 
appendix.! 7  The  original  is  now  in  the  Public  Record  Ofhce; 
engrossed  in  old  English  text  on  a  parchment  roll,  two  feet 
square,  it  is  illuminated  in  gold  and  tinctures,  the  Royal 
Arms  with  the  harp  in  the  third  quarter,  separated  from  the 
supporting  lion  and  unicorn  by  roses  and  thistles,  tulips 
and  carnations,  which  surmount  the  text.  The  great  initial 
C  of  the  King's  name  encloses  a  good  portrait  of  his  Majesty 
in  ponderous  periwig.  In  the  left  margin  are  the  city  arms 
Dlazoned  in  azure,  with  an  unblazoned  oval  below,  probably 
left  for  our  seal  when  chosen.  On  the  m.argin  of  the  second 
skin,  a  lady  under  a  canopy  leads  a  naked  boy  and  bears  a 
naked  baby  at  her  breast — though  presumably  a  distressed 
'  widow, she  is  clothed  like  the  King's  daughter  in  a  red  petticoat 
,  and  a  green  gown,  and  some  might  think  the  group  more 
I  disreputable  than  pathetic,  yet,  it  has  been  the  cognizance 
of  our  seal  ever  since.  The  instrument,  however,  is  a  very 
interesting  sample  of  the  Royal  Charters  of  the  day.  The 
Great  Seal  of  Ireland  is  attached,  a  waxen  circle  of  five 
inches.  This  is  of  the  pattern  used  by  the  P^nglish  Kings 
from  the  very  early  times.  On  the  obverse  the  King  in 
armour  gallops  on  a  caparisoned  steed  with  a  greyhound 
beneath.  On  the  reverse  he  is  enthroned  under  a  canopy, 
the  harp  and  crown  are  on  both  faces,  tlie  legend  round  each 
circumference  : — Carolns  II.,  Fidci  Defensor  Dei  gratia 
Magncs  Britannicu  FrancicB  HiberriKS  Rex.  The  Charter 
bears  leste  "  3rd  day  of  December,  in  the  three  and  twentieth 
year  of  our  Reign,"  and  is  simply  signed  Domville.  Sir 
William  Domville  was  then  the  distinguished  Attorney- 
General,  an  office  he  held  for  twenty-eight  years,  and  a  Privy 
Councillor,  and  is  the  progenitor  of  the  eminent  family  of 
Santry  and  Loughlinstown,  but  it  is  more  likely  that  our 
signatory  was  one  of  his  two  sons,  who  then  jointly  were 
patentees  of  the  clerkship  of  the  Crown  and  Hanaper,  for 
though  Sir  William  was  a  very  worthy  public  servant  and 
general  favourite,  he  knew  how  to  take  care  of  himself ;  by 

17  Appendix. 

TEMP.    CHARLES    II.,    1668-1675  65 

grants  in  reversion  this  clerkship  of  the  Ciown  and  Hanaper 
remained  with  his  descendants  for  one  hundred  years.'?  But 
traffic  in  offices  did  not  shock  much  in  these  good  old  times. 
Meanwhile,  peace  being  restored,  our  founders  resumed 
activity.  In  Oct.,  1673,  a  grand  committee  of  "Sub- 
Governors  and  Trustees"  was  named,  consisting  of  117 
members  : — Sir  Joshua  Allen,  Lord  Mayor,  and  Davys, 
Recorder,  all  the  aldermen,  both  jSheriffs,  forty-six  Sheriffs' 
Peers,  the  forty-four  Masters  of  the  City  Guilds,  and  the 
twenty  Churchwardens  of  the  eleven  City  parishes.  Their 
names  appear  in  the  first  entries  of  our  first  Minute  Book, 
and  include  Tottie,  and  Philpot  and  Gressingham  of  the 
silver  cups.  This  appointment  of  Governors  is  noteworthy, 
for  it  was  an  act  of  the  whole  Corporation,  and  from  it  arose 
the  usage  of  co-opting  from  outside  the  Corporation,  which 
we  shall  see  was  afterwards  challenged  bv  Charles  Lucas 
and  others  as  illegal.  They  are  empowered  by  the  City 
Assembly  of  Christmas,  1673,  to  address  the  King  and  the 
Lord  Lieutenant  as  they  deem  fit  for  benevolence  to  forward 
the  good  work.  By  the  end  of  1672  £4,000  had  been  sub- 
scribed, the  second  list  including  £100  from  Lord  Berlcele^^ : 
£60  from  Primate  Margetson  ;  /.50  each  from  Archbishop 
Boyle,  Chief  Baron  Bysse,  and  Sir  Ed.  Smith,  late  Chief 
Justice  of  the  Common  Pleas  ;  /20  each  from  Sir  John 
Temple,  Master  of  the  Rolls,  Sir  Robt.  Booth,  Chief  of  the 
King's  Bench,  and  Capt.  James  Stopford,  son  of  the  ancestor 
of  the  Earl  of  Courtown.  The  City  gifts  comprise  /150  from 
Sir  Francis  Brewster  ;  £75  from  Sir  Joshua  Allen  ;  £108 
from  Mr.  Williams.  Brewer,  and  /50  from  Aldermen  Tighe 
and  Hutchinson,  and  the  Farmers  of  the  City  revenues. 
The  first  business  before  our  Grand  Committee  was  Wetten- 
hall's  petition  and  the  Free  School,  but,  as  we  have  seen,  they 
could  do  little  for  him  pending  the  building  of  the  School, 
for  they  were  in  straits  tliemselves — they  had  expended  their 
subscriptions  already.  Early  in  1674  the  Hospital  was 
nearing  completion,  but  money  was  wanting  to  finish  it, 
and  as  it  was  planned  for  three  hundred  and  fifty  residents, 

^''  See  Libey  Miinernm. 




how  was  it  to  be  filled,  and  how,  when  filled,  was  it  to  be 
maintained  ?  They  fonnd  that  for  annual  revenue  they 
had  only  the  headrents  of  Oxmantown  and  St.  Stephen's 
Green,  /170  a  year,  and  £114  of  secured  annual  subscriptions, 
they  had,  no  doubt,  six  of  the  lots  in  St.  Stephen's  Green, 
and  three  in  Oxmantown,  granted  to  them  in  fee-simple 
by  the  allottees,  but  all  still  waste,  and  of  their  rents  and  of 
the  headrents,  £850  was  now  in  arrear.  ^^450  of  promised 
subscriptions  were  still  unpaid,  and  nearly  £600  was  due  to 
the  builders.  So  the  Committee  appealed  on  a  great  scale 
in  March,  1674.  First  they  petitioned  King  Charles  in 
person,  reciting  Lord  Ossory's  letter  to  the  Corporation  of 
1668,  and  the  reply  of  the  City,  with  the  project  of  the 
Hospital  ;  they  state  the  Privy  Council  had  directed  them 
to  begin  with  all  speed  possible,  promising  to  contribute 
their  endeavours  to  so  good  a  work  ;  that  by  the  blessing 
of  God  the  structure  is  now  almost  finished,  capable  of 
receiving  three  hundred  and  fifty  persons  at  tlie  least,  with 
.a  fair  chapel,  garden  and  walks  walled  about,  with  all  school- 
rooms and  offices  requisite, at  the  expense  of  near  £4,000 ;  they 
remind  the  King  of  his  own  Letters  Patent  directing  the 
Hospital  and  Free  School  to  be  called  for  ever  by  his  own 
Royal  name,  and  alleging  the  stately  structure  to  be  empty 
for  want  of  a  suita.ble  revenue,  tliey  implore  the  Royal 
bounty  for  such  maintenance  as  may  enable  the  Hospital  to 
continue  to  succeeding  ages  "as  a  monum.ent  of  your 
Majesty's  undoubted  piety  and  charity." 

But  they  did  not  trust  to  those  well-known  royal  qualities 
alone.  They  enclosed  the  petition  in  a  letter  to  one  whom 
they  heldin  true  trustful  affection,  thej)uke  of  Ormonde, then 
in  the  Court  in  London,  asking  him  to  procure  its  favourable 
admission  with  the  King.  They  recall  the  Duke's  constant 
favours  to  the  city, and, reminding  him  that  Lord  Ossory  had 
given  the  first  encouragement  to  the  erection  of  the  Hospital, 
and  thus  assured  them  of  his  Grace's  furtherance,  they  ask 
him  now  to  crown  the  first  beginnings  of  his  noble  son. 
They  would  remind  his  Majesty,  "  who  takes  the  proper 
measures  of  this  kingdom  from  your  Grace's  better  prospect 

TEMP.    CHARLES    II.,    166S-1675  67 

of  them,  how  glorious  to  posterit}^  Kings  of  England  have 
made  themselves  by  hke  foundations  ;  "  and  they  pray  him 
to  refer  their  petition  to  the  Lord  Lieutenant  in  Council 
for  a  report  from  what  b;  inch  of  th.e  public  revenues  a 
fitting  maintenance  may  be  stcur(^d  for  a  work  of  so  great 
cliarit}^  so  greatTToiibur,  and  so  public  an  use.  "To  wliom," 
concludes  this  letter,  "  can  we  humble  ourselves  but  him 
who  has  so  long  and  so  well  known  Joseph."  '8 

That  pathetic  allusion  to  Jo-^eph  sounds  rather  mysterious. 
How  were  the  Corporation  like  Joseph  ?  Was  it  that  as  a 
body  they  wore  a  coat  of  many  colours  which  their  brothers 
sometimes  tore  ?  Ormonde  and  Ossory,  however,  seemx  to 
have  understood  it,  for  in  1670,  when  conferring  on  Lord 
Ossory  the  freedom  of  the  City,  the  Corporation  wrote  that 
his  name  would  be  second  on  the  roll  next  to  his  illustrious 
father,  who  stood  first,  "  your  lordship  being,  in  truth,  the 
second  edition  of  his  Grace,  whose  services  to  the  city  during 
the  calamities  of  rebellion  and  civil  war  had  thus  known, 
pitied,  and  relieved  Joseph  in  all  his  miseries." 

This  letter  to  the  Duke,  of  March,  1674,  referring  to  Lord 
Ossory,  speaks  of ' '  his  preservation  from  those  mighty  dangers 
which  his  valour,  so  greatly  celebrated,  lately  exposed  him 
to  and  which  we  heartily  congratulate. "^9  This  refers  to  the 
great  sea  fight  with  the  Dutch  in  1673,  when  Ossory,  lately 
made  Rear  Admiral  of  the  Blue,  was  in  com.mLaiid  of  the  first- 
rate  •'  St.  Michael."  Admiral  Sir  E.  Sprague,  who,  Commanded- 
in-Chief  ,was  killed  and  his  ship  disabled.  Ossory  defended  her 
through  the  day,  and  brought  her  off  safely  at  night,  every 
man  on  his  own  quarter-deck  being  slain  save  himself,  his 
page,  and  Capt.  Narborough.  For  this  he  was  made  Rear- 
Admiral  of  the  Red. 

If  these  alluring  letters  of  the  Corporation  and  one  they 
addressed  to  Lord  Lieutenant  Essex  also,  did  not  bear 
much  fruit  in  endowmenfs,  they""  certainly  had  a  royal 
reception.  There  was  a  Council  at  Whitehall,  8  i\Iay,  1674, 
at  which  our  petition    was    presented.      King  Charles  pre- 

^^  Gilbert's  Calendar    VI-,  497. 

^^  Historical  Manuscripts    G  Rep.,  719,  Note  b. 


68        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

sided  in  person.  Beside  him  was  his  cousin,  Prince 
Rupert,  with  the  Chancellor  Finch,  Danby,  Lord  Treasurer 
Arlington,  still  Principal  Secretary  of  State,  the  Dukes  of 
Ormonde  and  Lauderdale,  The  Lord  Privy  Seal,  the  Earls 
of  Ossory,  Bridgewater,  Northampton,  Carlisle,  Bath, 
Craven,  Tweedale  and  Carbury,  Viscounts  Halifax  and 
Faulconbergh,  the  Bishop  of  London,  and  Lords  Mainard 
and  Newport,  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  Sir  H. 
Coventry,  second  Secretary  of  State,  the  Vice  Chamberlain, 
Mr.  Monta.gue,  and  the  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Commions. 
This  Committee  of  twenty-six  of  the  Lords  of  the  Universe 
ordered  Arlington  to  prepare  a  letter  referring  the  petition 
of  the  Blue  Coat  to  the  Lord  Lieutenant  and  Council  in 
Ireland,  who  were  to  report  what  was  fit  for  his  Majesty  to 
do  in  the  matter.  This  letter  was  sent  by  Arlington  on 
12  May. 

Essex  in  Council  considered  it  on  i  June,  when  they 
appointed  the  Primate,  the  Archbishop,  and  Chancellor 
Boyle,  Chief  Justice  Booth,  Chief  Baron  Bysse,  Jones, 
Bishop  of  Meath,  Sir  Thos.  Stanley,  and  Sir  Chas.  Mere  to 
consider  fresh  proposals  of  the  Corporation  for  a  mxainten- 
ance  for  the  Hospital,  and  to  report  to  the  Council  accor- 

So  in  July  the  Committee  sent  to  Lord  Essex  a  well 
thought  out  scheme,  estimating  /400  as  necessary  to  comi- 
plete  and  furnish  ;  £600  to  pay  the  builders,  and  for  annual 
maintenance  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  inmates,  an  endow- 
ment of  £2,795  a  year.  Forth e  £1,000  cash  the}^  proposed  that 
an  immediate  grant  should  be  made  by  the  Treasury,  and 
for  the  annual  revenue  a  perpetual  charge  on  the  excise  of 
ale,  beer  and  strong  waters,  and  the  hearth  money  of  the 
city,  and  they  reiterate  the  claim  given  them  by  Lord 
Ossory's  first  letter  and  the  Charter  granted  by  the  sovereign 

But  pending  these  treaties  they  determined  to  open  the 
Hospital,  whether  endowed  or  not.  They  were  without 
funds,  and  knew  that  to  fill  it  was  out  of  the  question,  so 
resolving  to  begin  with  not  more  than  eighty  inmates,  they 

TEMP.    CHARLES    II..     1668-1675  69 

sent  circulars  to  each  of  the  eleven  ]:)arishes,  and  each  of  the 
City  Guilds,  requesting  each  to  furnish  the  names  of  three 
boys  not  under  six  yearS;  and  not  sickly  or  maimed,  and  to 
provide  three  pounds  ten  yearly  for    maintenance  of  each 
child,  promising  that  any  benefactors  securing  this  should 
have  the  status  of  First  Founders  and  be  so  recorded.    At 
the  same  time  they  posted  the  Exchange  and  all  the  City 
Gates  with  printed  offers  of  leases  of  our  six  lots  in  the  two 
Greens,  and  they  sent  out  a  strong  deputation  to  perambu- 
late the  City  begging  for  bounty, and  to  remove  all  objections 
and  doubts  that  might  be  made.      Dr.  Wettenhall  having 
now  becomiC  a  churcti  dignitary,  the  Governors  appointed 
as  our  first  dc  facto  chaplain,  the  Reverend  Fewis  Prythirch, 
nominated  by  Archbishop  Boyle  at  a  salary  of  ten  pounds 
a  year  with  diet  and  lodging,  iMr.  Thomas  Howard,  as  agent, 
at   £20   yearly.    Dr.    Ralph   Howard,    as     Physician,     Mrs. 
Williams,  Schoolmistress,  to  teach  the  children  to  read,  £6 
a  year  with  her  keep,  a  steward,   butler,  messenger  and 
porter,  a  governess,  Mrs.  Leech,  an  aged  matron,  to  oversee 
the  nurses  and  servants,  two  nurses,  each  with  charge  of 
thirty  children,  and  "  two    drudges  "  to  wash  and  scour, 
at  the  election  of  the  Governors,  who    it  is    to  be  hoped 

This  original  staff  reads  modestly  enough,  so  shortly 
after  that  court  at  Whitehall  with  the  King  in  the  chair 
and  Prince  Rupert,  and  the  Dukes,  and  the  Earls,  and 
Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  and  great  Ministers  of  State, 
but  even  Oxford  and  Eton  had  miodest  beginnings. 

On  27  April  it  was  reported  to  the  Assembly  that  the 
chapel  and  ground  over  the  water,  commonly  called  the 
King's  Hospital,  was  fitted  and  prepared  for  consecration, 
and  thereupon  a  deed  of  donation  was  duly  executed  and 
ordered  to  be  presented  to  his  Grace,  Michael  Boyle,  x\rch- 
bishop  of  Dublin.  He  was  great-nephew  of  Richard  the 
first,  and  called  the  great.  Earl  of  Cork.  He  was  raised  to 
the  Primacy  in  1678. 

The  Hospital  occupied  170  feet  in  length,  fronting  the 
west  side  of  the  present  Queen  Street,  covering  the  space 

70        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

from  the  present  No.  69  and  thence  running  north  over  most 
of  the  broad  roadway  of  the  present  Blackhall  Street,  thence 
it  stretched  back  with  its  gardens  in  a  parallelogram  300 
feet  in  depth.  It  was  built  on  the  original  lots  87  and  88 
Oxmantown  (xreen,  which  had  been  reserved  for  a  Free 
School  in  the  original  allotment,  and  No.  90,  Sir  William 
Davys'  lot,  wliicli  he  had  made  over  as  his  subscription  in 
i66q,  and  which  is  now  part  of  the  thoroughfare  of  Black- 
hall  Street,  but  to  these  a  large  space  from  the  Green  had 
been  added  by  the  City  for  gardens  and  cartilage.  There 
was  a  chapel  at  the  south  end  with  a  single  rounded  window 
to  the  street  and  an  infirmary  on  the  north  side,  and  between 
these  ran  the  front  facade,  a  long  structure  of  two  stories 
with  six  pigeon-house  windows  in  the  slanted  roof  of  the 
upper  one,  three  at  each  side  of  a  wooden  cupola  surmount- 
ing the  vestibule  which  projected  across  the  narrow  court- 
yard between  the  building  and  the  street,  from  which  it  was 
fenced  by  a  high  wall  with  a  good  entrance  gate  in  front  of 
the  vestibule  and  hall  door. 

And  so  at  last  on  5  MAY,  1675,  just  twenty-three  days  less 
than  six  years  from  the  turning  of  the  first  sod,  our  Hospital 
was  opened,  sixt}^  children  being  admitted,  of  whom  three 
were  girls.  We  append  the  table  of  the  names  of  these,  our 
First  Pupils,  with  their  nominators,  thus  helping  to  fulfil 
the  promise  that  the  benefactors  should  be  chronicled  as 
amongst  our  First  Founders. 


TEMP.   CHARLES  II.,  1668-1675 


CHILDREN     SENT     INTO     THE     HOSPITAL     BY     Yi; 

Benefactoas"  Names. 

Names  of  the  Children 

Sr.  ffra  :  Brewster,  Kt.,  L.Ma. 

City  of  Dublin 

Trinity  Guild  of  Merchts. 
Corporation  of  Cordwainers 
Corporation  of  Coopers 

Parish  of  St.  Michan's 

St.  Werburgh's  Parish 
St.  Michael's  Parish 

St.  John's  Parish 

St.  Kath.  &  St.  Paul's 

St.  Andrewe's  Parish 

Mr.  Giles  Martin 

Dame  Brewster 
Samll.  Mollinous,  Esq. 

Dame  Jane  Stanley 

f  John  Rames 
1^  John  Goddin 

Barthol.  Davis 

Wm.  Am  ill 
^  Charles  Swetman 
[  George  Orr 

/  David  King 
\  Jeremy  Woodall 
Bery.  Edsol 

^  Wm.  Williams 

i  Peter  Dillon 

f  Charles  Camponsky 
(  Allex  Williams 

James  Saunders 

Robt.  ffarr 
/  Robt.  Shelton 
\  Wm.  Stranger 

Robert  Paton 
f  Christr.  ] 

-{        &        [-  Mortimer 
[  James  J 

f  Thomas  Smith 

I  Henry  Chennel 

j  Edward  Williams 

1  Daniel  Lee 

I  Thomas  Williams 

[  Joseph  Gough 
Mary  Archbould 
Richd.  Kennedy 

'  Edmond  Brookes 
Jonath  :  WhitnoU 
Ambrose  Johnson 
Markt  Ellieton 

-]!       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Benefactors    Names. 

Names  of  the  Children. 

Robt.  Shapcote,  Esq. 

James  Rames 

Aid.  Danl.  Hutchinson 

f  Thomas  Sprinkle 
\  John  Barker 

Aid.  Enoch  Reader     ... 

/  John  Bennett 
1^  Richard  Carey 

Aid.  Rich.  Han  way     ... 

Thomas  Banks 

Mrs.  Mary  Tighe 

\  John  Toy 

(  Thomas  Burgis 

Mrs.  Parry,  wife  of  Dr.  Ben.  Parry 

Joseph  Tunn 

Mr.  Abel  Ram 

John  Hutchinson 

Mr.  Richard  Lord 

John  Shorr 

Mr.  Richard  Young    ... 

Christr.  Harris 


Mr.  John  North 

Alexandr  ffusland 

Mr.  Thomas  ffrancis    ... 

Thomas  Purtill 

Mr.  Robt.  Brady 

John  Ogilvy 

Mr.  Richd.  Baker 

Osborne  Kitteringham 

Mr.  Piriam  Poole 

John  Cooper 

Mrs.  Joyce  Seile 

Anthony  Gaghagan 

Sr.  Joshua  Allan 

Hugh  Ward 

Aid.  John  Preston 

John  Harris 

Ld.  Bishop  of  Ossory... 

Thomas  Hunt 

Sr  John  Torey,   Knt. 

Henry  ] 

Ld.  Chief  Justice  of  the   King's 

'      &       \  ffoUiott 



Mr.  George  Warburton 

Charles  Jenkins 

Mr.  Wm.  Bragg 

Grace  Tunn 

Ld.  Bp.  of  Ossory,  his  lady 

Mary  Running 

Hewit,  one  of  the  boys 

John  Hewett 

Walter  Harris 

Michll  ffennel 

L     73     ] 


FROM    THE    OPENING    OF    THE    SCHOOL    TO    THE    END 

When  the  School  opened,  the  I<ord  Mayor,  Sir  Francis 
Brewster,was  our  chairman.  He  had  been  one  of  the  Evicted 
Eight.  The  work  of  the  Governors  in  the  earl}^  years  was  of 
immense  difficulty.  None  of  them  were  educationists — expert 
educationists  were  unknown  then.  Crippled  as  to  means, 
with  some  seventy  children  in  a  great  building,  four  of  them 
little  girls,  most  of  them  of  tender  years  and  more  fitted  for 
the  care  of  nurses  than  of  sclioolmasters,  and  yet  including 
older  boys,  for  in  1676  we  find  a  boy  admitted  aged  fifteen, 
classification,  generally  difficult,  was  then  impossible.  The 
essa}'  of  their  'prentice  hands  may  merit  a  note.  The  Board, 
then  consisting  chiefly  of  business  men,  began  by  directing  that 
the  training  should  be  industrial,  and  to  fit  the  children  for 
trades,  so  they  were  all  to  be  taught  the  making  of  shoes, 
knitting  stockings,  and  spinning,  and  materials  for  this  end 
were  procured  a.ccordingly.  The  teaching  of  knitting  was 
entrusted  to  the  nurses,  to  whom  the  order  hvmianely  allows 
"  a  drudge  "  to  ease  their  housemaids'  duties.  Six  hours 
are  allotted  for  handwork  and  four  for  lessons.  This  scheme, 
as  m.ight  be  foretold,  broke  down  in  a  few  months  ;  the 
order  was  rescinded  in  October,  the  shoemaker  and  spinner 
were  discharged,  and  the  chaplain  Prytherch  directed  to 
instruct,  assisted  by  a  female  teacher.  Then  it  was  found 
that  the  number  of  Sub-Governors,  being  more  than  one 
hundred,  as  constituted  b}-  the  Assembly  in  1674,  was  quite 
unwieldy,  and  the  Corporation  were  petitioned  to  modify 
the    order,    which    they  did  in  July,  1675, ^    and    ordained 

^  Gilbert's  Calendar,  5,  78. 

74        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

tliat  henceforth  the  Lord  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Aldermen,  and 
Sheriffs'  Peers,  wdth  such  other  Sub-Governors  as  they  might 
think  fit,  should  constitute  the  Board.  The  quorum 
was  to  be  seven,  of  whom  the  Lord  Mayor  and  one  Sheriff 
were  to  be  always  two.  This  clause  v.-as  more  than  once  the 
cause  of  trouble  and  controversy  in  after  years,  for  no  lawful 
meeting  could  be  held  in  the  Lord  Mayor's  absence,  as  he 
was  the  necessary  chairman  so  long  as  this  order  stood,  but 
it  had  the  salutary  effect  of  idontifymg  the  School  with 
the  government  of  the  city  for  a  century  and  three-quarters 

But  instead  of  committing  instruction  and  the  control 
of  the  house  to  the  chaplain  and  headmaster  Prytherch, 
allowing  him  to  select  the  necessary  staff,  the  Board  limited 
his  teaching  functions,  and  themselves  appointed  the 
assistant  masters,  the  officers,  nurses,  and  servants,  all  at  the 
wretched  salaries  and  wages  to  which  their  o^^'n  meagre 
income  confined  them  ;  but  boards  even  now  are  apt  to  love 
patronage  and  to  retain  functions  which  they  cannot 
adequately  discharge.  Thus  James  Rigby  was  appointed 
to  teach  writing  and  arithmetic  to  the  whole  school  daily, 
attending  from  7  to  11  a.m.,  and  from  i  to  5  in  the  afternoon, 
at  a  salary  of  £^  a  year  "  till  the  revenue  of  the  Hospital  be 
greater,"  along  with  his  lodging  and  diet.  He  taught  from 
the  opening  of  the  School  for  two  whole  years,  so  v;e  can 
read  without  surprise  the  entry  in  1677  that  poor  Rigby's 
post  "  is  void  by  his  confinement  in  the  Blackdog,"  the 
diabolical  debtors'  prison  by  the  old  Newgate  in  High  Street, 
whose  horrors  are  detailed  in  Gilbert's  History  of  Dublin. 
Thereupon  Miles  Bateman  took  his  place  on  the  same  terms, 
but  he  only  lasted  five  months,  when  we  find  him.  "  removed," 
and  replaced  by  Robert  Ingram  in  November— his  tenure 
was  even  less  than  Bateman's.  In  ]\larch,  1678,  he,  too,  is 
"  removed,"  and  John  Carrington  placed  in  his  stead,  who 
held  on  for  eight  months.  It  took  more  than  a  century  since 
to  teach  us  that  teachers  are  not  the  menials  of  mankind. 
At  last,  in  November,  1678,  the  Governors  were  fortunate 
to  find  an  admirable  master  in  English  and  Mathematics, 

OPENING  TO  END  OF  CHARLES  11. 's  RETGN         ^5 

who  remained  in  the  School  for  thirty-two  years,  and  was 
largely  instnimental  in  its  snccessful  development.  This 
was  James  Mead.  Similarly  we  find  three  successive 
stewards  in  the  first  three  years.  The  Governors  had 
separated  this  office  from  that  of  the  agent,  ]\Ioland, 
appointing  John  Tear  at  £12  a  year,  3'et,  they  entrusted  him 
first  with  all  the  supplies  to  the  Hospital  and  tradesmen's 
accounts,  and  then,  in  addition,  with  complete  control  over 
the  rhi'drt-T),  who  arc  subjected  to  his  moral  discipline  in  all 
thmgs,so,  in  June^  1677,  we  have  an  inquiry  of  the  Governors, 
who  ftnd  that  he  has  improvidently  managed  the  trust 
reposed  in  him,  and  he  is  discharged.  Allen,  succeeding  him 
on  like  conditions,  holds  on  for  less  than  a  3^ear,  and  then 
resigns,  and  in  April,  1678,  Wetherall  is  appointed,  the 
Governors  now  seeing  the  expediency  of  giving  him  a  salary 
of  £16  witli  maintenance  in  the  house  for  himself  and  wife. 
Yet,  though  he  continued  for  four  years,  there  is  "  a  full 
hearing  "  of  tlie  Governors  in  1682,  on  divers  matters  laid 
to  his  charge,  and  he  is  found  to  be  a  person  not  fit  to  be  any 
longer  continued  in  the  emiployment.  Perhaps  that  wife 
had  something  to  do  with  his  downfall,  for  the  dismxisaal 
order  goes  on  to  commiand  that  3ilrs.  Hollins,  "  and  all 
other  women  in  the  Hospital  that  arc  no  way  useful  to  the 
house  have  notice  forthwith  to  depart."  Eve  caused 
Adam's  eviction  from  Eden. 

An  entry  of  July,  1675 .  gives  a  glimpse  of  the  quaint  old  city 
streets.  Casting  about  for  revenue  everywliere,  the  Governors 
resorted  to  an  "Act  of  Assembly  of  the  year  before,  whicli 
empowered  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Corporation  to  treat  with 
the  "  encroachers,"  as  they  were  called,  who  lined  the  streets 
and  dowiTto  the  river  with  stalls,  porches,  stands  and  chairs, 
and  stating  that  nothing  had  yet  been  done,  they  asked  the 
Assem.bly  to  place  these  trespassers  under  rents,  these  to 
be  applied  for  the  first  seven  years  to  the  School,  and  then 
to  revert  to  the  City  estate.-  And  this  was  acceded  to. 
These  encroachments  continued  for  tv.-o  centuries  more  or 
less,  and  a  few  years  since  were  made  subjects  of  prosecution 

-  Gilbert's  Calendar,   5,  71,   76. 

76        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

before  our  City  Magistrates.  Booths  and  tents  blocking 
the  footwalks,  fruit  stalls  obstructing  carriage  ways  too. 
Most  of  these  were  swept  away  ;  the  orange  women  that  sat 
round  the  semicircle  fronting  Trinity  College,  and  at  each 
side  of  Carlisle  or  O'Connell  Bridge,  survived  to  late  in  the 
Victorian  age,  till  trampled  out  by  the  march  of  a  ruthless 
civilization  ;  yet,  our  entry  shows  some  colour  of  a  legal  origin 
which  might  have  saved  some  if  our  entry  ha,d  been  made 
known   to  the  justices  who  suppressed  themi. 

Whilst  awaiting  aid  from  the  Crown,  the  City  resorted 
to  another  device,  which  would  sound  strangely  in  the  King's 
Bench  to-day.3  A  former  Act  of  Assembly  had  imposed  a 
tax  upon  all  brewers  and  other  owners  of  drays  and  carts 
having  iron  bound  wheels,  of  ten  shillings  per  cart,  to  be 
paid  towards  repair  of  the  city  pavements,  but  at  the 
Tanuar}'  Assembly,  1676,  they  ordered  "  as  a  great  help  to 
the  Kmg's  Hospital,"  that  in  lieu  of  this  tax  every  such 
I  brewer  and  owner  should  deliver  to  the  Steward  of  the 
Hospital,  "  a  barrell  of  table  beer  for  each  carre,  and  two 
barrells  for  each  dray,  yearh^."  What  w^ould  the  auditor  and 
the  temperance  associations  think  of  this  ? 

Three  months  a.fter  the  School  opened,  William  Smith 
became  Lord  Mayor,  and  our  chairman  for  1675-6.  He  was 
an  original  Founder  and  favourite  Governor  for  nine  years. 
He  was  the  Wliittington  of  Dublin,  and  his  unique  career, 
during  which  he  was  Chief  Magistrate  in  eight  several  years, 
casts  a  strange,  yet  vivid  sidehght  on  our  City  in  the  agony 
of  the  Civil  Wars. 

The  Whittington  of  Dublin. 

Shortly  since,  our  present  estimable  Chaplain  and  Head- 
master, Rev  Mr.  Richards,  exploring  a  stratum  of  forgotten 
records,  came  on  a  slab  below,  seemingly  of  stone,  grey  and 
oxidised,  18  inches  by  12,  but  the  weight  of  which,  when 
handled,  proved  it  to  be  of  metal,   and  the    face,    when 

^  Minute  Book,  Gilbert's  Calendar,  5,  94. 


burnished,  disclosed  a  fine  brass  thus  inscribed,  clear  as  when 
it  left  the  hand  of  the  graver  : 

Neere  this  Place 
WAS  Buried  the  Body 
OF  William  Smith,  Esq.,  an 
Alderman  of  the  City  of 
Dublin  In  Ireland  and  who 
was  Seven  Severall 
ye  ARES  Mayor  (and  Lord  Mayor  the  yeare  1675)  of  that  city 
He  Died  the  31ST 
Day  of  October 
Anno  Domini   1684 

Aetat  su^  82. 
25  OF  July  1684. 

This  Brass  was  presumably  taken  from  the  wall  of  our 
original  chapel,  when  ruinous  and  forgotten,  into  the  new 
building  a  century  after  his  death.  Tlie  inscription  is  sur- 
mounted with  his  arms  :  On  a  bend  dexter  three  lozenges 
between  two  Unicorns'  heads  with  the  City  Arms  in  the 
dexter  angle.  The  crest  is  a  Unicorn's  head  on  a  ducal  crown, 
and  the  motto  Dciis  liberabit.  The  graving,  black  on  brass, 
does  not  indicate  the  blazonry,  but  the  family  arms  seem 
almost  identical  with  those  of  the  Cusack-Smiths,  one  of 
whom  was  so  long  the  Master  of  the  Rolls  in  Ireland  some 
40  years  ago,  shewing  the  unicorns  azure  armed  or,  on  a 
field  of  argent. 

This  epitaph  is  simple,  but  between  its  lines  we  can  read 
in  the  whole  story  of  the  Dublin  of  the  times  as  if  it  were  a 

William  Smith,  at  thirty- four,  was  elected  sheriff  of 
Dublin,  1636,  when  Wentworth  was  at  the  zenith  of  his 
reign,  and  he  took  part  in  some  of  the  great  viceroy's  civic 
reforms.  The  next  year  he  was  made  one  of  the  Masters 
of  the  City  Works,  and  in  that  following  was  one  of  the 
aldermen  in  whom  then  was  vested  almost  the  entire  civic 
power.  After  Strafford  was  flung  to  the  wolves  of  the  factions, 
that  beset  him  from  opposite  sides,  the  Irish  rebellion  burst 
forth  in  autumn,  1641.  Almost  connived  at  by  Parsons,  the 
Lord  Justice,  and  creature    of    the    refractory  Parliament, 

78        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

who  used  it  to  promote  the  Covenant,  to  discredit  the  King 
and  to  create  forfeitures,  in  the  course  of  the  winter  it  had 
flooded  all  the  land.  When  Ormonde's  victory  at  Kilrush,  and 
the  raising  of  the  vSiege  of  Drogheda,  had  extorted  the  praise 
of  Parliament,  and  he  becam.e  Marquess,  Knight  of  the 
Garter  and  Commander  of  the  King's  forces,  Alderman 
Smith  w^as  made  Mayor  at  Michaelmas,  1642  ;  the  senior 
alderman,  Kennedy,  had,  according  to  usage,  been  elected 
at  the  spring  Assembly,  but  in  the  agony  of  the  rebellion, 
the  city,  moneyless,  in  danger  and  dismay,  crowded  with 
half-starved  fugitives,  its  revenues  unpaid,  could  scarce  find 
a  candidate  who  could  accept  the  chief  magistracy.  In  his 
first  year  Parsons  was  still  Lord  Justice,  and  Lambert,  Lord 
Cavan,  who  commanded  the  Government  forces  in  the  city, 
assumed  the  civic  government  also,  but  Smith  withstood 
him  to  the  face,  and  the  Corporation,  under  hi  s  leadership, 
maintained  their  charter  rights  before  the  Privy  Council. 
Lambert  then  claimed  from  the  Council  to  undertake  alone 
the  city  defences,  with  power  to  enforce  the  labour  of  the 
citizens,  unless  the  Mayor  and  City  would  guarantee  the 
duty  at  their  own  sole  charges.  The  Council  referred  this  to 
the  Assembly,  who,  despite  their  penury,  boldly  undertook 
to  construct  the  defences  by  the  citizens  in  batches,  with 
right  to  call  the  aid  of  the  army  to  distrain  defaulters 
"  freed,"  as  they  said,  "  from  the  extreme  pressure  of  levy- 
ing the  defaults  by  authority  from  the  Lord  Lambert." 

At  the  spring  Assembly,  1643,  Carbery,  the  senior  alder- 
man, was  elected  Mayor,  but  the  penury  continued.  The 
3^200  then  voted  by  usage  to  the  Mayor  was  still  unpaid  to 
Smith,  as  was  that  voted  to  his  predecessor  in  1642,  so  that 
at  the  Michaelmas  Assembly,  Smith  remained  in  ofiice  for 
his  second  year.  Parsons  had  now  been  removed  from  the 
Government,  and  Ormonde  became  Lord  Lieutenant  in 
January,  1644.  "  In  the  extremity  and  dearth  people  were 
then  dying  of  hunger,  to  the  great  grief  of  the  Corporation,'' 
and  Smith  was  put  at  the  head  of  a  Commission  "  to  send 
away  such  as  the  town  are  not  able  to  relieve,  and  to  take  a 
course  for  the  relief  of  the  native  Poore."    He  was  now  senior 


alderman,  and  at  the  Spring  Assembly  was  duly  elected 
Mayor  "  for  his  own  term  according  to  the  law  of  succession  " 
from  Michaelmas,  1644-1645.  During  Ormonde's  armistice 
with  the  Confederate  Catholics  there  was  less  confusion  in 
Dublin,  but  the  reigning  dearth  may  be  seen  in  such  facts  as 
that  the  great  Lord  Lieutenant,  who,  being  lefused  a  guinea 
from  the  Parliament,  had  mortgaged  his  own  estates,  was 
forced  to  borrow  £184  from  the  City,  an  asset  which  had  fallen 
to  them  b}^  a  chance.  One  Delaporte,  had  slain  a  brother 
merchant,  Panckart,  and  fled.  The  City  Sheriffs  seized  his 
goods  as  forfeited  by  the  felony,  and  realised  £184  8s.  by 
their  sale,  which  went  to  the  credit  of  the  City,  and  even  of 
these  assets,  one  part  consisted  of  City  plate,  pledged  to 
Delaporte  by  Wakefield  when  Mayor  in  the  year  before 
Smith's  first  election.  And  in  this  his  third  year,  of  the  three 
/200  voted  him  by  the  City,  £472  was  unpaid,  for  which  the 
city  could  only  give  him  a  lease  of  their  lands  in  Baldoyle, 
the  rent  of  which  he  was  to  retain  for  the  debt,  yet,  even 
this,  too,  was  conditional,  on  their  evicting  the  tenant,  one 
Fitzsimons,  who  held  possession  more  Hibcrnico.  In  Spring, 
1645,  Watson,  senior  alderman  in  rotation,  was  elected 
Mayor,  but,  he  being  also  unable  to  take  office,  Smith  was 
again  continued  at  Michaelmas,  for  his  fourth  year. 

In  this  he  had  a  conflict  with  Lord  Brabazon,  whose 
father,  the  Earl  of  Meath,  had,  in  the  previous  reign,  un- 
successfully claimed  exemption  from  all  civic  authority 
within  his  Liberties  of  S.  Thomas  and  Donore.  In  those 
curfew  days  the  keys  of  the  City  gates  were  kept  by  the 
Mayor  from  sunset  to  morning.  Lord  Brabazon  at  mid- 
night demanding  the  key  of  the  West  gate  that  led  to  his 
manor,  could  not  get  it,  so  he  smashed  the  windows  and 
doors  of  Smith's  Mayoralty  house.  The  City  ordered  pro- 
secution in  the  Exchequer,  and  petitioned  the  Lord  Lieu- 
tenant for  redress.  The  citizens  were  not  then  bound  to 
insure  against  malicious  injuries  out  of  the  City  rates. 

But  in  summer,  1645,  the  Royal  cause  weis  borne  down  at 
Naseby,  and  Ormonde  heroically  holding  out  for  his  master, 
could   now   only   hope  by   a   treaty  witli    the   Confederate 

8o        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Catholics  to  raise  an  army  to  combine  with  Montrose,  his 
compeer  Marquess,  in  Scotland,  and  for  this  he  struggled 
two  long  years.  Herein  he  was  thwarted  by  Rinnucini,  the 
Pope's  Nuncio,  who.  dreaming  of  a  Catholic  Conquest,  in- 
spired Owen  Roe  O'Neill  to  attack  the  Parliamentary  army, 
which  he  destroyed  at  Benburb  in  June,  1646,  and  then  urged 
him  on  for  the  capture  of  Dublin.  O'Neill  beleaguered  the 
City  in  the  autumn  with  18,000  wild  Irish.  Ormonde  was 
with  his  army  in  Meath.  Under  him  Smith  was  the  com- 
mander of  all  the  City  forces,  for  which  he  nominated  all  the 
Captains  of  companies.  Ormonde  gave  orders  that  all  the 
citizens,  of  every  rank  and  sex,  over  fifteen  years  old,  should 
work  at  least  one  day  in  each  week  till  the  defences  were 
complete.  His  own  noble  wife  (she  was  his  cousin,  the  Lady 
Elizabeth  Preston),  led  the  defenders  with  ladies  of  the  first 
quality,  who,  with  their  own  fair  hands,  carried  baskets  of 
earth  to  repair  the  fortifications.4  The  Marquess,  like 
Wellington,  at  Torres  Vedras,  had  ordered  the  country 
round  Dublin  to  be  denuded,  and  on  the  report  of  succour 
from  England,  the  Irish,  unfed,  withdrew,  dissolving  as  a 
storm  cloud.  No  Assembly  that  year  could  be  held  at 
Michaelmas.  At  Easter,  Lake,  senior  alderman,  was  elected 
Mayor,  but  Smith  was  continued  to  January,  1647,  when  he 
was  again  elected  for  the  fifth  time  to  hold  to  Michaelmas 

But  the  Royal  cause  was  now  lost.  His  treaty,  denounced 
at  once  by  the  victorious  Parliament,  and  by  the  Nuncio, 
Ormonde  was  forced  to  the  choice  of  to  which  he  should 
abandon  Dublin.  He  chose  the  former.  His  intention  being 
rumoured  in  the  city,  Smith  came  to  the  Privy  Council,  and 
boldly  told  the  Marquess  who  presided,  that  he,  as  Mayor, 
was  entrusted  with  the  King's  sword  of  this  city,  and  that 
he  would  not  resign  it  to  the  rebels.  Ormonde  obliged  to 
seem  offended,  ordered  him  to  withdraw,  but  after  some 
conference,  the  Council  called  him  in  again,  and  the  Lord 
Lieutenant  graciously  commended  him  for  his  resolution  to 
maintain  his  Majesty's  authority.     Then  he  personally  read 

■*  Gilbert's  Calendar,  xix,  iii. 

OPENING  TO  END  OF  CHARLES  ll.'s  REIGN         8i 

to  him  the  King's  letter,  requiring  his  Lord  Lieutenant  to 
dehver  up  the  sword  to  the  Commissioners  of  Parhament, 
and  then  the  brave  Mayor  reUictantly  acquiesed.  It  was  no 
ignoble  ending  of  his  five  years  magistracy,  covering  all  the 
unparalleled  period  of  the  King's  struggle  and  of  Ormonde's 
first  ascendancy.  In  the  twelve  years  of  Cromwellian  supre- 
macy which  succeeded.  Smith  did  not  time-serve  the  new 
regime, as  many  old  Royalists  did,  but  he  earnestly  discharged 
his  aldermanic  duties,  serving  as  city  auditor  in  seven,  and  as 
city  treasurer  in  four,  successive  years,  and  he  acted  as  a 
leading  member  on  all  the  important  city  committees,  on 
those  for  preserving  the  revenues  and  rents,  lost,  some  for 
ever,  in  the  prevailing  confusions,  on  those  for  dealing  with 
the  prevalent  destitution,  on  that  for  securing  from  the 
Parliamentary  Commissioners  repayment  of  the  loans  forced 
from  the  city  to  support  the  Cromwellian  army.  But  when 
the  army  had  declared  for  a  free  Parliament  and  then  for 
recall  of  the  King,  the  City  Assembly  in  ]Ma\%  1660,  reciting 
that  the  city  had  always  been  firm  and  faithful  to  the  English 
interest  and  ver\''  instrumental  in  defending  itself  against 
the  Irish  rebels,  resolved  that  two  aldermen  be  employed 
into  England  to  attend  his  Majesty,  "  and  to  manifest 
the  city's  detestation  of  his  father's  murther,  and  their  joy 
in  his  happy  access  to  his  ro3^al  father's  crown  and  regiment 
of  his  native  kingdom."  Alderman  Smith  was  the  first  of 
the  two  delegates  named.  With  them  are  associated  Sir 
Maurice  Eustace,  Lord  Chancellor,  and  {"450  was  votsd  by 
the  city  to  support  their  embassy. 

In  1662  Ormonde  came  back  Duke  and  Lord  Lieutenant. 
At  the  Spring  Assembly  of  1663,  Coolco  had  been  elected 
Mayor,  but  the  summer  meeting  ixsohnd  that  "being 
sensible  of  tlie  very  great  confusion  of  the  years  past,  they 
deemed  it  necessary  tliat  an  able,  loyal,  well-experienced 
person  should  be  chosen,  and  one  well  known  to  the  present 
Governor  of  this  Kingdom."  And  "  finding  that  the  Duke 
of  Ormonde  and  Council  have  a  desire  that  Alderman 
William  Smith  should  undertake  the  Mayoralty  for  the 
ensuing  year,"  he  was  elected,  for  the  sixth  time,  to  hold  to 


82        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Michaelmas,  1664.  Alderman  Cooke  was  permitted  to  resign, 
but  as  he  did  so  to  meet  the  wishes  of  the  Duke,  he  was 
given  standing  as  if  he  had  served,  and  his  expenses  in  pre- 
paring for  ofhce.  Smith  being  granted  1(^400  to  maintain  his 
dignity.  During  this,  his  sixth  Mayoralty,  he  was  chairman 
of  the  committee  which  made  the  allotments  and  enclosure 
of  the  great  city  common  of  St.  Stephen's  Green,  and  of  that 
appointed  to  conduct  the  petition  to  the  Duke  and  to  the 
King  for  royal  grants  in  aid  of  the  distressed  finances  of  the 
city  which  bore  fruit  next  year.  At  the  Spring  Assembly, 
Sir  Daniel  Bellingham  was  elected  Mayor,  but  praying  to  be 
excused,  Smith  was  yet  again  continued  at  Michaelmas,  to 
hold  for  his  seventh  Mayoralty  to  Michaelmas,  1665. 

In  this  year  Ormonde  presented  the  weighty  petition  to 
the  King  which  evoked  a  most  gracious  reply  from  Whitehall, 
acknowledging  the  eminent  merits  and  services  of  the  city 
to  his  father  and  to  himself  at  the  restoration,  and  contem- 
plating the  great  poverty  to  which  tlie  city  was  reduced  by 
loyalty,  Charles  announces  "  his  royal  judgment  to  confer 
such  favours  as  may  deliver  to  posterity  for  their  honour 
the  gracious  sense  we  have  of  their  services,  merits,  and 
sufferings."  These  consisted  of  a  grant  of  the  ferries  of  the 
Liffey  so  valuable  then  when  there  was  only  one  main 
bridge,  and  a  perpetual  grant  of  £500  a  year  to  the  Mayor, 
to  be  paid  from  the  Civic  list,  he  further  forgives  the  crown 
rents  then  due  and  reduces  them  permanently  to  ;/^20  a 

One  of  Smith's  last  official  acts  this  year  was  to  read  the 
city  petition  to  the  crown  against  the  merchants  of  London, 
who,  with  banal  selfishness,  were  seeking  power  from  the  King 
to  ban  Dublin  and  Ireland  from  its  trade  with  the  Canaries, 
whither  the  petition  states  Ireland  was  then  sending  feeding 
commodities  of  the  best  vend,  for  which  a  fleet  was  then 
freighted  by  the  city  merchants.  Bellingham  was  now 
obliged  to  take  the  Mayoralty  ;  but  in  the  last  days  of  the 
tenure,  Smith  had  a  letter  from  the  Duke  referring  to  a 
charter  of  Charles  I.  in  1641,  whicli  had  not  been  acted  on 
by  which  the  title  of  Lord  Mayor  had  been  conferred  on  the 


Chief  Magistrate.  The  Assembly  before  which  Smith  hiid  it, 
resolved  that  this  would  be  for  the  honour  and  good  of  the 
city,  and  so  Sir  Daniel  Bellingham  and  not  Smith  became 
first  Lord  Mayor  of  Dublin,  yet  these  two  years  of  office 
were  not  without  honour,  for  in  these  he  wore  the  Cap  of 
Maintenance  and  the  splendid  collar  of  S.S.  which  Charles 
had  sent  the  city  immediately  on  his  restoration,  and  he  was 
colonel  of  the  first  city  regiment  of  foot. 

It  might  now  be  though  his  civic  life  had  ended,  especially 
as  the  odious  intrigues  of  the  Cabal  ministry  shortly  after 
effected  the  recall,  and  brought  about  the  political  fall  of 
of  his  great  patron,  Ormonde. 

Nevertheless  after  the  Cabal  had  been  broken,  and  Lord 
Berkeley,  its  representative  in  the  Irish  Government  re- 
moved, and  Essex  sent  as  viceroy  to  restore  order  in  Dublin, 
Smith  once  again  was  summoned  to  the  civic  chair,  just  ten 
years  after  he  had  last  left  it.  If  he  heard  the  bells  of  Christ 
Church  chiming.  '-Turn  again,  William  Smith,  Lord  ]\Iayor 
of  Dublin,"  it  was  not  to  come  back  as  a  turncoat,  but  to  com- 
plete his  career  of  loyalty,  consistancy  and  good  faith.  He 
was  now  old  and  impoverished  ;  his  rent  to  our  Hospital 
for  his  own  allotments  in  Stephen's  Green  was  in  arrear  ten 
years,  and  for  this  he  could  only  assign  his  allotment  in 
Oxmantown  as  portion  of  the  site  of  our  original  edifice,  yet 
he  managed  to  contribute  £20  to  the  building  fund,  but  his 
unparalleled  career,  as  he  opened  for  the  first  time,  the 
assembled  school  in  1675,  is  a  contribution  to  our  annals 
richer  than  a  large  pecuniary  subscription.  Born  in  1602, 
his  life  links  our  story  with  the  spacious  days  of  great 
Elizabeth.  He  was  one  of  our  most  deligent  governors, 
presiding  at  all  the  eleven  meetings  of  his  Mayoralty,  and 
he  ended  his  days  with  as  the  only  intern  governor  we  have 
ever  had,  for  now  poor  and  old  the  Board  in  1679,  directed 
that  he  should  have  such  lodgings  in  the  Hospital  as  he  shall 
make  choice  of  in  the  upper  story  of  the  south  isle,  lie  to 
undertake  the  government  of  the  house  and  trouble  of  keep- 
ing the  children  in  order.  And  so  he  ruled  to  his  death  in 
1684,  a  little  before  our  founder,  Kmg  Charles. 

84        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

In  1675  the  Hospital  acquired  what  proved  to  be  its 
richest  single  endowment,  the  fee  simple  of  the  lands  of 
Nodstown,  in  the  parish  of  Ardmayle,  and  barony  of  Nether- 
cross,  County  Tipperary,  situate  near  Cashel.  adjoining  the 
Suir,  and  then  including  more  than  eight  hundred  acres 
chiefly  of  prime  land.  This  gift  to  the  Hospital  was  the 
outcome  of  a  domestic  romance,  in  which  the  female  element, 
of  course,  prevails.  Mr.  Gyles  Martyn  had  acquired  this 
estate  a  few  years  before  from  one  John  Upton,  who  held 
under  patent  from  the  Crown,  and  thus  becoming  a  landed 
proprietor,  was  anxious  to  transmit  it  to  his  heirs.  But  Mrs. 
Martyn  was  childless.  She  had  a  sister,  however,  who  was 
not  so,  and  when  the  next  confinement  was  expected,  Mrs. 
Mart5m,  in  league  with  her,  feigned  pregnancy,  and  in  due 
tim.e,  presented  her  sister's  babe  to  her  husband,  Gyles,  as 
his  veritable  son  and  heir,  to  the  supposed  father's  delight. 5 
And  thus  Nodstown  would  have  gone  to  this  child,  but  that 
the  lady  conspirators  quarrelled,  and  the  angry  sister  dis- 
closed the  truth  to  Martyn.  In  rage  and  disgust,  he  went  to 
his  law3'ers,  and  thereupon  executed  a  deed,  granting  the 
whole  estate,  in  trust,  for  King's  Hospital.  Mrs.  Gyles 
Martyn  sliortl}^  after  died,  childless,  and  the  widower  marry- 
ing again,  had  a  numerous  family,  some  of  whom  vainly 
endeavoured  to  recover  the  estate.  The  grant  to  the 
Hospital  reserved  to  the  Martyn  family  the  nomination  of 
six  boys  to  the  school  perpetually.  Martyn's  son,  many 
years  after,  petitioned  the  Corporation  for  some  redress,  as 
the  family  had  sunk  into  poverty  in  the  revolutionary 
troubles  of  James  II.  The  rents  of  Nodstown  were  then 
small,  but  the  Corppration  voted  him  an  annuity  of  twenty 
pounds  a'  year,  and  after  his  death,  on  a  petition  of  his 
mother,  Gjdes  Martyn's  widow,  in  1702,  asking  a  grant  in 
lieu  of  the  nomination  of  boys,  the  Assembly  granted  her 
thirty  pounds  on  those  conditions  ;  but  it  is  satisfactory  to 
find  that  nominations  by  the  Martyn  family  were  always 
honoured  afterwards,  so  long  as  they  were  sought  for.  The 
action  taken  by  the  city,  in  this  Martyn  case,  was  b}/  the 

^  Whitcl?.w's  History  of  Dublin  by  Walsh,  Vol.  I.,   573. 


Corporatii-n  it<'  IT.  ;iii(l  imt  by  the  Governors,  and  illustrates   -i-. 
the  imioii_bul\VL'rii  ^^clwul  and  city  in  this  period. 

Through  all  tin-  «  Imh-  ^  and  chances  of  Irish  land  tenure, 
Nodstown  has  remained  with  us,  its  presentjrental  is  over 
/400  a  year.  The  rise  and  fall  of  its  rents  and  land  value  in 
alMtusTime  has  reflected  the  varying  economic  and  political 
conditions  of  the  country,  and  the  estate  has  afforded  strik- 
ing examples  of  the  mismanagement  to  which  lands  are  often 
exposed  when  the  owners  are  corporate  bodies,  obliged  to 
depend  entirely  on  their  agents,  and  living  at  a  long  distance  ^ 
for,  till  the  railway  times,  it  was  as  far  a  cry  from  Dublin  to 
Cashel,  as  now  from  Dublin  to  Canada.  The  acreage  under  the 
crown  patent  was  888.  Of  these  two-thirds  were  superior  land, 
the  residue  adjoining  the  Suir  was  swampy  and  then  unproiit- 
able.  When  granted  to  the  Hospital  it  was  under  a  long  lease 
to  one,  Leary,  at  a  rent  of  less  than  £100.  In  1724  this  lease 
was  renewed  by  the  governors,  the  acreage  stated  been  607 
only  ;  the  figures  are  over  an  erasure,  and  the  map  to  which 
it  refers,  has  been  abstracted,  so  that  it  is  hard  to  escape 
suspicion  of  some  foul  play,  though,  perhaps,  the  tenant 
may  have  insisted  on  excluding  the  unprofitable  acres  ;  that 
would  not,  however,  have  conferred  those  acres  on  him,  and 
a  nearly  contemporaneous  entry  gives  the  contents  as  703. 
This  confusion  \vas  made  the  subject  of  adverse  comment 
before  the  Commission  on  Educational  Endowments  in 
1856,  when  Mr.  Mallet,  then  an  eminent  citizen  and  active 
governor,  indignantly  complained  of  the  neglect  by  which  a 
large  part  of  that  valuable  estate  had  been  lost.  He  de- 
scribed his  personal  visit  to  Nodstown,  where  he  found  a 
deep  trench  severing  the  river  side  portion  from  the  rent 
paving  land.  This  portion  had  then  been  reclaimed,  and 
was  in  the  ownership  of  the  brilliant  Irish  j)arliamentary 
orator,  Richard  Lalor  Shell,  and  the  title  under  the  Statute 
of  Limitations  could  not  be  assailed  ;  though  had  steps  been 
taken  in  due  time,  the  tenant  could  have  been  debarred  from 
any  claim  founded  on  encroachment  on  the  adjoining  waste 
lands  of  his  landlord.  We  have  not,  however,  great  reason 
to  lament,  for  as  shewn  in  a  subsequent  page,  this  estate 


86        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

became    immensely    enhanced    in    the    latter   years    of   the 
eighteenth  centmy. 

The  old  Duke  of  Ormonde  had,  in  1677,  been  reinstated 
as  Lord  Lieutenant.  He  was  to  the  end  the  constairtlriend 
of  the  Hospital.  For  seven  successive  years  he  had  con- 
tributed/loo  towards  its  maintenance.  In  1676,  whilst  he 
was  still  in  London,  Sir  John  Temple,  then  Solicitor-General 
in  Ireland,  wrote  to  the  Lord  Mayor,  his  old  protege,  William 
Smith,  that  at  the  instance  of  the  Duke,  His_Majesty  the 
King,  had  consented  to  provide  a  yearly  endowment  for  the 
School,  to  which.  Smith  replying  with  the  grateful  thanks  of 
the  Corporation,  asks  His  Excellency  to  secure  that  the 
grant  may  be  placed  on  the  Civil  List.''  That,  however,  was 
overcharged  by  the  poor  King  now,  and  it  was  nearl^^^tw© 
years  after  that  Ormonde  obtained  in  the  Privy  Council  the 
foitowing  Order,  which  places  the  Hospital  in  relation  to  the 
Church  and  State,  on  the  level  of  the  great  cathedral  which 
Sir  Christopher  Wren  was  then  erecting,  and  which  has 
proved  a  large  source  of  revenue  for  some  generations  ;  it  is 
here  set  out  in  full  7  : — 

By  the  Lord  Lieutenant  and  Councell. 

Ormonde.  Whereas,  we,  the  Lord  Lieutenant,  are  given 
to  understand  that  his  Majestie,  taking  notice  of  the  great 
expenses  the  Bishops  of  England  are  now  usually  at  in 
making  of  Feasts  at  their  Consecrations,  did  think  fitt  that  the 
making  thereof  for  the  future  should  be  forborne,  and  that 
the  Bishops  at  their  Consecrations,  should,  in  lieu  thereof 
respectively  pay  fifty  pounds  towards  the  building  of  the 
Cathedral  Church  of  St.  Paul.  And,  whereas,  it  is  observed 
that  the  Archbishop  and  Bishops  in  this  kingdome,  doe, 
usually  upon  their  respective  Consecrations,  make  great 
Feasts.  Now,  we,  the  Lord  Lieutenant  and  Councell  in 
imitation  of  what  is  done  in  England,  as  aforesd.,  do  think 
fitt  hereby  to  recommend  it  to  such  Archbishops  and  Bishops 
as  hereafter  shall  be  consecrated,  that  they  forbear  putting 
themselves  to  any  expense  for  a  Feast  upon  their  Consecra- 
tions, but  that,  in  lieu  thereof,  they  will  pay  to  the  governors 
of  the  King's  Hospital,  lately  built,  near  the  Citty  of  Dublin, 

8  Minute  Book,  p.  76.  '''  Minute  Book  of  King's  Hospital 


the  sum  of  thirty  pounds  for  the  use  of  the  said  Hospitall 
which  we  look  upon  to  be  a  most  commendable  act  and  less 
chargeable  to  the  said  Archbishops  and  Bishops  than  the 
ffeasts.  Given  at  the  Councell  Chamber,  Dublin,  the  7th 
day  of  March,  1678-9. 

Mich.,  Armagh,  John,  Dubhn,  Arran,  Hen.  Midensis,  ■ 
Robt.  Fitzgerald,  Carey  Dillon,  Chas.  Meredyth,  Jno.  , 
Bysse,  Jo.  Davys,  01.  St.  George,  Jo.  Cole,  Richd.  / 
Gething,  Theo.  Jones,  Wm.  Fflower. 

We  had  good  friends  on  the  Council  who  gave  this  boon, 
the  Primate  Boyle,  Lord  Chancellor,  already  a  benefactor, 
John,  Dublin,  is  Dr.  John  Parker,  just  appointed  Arch- 
bishop, in  his  stead  ;i  Ix  infactor  too,  Earl  of  Arran,  is 
Richard,  brother  of  Ossory,  and  who  was  now  Lord  Deputy 
in  his  father,  Ormonde's,  absence  shortly  after.  Chief  Baron 
Bysse  was  one  of  our  founders,  Davys  was  Secretary  of  State, 
a  brother  of  our  Recorder,  now  Chief  Justice  ;  Sir  Charles 
Meredyth  had  negociated  the  affair  at  Whitehall,  Carey 
Dillon  was  uncle  of  the  poet,  Lord  Roscommon,  whom  he 
succeeded  as  fifth  Earl,  and  was  our  neighbour  in  Oxman- 

This  Order  had  no  actual  legal  sanction,  but  the  word  of 
the  Privy  Council  was  law  in  those  days,  and  the  practical 
sanctiorrwas'"that  all  future  bishops  were  appointed  by  the 
crown  on  the  faith  of  it.  Though  the  aggregate  of  the  pay- 
ments made  under  it  is  very  large  as  the  then  great  number 
of  bishoprics  led  to  continuous  promotions  and  vacancies, 
many  bishops  from  time  to  time  without  daring  to  repudiate 
the  obligation,  kept  the  governors  dunning  them  for  years, 
and  once  or  twice  compelled  them  to  apply  to  Government 
for  a  renewal  of  the  ordinance,  but  the  majority  paid  with 
alacrity.  The  second  sum  ever  paid  was  by  our  friend  Dr. 
Wettenhall  on  his  consecration  to  the  See  of  Cork. 

In  1677  the  governors  obtained  under  the  will  of  Mr. 
Ratcliff,  the  lay  impropriator  of  the  tithes  of  Mullingar,  the 
valuable  gift  of  the  rectorial  tithes  in  fee  simple,  our  entry 
states  they  were  estimated  at  ;irioo  per  annum.  Through 
all  the  changes  in  Church  Law  since,  this  gift  has  remained 


to  us,  in  part,  at  least,  to  the  present,  for  the  rights  of  the 
lay  tithe  owners  were  preserved  by  the  Disestablishment 
Act  of  1869.  The  usage  then  was  to  farm  out  the  tithes 
for  terms  of  years  at  rents  to  lessees  who  collected  the  tithes 
from  the  land  occupiers,  and  our  records  for  a  century  and 
half  are  replete  with  entries  showing  how  those  rents  varied 
with  the  conditions  of  the  country  from  time  to  time.  The 
lay  impropriators  held  under  the  same  obligation  to  the 
parishes  which  had  bound  the  ecclesiastical  bodies  and 
monasteries  who  had  first  appropriated  the  parochial  tithes 
before  Henry  VIII.  captured  and  distributed  them  at 
pleasure  to  laymen.  The  obligation  was  original^  to  provide 
for  the  cure  of  souls,  but  this  was  often  compounded  for  by 
a  fixed  sum  or  modus  to  maintain  the  fabric  of  the  chancel 
of  the  Church.  This  later  charge  was  imposed  on  our 
governors  frequently.  In  1682  the  Board  have  a  missive 
from  Arthur,  second  Viscount  Granard,  stating  that  the 
chancel  of  Mullingar  is  ^'ery  much  out  of  repair,  and  asking 
them  to  arrange  with  his  father-in-law,  Sir  George  Rawdon. 
Accordingly,  the  Lord  Mayor,  Sir  Humphrey  Jervis,  there- 
upon agreed  with  Sir  George  that  £20  in  full  should  be  paid 
over  to  the  Bishop  of  Meath  to  cover  the  repairs.  This  Lord 
Granard  was  a  distinguished  soldier,  he  commanded  the  i8th 
Old  Royal  Irish,  and  served  under  Turenne,  but  proving  a 
Jacobite,  was  dismissed  by  William  III.  Sir  George  Rawdon 
was  ancestor  of  the  Earl  of  Moira  and  Marquises  of  Hastings. 
The  Bishop  of  ]\Ieath  was  the  famous  xAnthon}^  Dopping  who 
became  an  historical  personage  afterwards. 

The  division  of  functions  of  Chaplain  and  Master  broke 

down,  and  in  the  end  of  1680  Mr.  Prytherck's  chaplaincy 

ceased.      The  Rev.  Benjamin  Colquitt  was  appointed  under 

a  very  strict  order,  which  is  noticeable  as  showing  the  purely 

I  denominational  character  of  the  foundation,   and  because 

I  its  enforcement  often  caused  trouble,  notably  when  Dean 

I  Swift  compelled  its  observance  in  1731.    The  chaplain  and 

1  headmaster  is  carefully  to  instruct  the  boys  in  English  and 

I  Latin,  and  every  morning  read  Divine  Service  at  10  o'clock, 

and  at  4  o'clock  in  summer,  and  5  o'clock  in  winter  in  the 


Hospital  Chapel  ;  he  shall  caiefully  instruct  them  in  the 
catechism  of  the  Church  of  England,  and  examine  them 
publicly  thereon  every  Sunday  after  evening  prayer,  also  in 
the  chapel,  and  shall  preach  in  the  chapel  at  least  once  each 
month,  he  shall  constantly  reside  in  the  Hospital  and  bring 
therein  neither  wife  or  child,  but  may  choose  one  or  two  of  the 
children  to  attend  him  in  his  chamber.  For  this  his^salary 
is  £40  a  year  with  full  maintenance,  and  he  is  to  have  James 
Mead  as  his  usher  in  teaching. 8 

It  is  curious  to  find  Latin  in  the  curriculum  of  such  a 
School,  but  the  old  Free  School  had  trained  great  scholars. 
The  governors  had,  however,  early  and  wisely  resolved  that 
none  be  put  to  learn  the  Latin  tongue  "  but  such  pregnant 
youths  as  they  shall  from  time  to  time  approve,  and  not 
before  they  can  first  write  and  cast  accounts  very  well. 
Luke  Lowther  was  Lord  Mayor  and  our  chairman  when  this 
order  passed.  He  seems  to  have  been  a  disciplinarian,  for 
at  the  time,  he  ordered  that  one  alderman  and  a  sheriff's 
peer  should  attend  him  every  week  to  see  that  the  children 
had  a  due  proportion  of  victuals,  and  to  inspect  the  steward's 
account's  ;  and  he  issued  a  curfew  order  for  locking  all 
gates  and  wickets  at  given  hours,  eight,  nine  and  ten 
o'clock,  according  to  the  time  of  year,  the  steward  to  keep 
the  keys  all  night,  and  bells  to  ring  a  quarter  before  each, 
curfew  hour.  And  Sir  Humphrey  Jervis,  his  successor, 
followed  his  steps  with  an  ordei  which  illumines  the  then 
state  of  discipline,  "  that  Mrs.  Hollins  and  Mrs.  Draper, 
widows,  with  their  children  and  servants,  and  all  belonging 
to  them,  do  depart  the  house,  and  that  such  of  the  Nurses  and 
other  the  servants  that  are  married,  be  forthwith  removed, 
and  no  servant  for  the  future  be  entertained  but  who  are 
single,  and  that  this  house  be  not  encumbered  with  any  that 
shall  not  be  useful  and  serviceable  to  it,  and  that  all  such  in 
the  Hospital  as  have  a  key  for  the  street  door  do  bring  in 
said  key  to  my  Lord  Mayor,  and  no  one  else  to  have  one  save 
porter  all  day,  and  steward  at  night. 

8  Minute  Book,  p    go,   20  March,    1681,  21   February,    1686. 


go        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Essex  Bridge. 

Jervis  was  chairman  for  two  years,  being  chosen  Lord 
Mayor  for  1682  and  1683  an  original  founding  governor, 
he  so  remained  for  thiity-six  years,  to  his  death  in  Queen 
Anne's  reign.  A  large  ship-owner  and  merchant,  he 
amassed  a  fortune,  and  founded  a  family.  Though  one 
of  the  chief  city  magnates,  he  was  for  years  embroiled 
with  his  colleagues,  but  he  was  one  of  the  makers 
of  Dublin,  and  this  with  his  high  services  on  our  Board, 
may  excuse  the  following  esipode,  especially  as  it  has 
not  been,  we  believe,  told  in  detail  before.  He  was  Pontifex 
Maxinms  here,  for  after  the  centuries  in  which  the  Liffey 
was  crossed  by  a  single  bridge,  he  built  two,  Essex  or  Grattan, 
and  Ormonde,  now  known  as  the  Four  Courts  bridge,  by 
which  alone  the  city  was  able  to  spread  over  the  prairies  of 
Mary's  Abbey  and  wastes  of  Oxmantown.  Keen  as  was  the 
need,  these  bridges  were  no  project  of  the  civic  authorities, 
erected  rather  in  spite  of  their  fierce  opposition,  for  they 
were  mainly  interested  in  the  house  property  within  the  walls 
now  enhanced  by  the  very  need  of  expansion,  and  they  eyed 
with  sore  jealousy  the  opening  of  the  north  side.  The  quairel 
lasted  twenty  years  aftei  the  bridges  were  up,  in  the  course 
of  which  Jervis  was  imprisoned,  and,  if  he  is  to  be 
believed,  half  ruined,  with  the  martyrdom  which  often  befalls 
reformers.  The  story  has  some  comic  features,  for  it  would 
seem  that  though  he  posed  as  a  philanthropist,  J ervis's  motives 
were  quite  as  personal  as  those  of  the  monopolists  he  opposed, 
and  it  throws  humourous  light  and  shade  on  the  doings  of 
those  days.  The  merits  are  somewhat  obscure  as  the  records 
of  the  Privy  Council  were  lost  by  the  fire  in  the  Bermingham 
Tower  in  171 1,  but  they  may  be  fairly  judged  by  a  com- 
parison of  the  Case  presented  to  the  Irish  Commons  in  1695, 
with  the  Answer  of  the  city  and  the  decision  of  the  house. 

Sir  Humphrey  petitioned  Parliament  in  August,  1695, 
setting  forth  his  doings  and  praying  pecuniary  relief.  The 
claim  was  afterwards  embodied  in  his  "  Case,"  which  tells 
how,  in  1675,  Lord  Lieutenant  Essex  made  order  for  build- 


ing  Essex  Bridge,  and  assigned  a  fund  for  same,  appointing 
five  overseers,  of  whom  Sir  Humphrey  was  one,  all  of  whom, 
save  he,  began  to  make  excuses,  whereupon  His  Excellency 
"  Deeming  the  work  necessary  for  the  Public  Government," 
persuaded  him  to  assume  the  duty  alone,  and  encouraged 
him  with  a  donation  of  £100,  promising  to  fmd  money  for 
the  completion. 

Lord  Essex  is  thus  the  founder  and  true  eponymus  of 
the  bridge.  Henry  Grattan  and  the  Grattan's  had  never 
anytliing  to  do  with  it. 

He  proceeded,  he  tells,  with  all  imaginable  diligence,  but 
Lord  Essex  unhappily  went  away  before  the  work  was 
half  done.  Ormonde  came  back  in  1677,  and  Sir  Humphrey 
petitioned  his  Grace  in  Council  for  means  to  complete.  He 
had,  he  says,  only  a  verbal  reply  that  there  was  little  money 
in  the  Treasury,  but  if  he  proceeded,  he  would  be  honourably 
dealt  with.  On  completing  the  bridge  in  1678,  his  accounts 
were  passed  in  the  Privy  Council,  who  reported  his  expenses 
in  excess  of  his  receipts  as  £1,407,  which  he  had  had  to 
borrow,  paying  interest  ever  since  ,  he  repeatedly  asksd  pay- 
ment from  Government,  but  never  could  get  any  satisfactory 

He  tells  how,  at  this  time,  the  north  bank  was  laid  out 
in  lots  for  projected  streets,  and  that  the  Duke  learning  that 
the  plans  showed  the  reres  of  the  houses  and  warehouses 
facing  the  river  without  any  quay,  the  Council  appointed 
Sir  John  Cole,  Sir  George  Rawdon,  and  Sir  Oliver  St.  George, 
baronets,  to  persuade  him,  Sir  Humphrey,  to  front  the 
houses  to  the  river,  "  with  a  quay  for  the  greater  beauty  and 
ornament  of  the  city  ";  this,  he  told  them,  would  cost  him 
£1,000,  but  he  would  comply  if  recommended  to  the  King 
for  his  balance.  So  he  made  the  embankment  which  was 
named  Ormonde  Quay  from  the  Duke,  with  the  Market 
behind  similar^  named.  Still  he  could  get  no  satisfaction, 
though  the  convenience  of  the  bridge,  he  says,  is  worth  ten 
■"times  the  cost. 

But  his  foes  were  not  content  with  his  being  unpaid. 
The  bridge  had  been  formed  with  a  drawbridge  to  allow  the 

92        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

crafts  to  pass  to  and  from  the  existing  Wood  and  Merchant 
Quays,  with  two  houses  on  the  north  bank  foi  the  keepers. 

In  1684  the  city  magistrates,  he  says,  egged  on  the 
masters  of  ships  and  gabbards  to  Petition  the  Privy  Council 
against  him  foi  not  having  men,  night  and  day,  to  raise  the 
drawbridge,  and  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Corporation  appeared 
to  support  the  charge.  His  plea  was  that  he  had  built  the 
two  houses  on  his  own  land,  and  for  seven  years  had  given 
them  rent  free  to  the  bridge  keepers,  but  when  unable  to 
obtain  his  balance,  he  thought  himself  entitled  to  take  these 
houses  to  his  own  use.  As,  however,  he  had  charged  the 
cost  of  these  to  the  bridge  account,  the  Duke  and  Council, 
were,  he  says,  "  exasperated  to  that  degree,''  that  they 
ordered  him  forthwith  to  make  over  the  houses  by  deed  to 
the  city.  He  offered  to  do  this  on  condition  that  the  draw- 
bridge was  changed  to  an  arch,  and  that  the  houses  should  be 
restored  to  him,  but  the  Council  peremptorily  ordered  him 
to  assign  within  forty  days.  His  lawyer  told  him  the  decree 
was  illegal  (probably  it  was),  so  he  petitioned  the  Council, 
assisted  in  this,  he  says,  by  Sir  John  Temple,  the  Master  of  the 
Rolls,  this  petition  was  rejected,  and  he  was  summoned 

The  Duke  was  now  in  England,  and  Boyle,  now  Lord 
Primate  and  also  Lord  Chancellor,  sat  at  the  hearing  as  Lord 
Justice,  there  was  no  prosecutor,  but  the  despotic  prelate 
bid  him  obey  the  former  decree  or  answer  at  his  peril.  Then 
by  the  advice  of  counsel,  he  petitioned  again,  pra\'ing  that 
the  city  should  be  left  to  prove  their  rights  in  a  court  of  law, 
but,  if  we  can  believe  him,  the  spirit  of  the  Star  Chamber 
was  not  yet  dead.  The  new  petition  was  held  a  contempt, 
and  on  23  December,  1685,  the  pursuivant  arrested  him  in 
bed,  and  lodged  him  in  prison,  and  the  primate  refused  him 
leave  even  to  go  to  church  on  Christmas  Day. 

The  results,  he  says,  were  disastrous.  His  city  foes 
spread  reports  that  he  was  broke  ;  his  credit  was  destroyed. 
He  was  a  large  owner  of  ships.  One,  the  "  Dubhn,  was  then 
chartered  for  Lisbon  to  Bartholomew  Van  Homrigli 
(Vanessa's  father).    On  the  rumour  of  his  ruin,  John  Hayes, 


the  captain,  absconded  with  the  "  Dubhn  "  and  her  freight, 
with  a  total  loss  to  Jervis  of  £2,200.  Following  suit,  his 
factor  in  the  "Virginias,"  ran  away  with  /i,6oo  worth  of 
tobacco.  Then,  Thomas  Stretton,  master  of  the  "  Catherine," 
ran  away  with  her  and  a  cargo  of  iron  worth  ;^5oo,  whilst 
Stephen  Simmons, her  master,  similarly  abducted  the  "  Mary," 
value  ;^6oo  ;  and  his  goods  in  places  abroad,  were  seized  by 
his  creditors.  Then  losses  like  Antonio's  in  the  Merchant 
of  Venice  "  enough  to  press  a  royal  merchant  down,"  reached 
£7,000,  a  terrible  disaster  in  those  days. 

Of  Ormonde  Bridge,  the  "  Case  ''  states,  that  the  city 
grand  jury  presented  a  timber  bridge  from  the  upper  end  of 
Wood  Qua}',  at  Winetavern  Street,  to  the  upper  end  of  the 
Pill,  and  assessed  £400  on  the  city  for  this.  Owing  to  the 
opposition,  however,  this  assessment  was  respited,  but  Sir 
Humphrey  persevered  and  built  the  bridge  at  his  own  ex- 
pense of  over  /500.  The  enemy  then  thrice  presented  the 
bridge  as  a  nuisance  in  the  King  s  Bench,  and  would  have 
pulled  it  down  if  the  judges  had  not  vacated  the  presentments. 
Then  they  combined  not  to  pay  the  assessment,  of  which 
£20  only  was  ever  raised.  Sir  Humphrey  bluntly  attributes 
this  combination  to  Sir  John  Davis,  then  Secretary  of  State, 
whom  he  roundly  charges  with  influencing  his  brotlier.  Sir 
William,  now  Cliief  Justice,  to  refuse  him  j  ustice  on  his  appeal 
to  the  King's  Bench.  The  motive  assigned  gives  delightf'il 
point  to  the  charge  of  corruption.  Sir  John,  he  says,  joined  the 
opposition,  not  because  he  w^as  averse  to  the  connection  of 
south  and  north,  but  because  he  was  himself  negotiating  to 
buy  the  new  Ormonde  Market,  whiclr  he  would  get  much 
cheaper  in  the  agitation,  and  this  was  seen  afterwards,  for 
when  Sir  John's  purchase  was  completed,  he  procured  a  new 
presentment  in  his  brother's  court  for  a  stone  bridge  in  lieu 
of  the  timber,  with  power  to  appropriate  Sir  Humphiey's 
displaced  materials,  and  this  was  hated  by  the  court.  This 
charge,  ho\^ever,  needs  higher  proof  than  Jervis's  asser- 

Sir  Humphrej^'s  "  petition  "  came  before  a  Committee 
of  the  Whole  House  of  Commons  in  October,  1695,     Their 

94        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

report  was  adopted,  finding  £1,407  partly  due  to  Jervis  for 
Essex,  and  £380  for  Ormonde  Bridge,  and,  allowing  him  ten 
year's  interest,  declared  him  entitled  to  £3,434  in  all,  to  be 
raised  by  a  tax  of  one  shilling  per  ton  on  all  coal  entering 
Dublin,  and  they  ordered  the  heads  of  a  bill  to  be  drawn 
accordingh'  for  approval  of  the  Privy  Council  in  England. 

But  this  bill,  transmitted  to  London  under  Poyning's 
Law,  was  rejected  by  the  Council,  on  the  ground  that  it 
proposed  to  put  a  duty  on  the  products  of  England."  Nothing 
is  said  of  its  imposing  a  duty  on  the  consumers  in  Ireland. 
The  proposal  was,  curiously,  exactly  that  adopted  by  Sir 
M.  Beach,  when  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  as  one  of  the 
aids  for  the  South  African  War.  The  result,  perhaps,  shows 
that  the  veto  under  Poynings  Act,  was  sometimes  salutary. 

So  Sir  Humiphrey  came  to  Parliament  again  in  1697, 
and  a  Special  Committee  reported  in  August  that  £3,434 
was  justly  due,  and  that  it  was  highly  just  and  reasonable 
to  take  speedy  steps  for  payment.  But  the  city  was  now 
in  arms  :  they  claimed  to  be  heard  by  counsel  concerning 
Jervis's  demand  of  a  tax  for  building  the  bridges.  This  was 
conceded.  His  case  was  answered  by  "  the  Case  of  the  city 
of  Dublin,"  caustic  and  pungent  with  humour,  conscious  or 
not.  It  exposes  the  springs  of  Sir  Humphrey's  patriotism 
showing  how,  before  the  bridges  were  built,  the  sites  of 
Ormond  Quay  and  the  New  Market  were  wastes,  the  passage 
of  the  river  being  by  ferries,  yielding  large  rents  to  the  city, 
when  Sir  Humphrey,  with  his  partners,  bought  twent}'  acres 
of  the  wastes  and  laid  them,  out  in  twent3/-eight  building 
lots,  which,  without  bridges,  tliey  could  turn  to  no  account  ; 
he  tlicn,  say  the  city  opponents,  set  himself,  first  to  get 
the  leave  of  the  city,  and  then  to  provide  a  fund.  This  was  a 
difficult  matter  for  the  river  belonged  to  the  city,  and  as 
the  case  naively  adds,  "  the  improvement  of  tlie  north  side 
would  certainly,  in  a  great  measure,  ruin  the  old  city,  whose 
inhabitants  were  always  on  their  guard  to  discountenance 
and  prevent  it."  The  Grand  Jury,  indeed,  presented  for  a 
bridge,  but  this,  the  city  says,  was  because  Alderman  Peter 

^  See  Journal  of  House  of  Commons.  i 


Wybrants,  the  foreman  of  the  jury,  lived  on  the  north  side 
of  the  water.  The  next  thing  was  to  get  the  money,  so  first 
Jervis  accosts  his  partners  but  they  would  only  subscribe 
£250  or  /lo  per  lot  ;  so  he  then  approaches  the  Lord  Lieu- 
tenant, telling  him  his  undertaking  would  be  very  splendid, 
that  the  bridge  would  be  called  Essex  Bridge  with  the  Earl's 
arms  set  up  there,  and  the  street  beyond,  a  large  noble  one, 
called  Capel  Street,  which  should  perpetuate  his  memory. 
On  this  the  Earl  gave  him  a  £100.  Like  compliments  he 
used  with  the  Ormonde  family,  calling  the  em.bankment 
Ormonde  Quay.  He  now,  they  say,  thought  himself  strong 
enough  to  practice  with  the  city  of  which  he  was  a  sworn 

The  Government  shortly  before  had  granted  the  city 
the  customs  of  the  city  gates,  reserving,  however,  the  income 
for  the  first  seven  years.  The  greater  part  of  these  he  induced 
Lord  Essex  to  assign  him  for  the  bridge  fund,  whicli,  in 
seven  years,  should  be  worth  ^^2,000,  enough  to  build  the 
bridge.  Impeaching  his  accounts,  the  case  tells,  how,  in 
1690,  Sir  Humphrey  was  committed  by  the  Lords  Justices 
for  receiving  money  from  papists,  for  certifying  they  had 
taken  the  Oath  of  Allegiance,  which  they  had,  in  fact,  re- 
fused to  take.  Thrice  indicted  for  this  in  the  King's  Bench, 
he  was  fined  on  his  submission,  £200  ;  in  view  of  the  balance 
still  due  him  the  fine  was  remitted,  and  the  city  therefore 
say  it  is  just  and  reasonable  that  this  /200  should  be  deducted 
from  his  balance.  And  as  to  his  two  bridge  houses  his  claim 
should  be  reduced,  for  he  had  charged  them  in  the  bridge 
accounts,  yet  retained  them  still  for  himself. 

"  To  move  your  compassion,"  the  city  case  goes  on, 
"  Sir  Humphrey  tells  3^ou  a  long  (but  not  a  true)  story  about 
his  being  imprisoned  by  the  Lord  Primate  for  petitioning 
that  the  city  should  be  left  to  the  law.  as  to  its  title  to  the 
houses,  and  how  he  was  taken  and  kept  close  prisoner  on 
Christmas  Day,  and  how  his  confinement  ruined  his  credit, 
and  made  five  masters  of  his  ships  run  away  with  them,  and 
several  other  terrible  things  happened  him  ;  but  had  he 
justly  told  his  case,  it  would  have  appeared,  he  was  justly 

96        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

committed  for  preparing  a  petition  in  which  were  several 
expressions  reflecting  on  the  Government ;  that  he  was  in  the 
pursuivant's  hands  only  from  the  24th  to  28th  December,  and 
then,  on  his  asking  pardon,  was  discharged,  "  his  confine- 
ment being  only  during  the  holidays  when  no  exchange  was 
open  or  business  done,  so  that  part  of  his  case  is  rather  a 
libel  on  the  Lord  Primate  and  the  Council  than  anything 

As  to  Ormonde  Bridge,  the  city  urges  that  this  project, 
too,  was  for  Sir  Humphrey  or  his  partners'  own  private  ad- 
vantage, the  presentment  being  obtained  during  his 
mayoralty  against  the  consent  of  the  city,  as  proved  by  their 
presenting  it  as  a  nuisance.  They  charge  him  with  procur- 
ing his  second  year  of  office,  and  using  his  power  to  drive 
the  markets  from  the  old  city  mto  his  new  grounds,  im- 
prisoning many  for  continuing  the  antient  markets  until  he 
had  ruined  these. 

The  city  case  concludes  by  suggesting  that  if  Sir  Humphrey 
is  to  be  re-imbursed  it  should  not  be  at  the  cost  of  the  city 
which  had  lost  its  ferries,  its  markets,  and  half  its  rents 
whereon  the  wastes  across  river  now  yielded  a  hundredfold. 
"  Hard,"  they  say,  "  it  would  be  to  cause  several  bridges  to 
be  built  over  the  Thames,  and  then  to  order  the  charges  to 
be  paid  by  the  watermen  of  London.  If  Sir  Humphrey  is  to 
have  this  money  that  he  cannot  tell  who  owes  him,  we  hope 
it  may  be  laid  on  those  that  reaped  the  benefit.  For  his  deal- 
ing with  the  papists  about  the  Oath  of  Allegiance  and  his 
false  suggestions  and  reflections  about  his  confinement,  he 
ought  to  be  no  object  of  compassion,  and  otherwise  he  has 
no  pretence." 

Jervis  lodged  a  reply.  Admitting  the  north  bank  was 
waste,  he  and  his  partners  had  paid  £3,000  for  this  part  of  the 
abbey  lands,  purchased  from  the  Earl  of  Tyrone,  but  as  the 
sea  overflowed  a  great  portion,  it  cost  several  thousands  to 
wall  in  the  strand  and  embank  it  with  earth  before  an}-  house 
could  be  built.  Further  their  purchase  was  after  Lord 
Essex's  promise  to  provide  a  fund,  and  the  Earl,  persuaded 
of  its  utility,  had  recommended  Ormonde,  his  successor,  to 


procure  money  from  London  to  finish.  He  concedes  the 
hostihty  of  the  city,  adding  dryly  "  lest  their  rents  for  lodging 
for  gentlemen  when  they  came  from  town  should  fail."  As 
to  the  customs  of  the  city  gates,  he  was  obliged  to  lease  them 
out  and  then  raise  capital  on  the  rents,  so  that  they  yielded 
him  only  £900  in  all. 

His  defence  as  to  the  Catholic  oaths  has  historic  interest, 
emphasised  by  controv^ersies  of  the  present  day.  The  oath, 
as  he  actually  administered  it,  ran  "  you  shall  swear  that 
from  this  day  forward  you  shall  be  true  and  faithful  to 
our  Sovereign  Lord  and  Lady,  King  William,  and  Queen 
]Mary,  their  heirs  and  lawful  successors,  and  faith  shall  bear 
of  lite,  and  members,  and  honour,  and  shall  neither  know 
nor  hear  of  any  ill  will  or  damage  intended  them  that  you 
shall  not  defend,  so  help  your  God."  The  oath  as  it  was  said 
he  should  have  administered,  it  was  :  "I  do  sincerely  pro- 
promise  and  swear  that  I  will  be  faithful  and  true  allegiance 
bear  to  their  Majesties,  King  William  and  Queen  Mary.  So 
help  me  God."  He  says  his  counsel  advised  that  this  oath, 
though  enacted  for  England,  was  not  made  obligatory  m 
Ireland  till  1691,  so  he  traversed  his  indictment,  but  after- 
wards.  To  save~charges,  as  he  says,  he  submitted  to  a  fine  of 
£200.  No  wonder  he  did  so  for  he  makes  the  fatal  admission 
that  he  was  aware  the  word  "  allegiance  "  was  not  in  the 
oath  as  taken  before  him,  but  that  many  others  so  ad- 
ministered it.  As  to  this  latter  fact,  he  calmly  adds  : 
"  the  papists  were  not  aware  of  this,  but  thought  he  had 
omitted  the  word  'allegiance'  in  favour  to  them,"  he 
says  nothing  as  to  the  charge  of  taking  money  for  the 

In  proof  of  his  loyalty  he  adds  a  paragraph  quite  refresh- 
ing in  its  unconsciousness  of  any  perfidy.  How  in  the  days 
of  King  James  and  Tyrconnell,  David  Stuart,  one  of  his 
mariners,  was  commissioned  by  the  King  to  carry  a  Captain 
Shuttleworth  to  a  gentleman  in  Wales,  as  he  had  previously 
taken  another  secret  emissary  to  Duke  Powis.  Stuart 
informed  Jervis  that  the  Castle  officials  had,  for  three  weeks, 
been  writing  commissions  for  Shuttleworth  to  raise  com- 


98         FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

motions  in  England,  and  that  he,  himself,  was  offered  £24 
to  take  Shuttleworth  across  channel.  Sir  Humphrey  says 
he  told  Stuart  he  was  in  danger  to  be  hanged  if  the  Govern- 
ment changed,  yet  advised  him  to  save  himself  by  accepting  the 
employment,  first  getting  his  -{24  in  hand,  to  leave  this  ivith  his 
wife,  but,  on  landing,  to  get  Shuttleivorth  arrested  and  his  papers 
seized.  Tliis  was  done.  Shuttleworth,  with  all  his  com- 
missions, was  carried  to  London,  and  many  men  of  note  were 
lodged  in  the  Tower  and  Newgate.  "  If,"  he  adds,  "  Stuart 
had  discovered,  Jervis  has  certainly  been  hanged."  That 
was  true  enough  when  Dick  Talbot  ruled.  Sir  Humphrey, 
however,  was  addressing  the  Williamite  Parliament. 

The  cause  was  heard  before  a  Committee  of  the  Whole 
House  on  six  several  days  in  September,  1697.^"  Their  report 
retreats  very  far  from  their  former  finding  of  -{3,434,  for 
they  now  found  £1,500  and  no  more  to  be  a  full  satisfaction 
and  discharge  for  all  Sir  H.  Jervis's  demands.  They  evidently 
considered  that  his  personal  interest  in  the  bridge  well 
compensated  his  loss  of  interest  on  outlay,  but  that  the 
promises  of  Lord  Essex  on  which  he  had  acted  made  it  fair 
to  repay  him  the  principal.  Yet  even  this  would  seem  never 
to  have  been  paid  him.  The  House  referred  it  to  a  Committee 
(they  were  very  alert  to  do  this)  to  provide  a  fund,  but  the 
journals  never  show  that  it  was  raised,  and  in  i6g8,  we  lind 
Sir  Humphrey  once  more  knocking  at  the  gates  of  Parliament. 
Perhaps  he  got  as  much  as  he  merited,  for  he  left  a  large 
.jfortune,  and  Jervis  Street  still  pierces  his  twenty  acres  from  the 
river  to  Great  Britain  Street,  where  his  descendents  are  still 
the  landlords  of  a  considerable  portion.  His  daughter,  and  sole 
heiress,  married  Mr.  White  of  Bally  Ellis,  and  is  ancestor  of 
the  present  baronet  family  of  Jervis- White.  Sir  Humphrey, 
himself,  came  from  a  Staffordshire  stock,  from  which 
descended  Sir  John  Jervis,  the  famed  Earl  of  St.  Vincent, 
who,  with  Nelson,  broke  the  Spanish  fleet  in  February,  1797. 

Our  Chairm.en  from  the  foundation    to    King  Charles's 
death,  were  the  Lord  Mayors — 1767-8  Mark  Ouin,  6S-9  John 

'"  Joiivnal  of  House  of  Commons. 


Forrest,  69-70  Lewis  Desmynieres,  70-1  Enoch  Reader, 
71-2  Sir  John  Tottie,  72-3  Robt.  Decy,  73-4  Sir  Jos.  Allen,  74-5 
Sir  Fran.  Brewster,  75-6  William  Smith,  76-7  Chris.  Lovett, 
77-8  John  Smith,  78-9  Peter  Ward,  79-80  John  Eastwood, 
80-1  Luke  Lowther,  81-2-3  Sir  H.  Jervis,  83-4  Elias  Best, 
84-5  Sir  Abel  Ranj.-  Under  these,  beside  the  enclosures  of 
the  (ireens  and  the  two  bridges,  the  evolution  of  Dublin 
went  on.  In  1882  the  vague  shore  between  Queen  Street 
and  the  Duke  of  Ormonde's  wall,  at  the  present  barracks 
was  granted  to  Mr.  Ellis,  on  the  terms  of  his  forming  the 
quay  which  still  bears  his  name,  with  a  road  behind  to  the 
Park,  then  another  road  in  the  line  of  Barrack  Street,  to  be 
planted  with  trees  for  a  citizens'  walk  alongside  tlie  line 
Bowling  Green,  lately  formed  to  the  north,  and  which  now 
is  merged  in  the  playground  of  our  present  schools  ;  it  then 
lay  west  of  the  original  school,  and  was  still  long  known  as 
the  Bowling  Green  after  it  had  become  ours  ;  all  this  was  a 
large  accession  to  our  vicinage.  Then  the  quay  was  formed 
from  the  Four  Courts  site,  the  Inns  by  the  new  bridge  with 
a  market  behind  ever  since  bearing  Ormonde's  name,  and 
far  eastward  the  slobs  along  the  North  Strand  were  allotted 
from  Mabbot's  Mills,  still  marked  by  Mabbot  Street.  South 
of  the  river,  the  Wood  Quay  was  extended  to  Essex  Bridge 
in  line  of  a  slushy  shore  called  the  Blind  Quay,  and  the  Dam 
and  point  at  Dames  Gate,  south  of  the  creek  were  covered. 
Behind  the  Green  and  the  Hoggen  ]\Iount  was  a  recreation 
ground  called  Tib  and  Tom,  which  w^as  now  pierced  with 
William  Street  by  Mr.  Williams,  under  treaty  wdth  the  city  ; 
and  wlicre  the  Theatre  Royal  now  stands,  Mr.  Hawkins, 
under  similar  treaty,  built  a  wall  to  protect  his  houses  on 
Lazie  Hill  (Townsend  Street),  but  still  leaving  the  tides  to 
flow  round  it  over  the  site  of  Westmoreland  Street  to  the 
strand  of  Fleet  vStreet.  And  all  this  time  the  old  city  towers 
were  disappearing,  first  let  to  private  persons  and  then  to  be 
trampled  in  the  march  of  reform.  Fair  Isoult's  Tower  by 
Essex  Street  went  down  in  1681." 

''  With  regard  to  the  question  asked  in  Chapter  I  ,  page  13,  as  to  Isoult 
and    the   Arthurian    Legend,    the    following  surmise    is    ventured  ; — The 

100       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Arthurian  Legend,  as  it  now  survives,  lives  in  the  Morte  D'Avthiiv  oi  Sir 
Thomas  "Malorv,  written  tempore  Edward  I\'.  Here  La  Belle  Iseult  is 
daughter  of  Anguish  (Angus)  King  of  Ireland,  who  claimed  to  take  "truag?  " 
or  toll  from  the  Cornish  King,  and  sent  his  brother-in-law,  Sir  Marhans,  to 
enforce  the  claim  by  knightly  battle  fiom  King  Mark  of  Cornwall.  Mark's 
nephew,  the  j'oung  Sir  Tristram  of  Lyonesse  (South  Cornwall),  as  his 
champion,  fought  Sir  Marhaus,  and  wounding  him  fatally,  Sir  Marhaus 
returned  to  Ireland  to  die  with  a  splinter  of  Tristram's  sword  in  his  skull. 
He  had  given  Tristram  a  wound  which  was  said  to  be  poisoned  and 
could  only  be  cured  in  the  country  whence  Sir  Marhaus  came.  So  Tristram, 
changing  his  name  to  Tramtrist,came  to  Ireland  to  the  Court  of  King  Anguish, 
was  cured,  won  favour,  fell  in  love  with  the  beautiful  Iseult,  and  she  with 
him.  Once  and  again  he  returned  to  Ireland,  and  took  awa}^  Iseult  to  be 
the  wife  of  his  uncle,  King  Mark,  but  they  never  forgot  their  first  loves  ; 
she  left  the  Court  with  Tristram  and  lived  with  him  in  Joycitse  Gai'd'\  whilst 
he  still  wrought  as  Knight  of  Arthur's  Round  Table,  second  in  glory  to  Sir 
Launcelot  only.  Now  Malory  tells  us  he  took  his  Morte  D'Arthitr  from 
the  tales  and  songs  of  the  French  Trouveres  or  Troubadours,  at  their  acme, 
in  the  times  of  the  Crusades,  whose  knights  came  from  all  Western  Europe  ; 
thus  the  Troubadours  drew  from  the  traditions  and  myths  of  many  ages 
and  many  lands,  and  copiously  from  the  bardic  relics  of  Wales,  Cornwall, 
and  Armorica,  or  Brittany,  colonised  by  the  Celtic  Britons,  driven  westward 
b}'  the  Saxons  and  called  Lesser  Britain  by  Malory.  In  the  sixth  century, 
and  after,  Wales  had  close  connexions  with  Ireland  through  St.  Bridget, 
and  St.  David,  who  is  said  by  Geoffry  of  Monmovxtli,  writing  in  the 
time  of  the  Crusades,  to  have  been  the  nephew  of  King  Arthur,  with 
Caerleon  on  Usk  as  his  first  See,  which  he  changed  to  Alenevia,  thence 
called  St.  David's,  by  St  Bride's,  or  Bridget's  Bay.  This  connection  was 
revived  at  the  Plantagenet  Conquest  by  Giraldus  Cambrensis  and  Strong- 
bow's  companions  of  South  Wales.  Following  these  was  Sir  Armoricus 
Tristram,  who,  with  his  brother-in-law,  De  Courcy,  captured  Howth  in 
1177,  and  became  its  lirst  Lord.  He,  with  De  Courcy,  was  knighted  at 
Rouen  tempore  Richard  Coeur  de  Lion,  and  he  took  the  name  St.  Lawrence. 
He  was  slain  with  his  thirty  knights  in  Connaught  by  O'Connor,  King  of 
Ireland,  and  his  sword  has  traditionally  hung  in  Howth  Castle  for  nearly 
six  centuries  and  a  half.  Is  he  not  Sir  Tristram  de  Lyonesse,  and  have  we 
not  here  the  germs  of  the  Romance  of  Tristram  and  Iseult,  which  forms  a 
full  fourth  of  the  Morte  FT  Arthur  :'  Is  the  sword  at  Howth  that  which 
was  shivered  in  the  skull  of  the  Irish  knight  ?  Armoricus  seems  to  point 
to  Armorica  and  Brittany.  I  can  find  no  suggestion  of  this  in  Dr.  Somner's 
exhaustive  "searches"  after  the  origin  of  the  Arthurian  epic,  but  it  is 
pleasant  even  to  dream  of  a  connection  of  Old  Dublin  with  the  Old  Romance 
which  has  inspired  the  genius  of  Spenser  and  Tennyson,  and  is  now 
enshrined  for  ever  in  the  Idylls  of  the  King. 





In  the  years  following  the  death  of  our  royal  Founder 
the  journal  of  the  Hospital  is  rather  jejune.  It  was  not 
now  a  favourite  with  the  Government  at  the  Castle.  The 
school  work,  however,  went  on  as  before.  Sir  Abel  Ram 
was  Lord  Mayor  and  Chairman  in  1685,  Sir  John  Knox  in 
1686,  and  Sir  John  Castleton  in  1687,  and  several  of  the 
original  governors  are  still  on  the  Board,  including  Sir 
Josua  Allen,  Sir  Humphrey  Jervis,  the  two  Desminieres, 
Sir  Francis  Brewster  and  Enoch  Reader,  but  none  of  the 
distinguished  co-opted  governors  seem  to  have  attended. 
In  October,  1685,  Mr.  Benjamin  Colquit  resigned,  and  the 
Rev.  Nicholas  Knight  became  Chaplain  and  Head-master. 
His  letters  of  presentation  by  the  governors  to  Francis 
Marsh,  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  pursuant  to  the  Charter,  are 
inscribed  in  our  minute  book  in  Latin,  quaint,  if  not 
very  classical.  The  Lord  Mayor  and  Corporation  style  them- 
selves,— Dominus  Major,  Vice  Comites,  et  cives  Civitatis 
Dublin,  indiubitati  patroni  Hospitii,  of  the  late  Lord  King 
Car.  II.,  and  they  supplicate  his  Grace,  whom  they  address 
in  the  vocative, — Rcvcrcndissime  Pater,  to  admit  tlieir  beloved 
Nicholas  Knight,  clericum,  to  exercise  all  the  duties  in  the 
Hospital.  Dei  Verbi  prcdicatoris,  puerunique  eniditoris. 
Knight  so  continued  up  to  May  1687,  when  "  on  his  pre- 
ferment," as  our  minute  book  runs,  the  Rev.  Thomas 
King  became  Chaplain  and  master  in  his  stead.  Of  King  we 
hear  more  anon.  In  September,  1686,  we  have  our  first 
entry  recording  trouble  with  our  boys  ;  it  gives  a    sample 


of  the  summary  discipline  then  in  vogue.  Some  twelve 
boys  were  detected  in  taking  money  out  of  the  Hospital 
poor  box.  It  couldn't  have  been  much,  but  Master  Andrew 
Roulston  the  ringleader,  ran  away  for  a  week,  and  the  others 
for  two  days.  So  Roulston  is  condemned,  "  that  as  a  terror 
to  the  rest  from  falling  into  the  like  miscarriage,  he  be 
to-morrow  whipt  in  the  great  hall,  in  the  presence  of  the 
other  boys,  by  the  keeper  of  the  Bridewell's  servant,  and  that 
he  be  stript  of  his  Blew  Coat,  and  be  turned  out  of  doors, 
never  to  be  admitted  again."  The  other  eleven  are  to  be 
admonished  by  the  Chaplain,  but  the  admonition  is  to  be 
endorsed  by  a  whipping  in  presence  of  the  school.  By 
what  law  the  official  aid  of  the  Bride^^•ell  keeper  was  thus 
invoked  does  not    appear. 

In  1687  our  minute  book  shows  that  there  was  no  meeting 
of  the  governors  after  September,  or  in  the  nine  months 
following,  and  in  the  three  years  and  four  months  to  May, 
1691,  five  meetings  only,  being  two  each  in  1688  and  1690, 
and  one  in  i68g.  At  these  no  school  business  seems  to  have 
been  done  ;  three  deal  only  with  one  of  our  Endowments, 
the  Tythes  of  Mullingar,  and  two  with  a  change  in  the  agency 
of  the  Hospital.  And  yet  these  meagre  entries,  closely 
looked  at,  are,  perhaps,  the  most  interesting  in  all  our  annals, 
for  they  disclose  the  connection  of  our  school  with  one  of  the 
greatest  events  in  the  history  of  England  and  Ireland, 
the  Revolutiron  and  reign  of  King  James  the  Second.  To 
decipher  the  cryptogram,  however,  it  must  be  read  in  the 
light  of  the  contemporary  facts  of  the  strange  eventful  story 
as  they  affected  Dublin,  whose  civic  governors  were  our 
governors  too. 

When  King  Charles  died,  in  Februar^^  1685,  the 
Protestant  Corporation  at  once  addressed  the  new  King  in 
terms  of  almost  servile  loyalty,  for  passive  obedience  was 
then  taught  almost  as  dogma  in  the  Anglican  Church. 
Composed  by  Sir  Richard  Reeves  the  Recorder,  and  one  of 
our  governors,  the  address  blesses  God  for  the  accession  of 
"  our  only  true  and  lawful  sovereign  whom  we  will  ever 
obev  and  serve  with  our  lives  and  fortunes  with  an  untainted 

TEMP.  JAMES  TI.  AND  WILLIAM  IIL,  1685-1702     103 

allegiance,  and  with  all  obedience  of  your  Majestie's  most 
humble  and  faithful  and  dutiful  subjects."  ^  The  King's 
iirst  act  in  Ireland  was  to  withdraw  the  venerable  Duke 
of  Ormonde  from  the  Lord  Lieutenancy  appointing  Lords 
Justices,  and  placing  Richard  Talbot,  newly  created  Earl  of 
Tyrconnell  in  command  of  the  army  in  Ireland,  then 
numbering  some  8,000  men.  This  was  ominous,  but  in  that 
year  Tyrconnell  seems  to  have  confined  his  acts  to  the  army, 
for  the  King  during  spring  was  occupied  in  punishing  his 
enemies  of  the  Rye  House  plot,  in  obtaining  subsidies  from 
Louis  XI\'.,  and  in  controlling  the  elections  which  returned 
him  a  Parliament,  of  which  eleven-twelfths  were  his  own 
devoted  Royalists  and  Cavaliers  ;  and  in  the  summer  his 
hands  were  full  with  the  suppression  of  Monmouth's  re- 
bellion. His  ministerial  changes  wliicli  were  drastic  enough, 
did  not  cause  general  alarm  as  in  his  first  speech  in  the  Privy 
Council,  lie^omised  to  uphold  the  Established  Church. 

The  only  symptom  of  a  new  policy  in  civic  Dublin 
which  the  City  Rolls  record  this  year,  is  a  petition  in  November 
of  Roman  Catholic  citizens  for  their  freedomes  which  the 
Privy  Council  ordered  to  be  heard  b}^  the  two  Chief  Justices, 
Sir  Wm.  Davys,  and  Keating,  the  Chief  Baron  Henry 
Hene,  and  Sir  Richard  Reynell  of  the  Common  Pleas.  This 
assembly,  regarding — "  as  a  matter  of  very  great  moment 
which  will  influence  all  the  Corporation  in  this  citie,"  direct 
that  Counsel  shall  be  retained  for  the  hearing.  The  precise 
nature  of  this  petition  or  its  result,  we  do  not  now  know  ; 
but  if  any  decision  was  pronounced  by  these  high  Judges, 
it  could  not  have  been  favourable  to  the  Jacobite  Govern- 
ment, for  had  it  been,  it  would  surely  have  been  used  by 
Tyrconnell  when  the  question  was  raised  acutely  in  the 
following  year  ;  and  w^e  know  that  next  year  Davys  was 
turned  out  of  the  King's  Bench,  and  Hene  from  the 
Exchequer,  replaced  by  Nugent  as  Chief  Justice,  and  Rice 
as  Chief  Baron. - 

But  when  after  the  Blood}'  Assizes  the  King  was  paramount 
he  declared    for  a    standing  army  and  officered  the  new 

'  Gilbert's  Calendar,   5,   356.  -  Lib.  Muii. 


regiments,  of  which  fifteen  were  raised  in  Monmouth's 
rebelhon,  with  Roman  Catholics  discharged  from  taking 
the  statutory  oaths.  Then  alarm  spread,  increased  by  the 
Revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes  in  France  in  November, 
so  that  when  the  King  invited  the  Houses  reassembled  tliat 
month  to  repeal  the  Habeas  Corpus,  and  Riot  Acts,  he  was 
met  with  remonstrance,  and,  proroguing  parliament  he  em- 
barked on  the  fatal  policy  of  Prerogative  versus  Law,  sure 
to  lead  as  it  did  to  his  ruin.  In  the  close  of  the  year  he 
sent  here  as  Lord  Lieutenant  his  brother-in-law.  Lord 
Clarendon  with  Tyrconnell  as  Commander  of  the  Forces. 
Soon  it  proved  that  the  Commander  of  the  Forces  was 
commander  of  the  Viceroy  too.  Clarendon  was  of  the 
moderate  section  in  the  Cabinet,  supported  by  all  foreign 
powers,  including  Pope  Innocent  XL,  Tyrconnell  was  leader 
of  the  Forward  section  ;  he  passed  over  to  Whitehall  where 
he  remained  till  June,  1686,  James's  Chief  Confidant  and 
Arch  instigator  of  the^oUcy  that  scoffed  at  statutes.  Hence 
he  directed  the  Government  in  the  Castle,  brow-beating  and 
undermining  the  Lord  Lieutenant.  In  June  Lord  Clarendon 
writes  to  the  Corporation  in  obedience  to  the  King's 
commands  in  the  previous  March,  stating  that  his  Majesty, 
being  informed  there  was  no  law  warranting  the  usage  of 
requiring  Roman  Catholics,  seeking  admission  to  the  city 
franchises  and  offices,  to  take  the  oath  o^f  supremacy,  now 
commanded,  that  not  only  should  they  be  admitted  freemen 
on  the  simple  oath  of  allegiance,  but  if  when  admitted  they 
were  chosen  to  the  Mayorality  or  any  City  office,  their  names 
should  be  returned  to  the  crown  • — "  That  we  may  dispense 
with  the  oath  of  supremacv."  Tlie  c}uestion  of  the  legality 
of  this  test  in  Ireland  at  that  time,  has  not,  we  believe,  been 
lutherto  fully  examined,  either  by  English  or  Irish  historians, 
and  may  be  stated  here.  In  England  the  law  was  explicit  ; 
there  the  Act  of  Supremacy,  i  Eliz.  C.  i,  made  the  oath 
obligatory  on  all  candidates  for  office,  ecclesiastical  or 
temporal.  The  Irish  statute  followed  it  in  the  next  year. 
A  doubt,  however,  was  raised  in  England  as  to  w^hether  the 
oath  could  be    enforced  unless  it   was  actually  tendered, 

TEMP.  JAMES  II.  AND  WILLIAM  III.,  1685-1702     105 

and  by  an  amending  Act  of  5  Eliz.,  the  tenc^er  of  the  oath 
to  all  officials  and  professional  men  too,  was  made  com- 
pulsory with  a  death  penalty  in  case  of  a  second  refusal  to 
take  it.  This  amending  act  was  not  followed  in  Ireland, 
where  the  sanction  of  the  statute  still  remained  doubtful. 
Macaulay  thinks  the  doubt  well  founded,  and  that 
there  was  no  enforceable  test  then  in  Ireland  at  all,  herein  dis- 
agreeing with  Archbishop  King,  who,  in  his  Statement  of 
Ireland  regards  the  doubt  as  Jesuitical,  and  the  act  had  de 
facto  certainly  been  operative  here  ;  for  example,  in  i6o^, 
Skelton  elected  ]\Iayor  was  superseded  on  declining  to  take 
the  Oath,  and  tlie  Corporation  had  gone  much  further. 
In  1678  the  Assembly  ordered  that  no  one  should  thence- 
forth be  admitted  a  freeman,  without  first  taking  the  Oath 
of  Supremacy.  This  was,  indeed  illegal  for  the  Act  of 
Supremacy  referred  to  officers  only.  Catholics  usually 
declined~The  Oafh,  as  it  abjured  all  ecclesiastical  as  well  as 
temporal  authority  outside  the  realm,  and  thus  it  was 
practically  an  effective  test,  though  many  of  them  were  in 
fact  admitted  freemen,  probably  without  any  tender  of 
the  Oath.  But  Lord  Macaulay  was,  seemingly,  not  aware 
that  under  the  Acts  of  Settlement  as  mentioned  above, 
powers  were  given  to  the  Government  to  make  Rules  and 
Orders,  having  Statutory  effect,  for  the  regulation  of  Corpora- 
tion, under  which  Lord  Essex'  Rules  in  1672,  commanded 
the  Lord  Mayor  to  tender  the  Oath  to  all  officers  of  the 
Corporation,  and  the  masters  and  wardens  of  the  City 
Guilds,  whose  refusal  would  entail  disfranchisement,  though 
the  Lord  Lieutenant  could  give  a  dispensation  in  any  special 
named  case.  The  Royal  command  in  June  was  therefore 
warranted  as  to  the  admission  of  freemen,  but  not  legal 
in  giving  a  universal  dispensation  in  respect  to  all  officers 
to  avoid  the  statutory  law.  The  fluttered  Corporation 
replied  in  terms  of  humility.  They  did  not  plead  either 
the  statute  of  Elizabeth  or  their  own  order  of  1678,  tliey 
yielded  submissively  as  to  the  freemen  of  whom  they  said 
there  were  already  four  or  five    hundred    Catholics  on  the 

^  Gilbert's  Calendar,  2,  430. 


roll.  But  shocked  at  His  Majesty's  imputation  of  illegality 
in  requiring  the  Oath  in  the  case  of  officers  they  pleaded  the 
rules  of  Lord  Essex  as  binding  on  them.  Little  chance  there 
was  for  such  a  plea  with  Tyrconnell  to  whom  the  mention 
of  the  Act  of  Settlement  was  the  red  flag  of  the  taureador 
to  an  angry  bull,  and  when  in  England,  the  King  in  the 
teeth  of  direct  statute  law  was  seizing  colleges  in  Oxford, 
and  appointing  Roman  Catholic  Deans  to  Anglican 
Cathedrals.  And  yet  had  this  plea  been  accepted  the 
Jacobite  Government  might  soon  have  constitutionally 
emancipated  their  co-religionists,  for  under  the  Act  of 
Settlement  it  was  open  to  them  to  supersede  the  Rules  and 
Orders,  and  to  enact  new  ones  dispensing  with  the  Oath  of 
Supremacy.  But  that  would  not  suit  the  hot  haste  of  James, 
Bent  on  using  his  own  dispensing  prerogative  wholesale. 
So  in  July  cam.e  a  letter  from  the  Viceroy  to  the  city,  stating 
that  he  was  not  satisfied  with  their  explanation,  and  com- 
manding immediate  and  implicit  obedience  in  the  King's 
name.  The  Corporation,  doubtless  aware  of  what  was 
proceeding  in  England,  did  not  dare  to  rejoin,  and  forth^^ith 
directed  that  the  Oath  should  no  longer  be  tendered  or 

"~^  Here  was  another  chance  for  a  moderate  and  progressive 
change,  but  Tyrconnell  would  brook  no  delay.  He  com- 
manded Sir  John  Knox,  the  Lord  j\Iayor  to  admit  to  all 
franchises  and  offices  forthwith,  and  on  his  refusal  he  re- 
sorted to  his  own  more  excellent  way.  Knox  was  a  loyalist ; 
in  the  previous  May  sitting,  as  Chairman  of  our  Board  he 
had  ordered  that  on  St.  James'  day,  the  ist  May  in  each 
year  a  sermon  should  be  preached  in  our  Chapel  of  King's 
Hospital,  and  that  the  Lord  Mayor,  Aldermen,  Sheriffs  and 
Sheriffs'  peers,  and  all  other  Governors  should  attend  in 
state  in  their  gowns,  and  that  new  clothes  should  be  pro- 
vided for  the  blew  boys.  But  this  was  not  the  loyalty 
Tyrconnell    wanted.  Continuing    his    intrigues    against 

Clarendon  in  Dublin,  and  his  brother  Rochester,  Primxe 
Minister  at  Whitehall,  he  persuaded  the  King  to  dismiss 
them  both,  and  in  February  1687,  came  back  to  the  Castle 

TEMP.  JAMES  II.  AND  WILLIAM  III.,  1685-1702     107 

as  \'iceroy  himself,  with  the  lesser  title  of  Lord  Deputy,  but 
with  complete  control  over    church,  state  and  army. 

One  of  his  first  steps  was  to  withdraw  the  Royal  Charter, 
in  Dublin  and  through  Ireland,  that  stood  in  his  way.  Qim 
Warranto s  were  accordingly  issued  from  the  Exchequer 
where  Stephen  Rice  now  presided  as  Chief  Baron,  known 
for  boast  that  he  would  drive  a  coach  and  si?<;  through 
the  Act  of  Settlement,  and  from  that  court  no  writ  of  Error 
to  England  lay  as  in  the  King's  Bencli  and  Common  Pleas 
The  dismay  was  general,  hundreds  of  families  crossed  the 
channel   with   Clarendon.  The   Dublin   Corporation   im- 

plored the  Lord  Deputy  for  grace  in  vain,  and  sought  to 
appease  him  by  hastening  new  admissions  to  tlie  francliises. 
The  Qco  Warrantos  went  on,  but  as  some  lumdred  charters 
were  being  suppressed  the  proceedings  took  some  time, 
and  it  was  onlv  in  October  that  the  King's  new  Charter  for 
Dublin  was  published.  Then  Sir  Thomas  Hackett  became 
Lord  Mayor,  Reeves  was  dismissed  from  the  recordership 
and  replaced  by  Sir  John  Barnewell  to  whomi  Reeves  was 
commanded  to  deliver  The  Whiie  Book,  containing  the 
ancient  Charters  and  Customs,  and  all  other  records  in  his 
custody. ■*  Thomas  Kieran  and  Edmund  Kelly  were  named 
Sheriffs,  and  so  became  governors  of  the  Blue  Coat  :  bv  the 
end  of  the  year  a^l  the  thirty  sheriffs  of  Ireland  were 
Catholics,  save  one,  who  was  said  to  have  been  named  in 
mistake  for  a  namesake. •'' 

Still  it  was  necessary  to  form  the  lists  of  the  new 
burgesses,  which  were  only  complete  in  the  spring  of  1688. 
Thus  we  can  decipher  the  hiatus  in  our  minute  book, 
showing  no  meeting  of  the  Blue  Coat  Governors  from 
September  1687  to  June  1688,  as  also  the  composition  of 
the  Board  which  then  met.  Jamics  this  year  had  changed 
his  first  idea  of  an  alliance  with  the  Church  of  England 
against  the  Presbyterians  and  the  sects  to  that  of  an 
alliance  against  the  Church  of  England  with  all  the  non- 
conformists, whom  he  had  hitherto  assailed  with  the  bitter 

■•  Gilbert's  Calendar,   5,  464. 

"See  the  list  in   King'::^  Stat'ineiii  of  Jrc/inuf,  app.  52. 


hostility  of  which  his  angry  refusal  in  1686  to  repeal  the 
act  which  made  it  death  to  attend  a  Presbyterian  con- 
venticle is  but  a  single  example.*^ 

He  now  declared  it  his  desire  to  treat  all  denominations 
with  impartiality.  Accordingly  several  of  the  old  cor- 
porators were  now  re-admitted,  including  Sir  Josua  Allen. 
Sir  Humphre}^  Jervis  and  Sir  A.bel  Ram,  three  of  our  former 
chairmen,  and  Rartholmew  Van  Homrigh,  then  an  eminent 
Dutch  mercliant  of  Dublin,  whom  we  see  admitted  to  the 
new  franchise  in  April  1688,  with  his  little  daughter,  Esther, 
Swift's  Vanessa,  then  a  child.  This  fair-play  was,  however, 
only  a  semblance,  for  the  Protestants  were  everywhere  in 
a  powerless  minority.  At  the  Blue  Coat  Board,  on  8th 
June,  Sir  T.  Hackett  was  chairman,  and  beside  him, 
William  Dongan,  Earl  of  Limerick,  one  of  the  five  nobles 
who  had  patents  from  James  whilst  still  King  of  England. 
He  was  a  gallant  soldier,  and  then  in  command  of  one  of 
Tyrconnell's  new  regiments  of  dragoons,  as  was  his  son  of 
another.  They  both  fought  bravely  for  at  the  Boyne, 
where  the  young  man  was  slain.  This  Lord  Limerick 
merits  a  memory  in  Dublin,  for  with  King  James  he  was  a 
joint  founder  of  the  Workhouse  in  St.'  Street,  our 
original  Poorhouse  and  basis  of  the  South  Dublin  Union. 
Its  site  was  partly  on  Dongan's  estate  in  the  suburbs,  and 
partly  on  that  of  the  King  which  was  portion  of  the  con- 
fiscated lands  allotted  to  him  under  the  Act  of  Settlement. 
They  both  assigned  to  the  new  foundation,  the  city  adding 
part  of  the  city  estate.^  On  James's  downfall  his  lands  were 
conferred  on  Lady  Orkney  and  those  of  Lord  Limerick  on 
General  Ginkell,  now  Lord  Athlone.  Hereupon  one  Brian 
Poole,  Esquire,  who  had  somehow  got  possession,  finding  a 
difficulty  raised  by  the  forfeitures  more  Hibernico  refused  to 
admit  title,  and  it  was  only  when  the  new  city  regime 
obtained  confirmations  from  Lady  Orkney  and  Lord  Atlilone 
that  possession  was  enforced,  and  the  Workhouse  restored. 
With  Lord  Limerick,  sat  on  the  Blue  Coat  Board  the  new 

"  Macaulay's  History  of  England,   i,   374. 
^  Gilbert's  Calendar,  6,  218. 

TEMP.  JAMES  II.  AND  WILLIAM  III.,  1685-1702     109 

Sheriff,  Kelly,  and  several  of  the  new  Aldermen,  with  several 
of  the  old  Governors,  including  Aldermen  Ram  and 
Otterington.  But  it  was  futile  to  suppose  that  a  Protestant 
school  under  a  clerical  headmaster  could  be  managed  by 
a  predominently  Roman  Catholic  Board.  No  scholastic 
business  was  done  at  this  meeting  nor  at  that  in  the  following 
week,  and  no  others  were  held  in  1688.  We  find,  indeed, 
in  October  the  Master  of  the  new  Workhouse  in  James's 
Street,  one  good  thing  established  by  TyrconnelFs  Govern- 
ment, petitioning  the  Corporation  to  allow  him  "the  clothing 
of  the  Hospital  boys,"  to  be  made  by  the  workhouse  inmates 
who  \A  ere  then  set  at  weaving,  but  we  know  not  if  there  was 
any  result.'^ 

But  the  King's  forward  policy  was  now  moving  blindlv 
apace,  until  the  seizure  on  Magdalen  College  in  Oxford  and 
ejection  of  the  Fellows,  the  bringing  over  Irish  troops  to 
England,  the  wholesale  dispensations  under  the  second  Declara- 
tion of  Indulgence,  the  trial  of  the  Seven  Bishops  who  refused 
to  proclaim  it  in  their  charges,  and  their  acquittal,  were 
followed  by  the  advent  of  William  of  Orange  in  November, 
James's  flight  to  France  in  December,  and  the  election  of 
William  and  IMary  as  King  and  Queen.  All  Celtic  Ireland 
rose  now  in  arms,  fifty  thousand  regulars,  fifty  thousand 
irregulars,  with  swords,  pikes,  scythes ;  even  many  women 
wielded  skeanes.  The  gates  of  Derry  were  closed  in  Decem- 
ber, and  thither  and  to  Enniskfllcn  the  Protestant  population 
fled  as  to  cities  of  refuge,  beleagured  by  the  Irish  Army  till 
the  relief  of  Derry  on  ist  July,  1689.  And  though  after  that 
Ulster  was  safe,  the  wrath  of  the  three  other  provinces  waxed, 
for  James  was  now  with  them  as  their  King,  and  the  popula- 
tion rose  en  masse.  The  Protestants  were  disarmed,  hun- 
dreds were  imprisoned,  thousands  fled.  Amongst  these  Sir 
Josua  Allen  as  mentioned  above.  These  were  no  times  for  a 
Protestant  Corporation  School  in  the  city.  In  1689  there 
was  only  one  meeting  of  the  Blue  Coat  Board,  at  this  Alder- 
man aVicDermott,  deputy  Lord  Mayor,  presided,  with  Barne- 
wall,   the   Recorder,   Sir   Thomas   Hackett,   and  five  other 

^  Gilbert's  Calendar,   5,  485. 

no        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Aldermen  ;  the  single  item  of  business  done  reflected  the 
state  of  the  country  ;  it  was  in  July,  when  the  army  was  still 
before  Derry,  and  the  Governors  had  to  deal  with  a  petition 
of  Sir  James  Leigh  to  whom  at  the  two  meetings  in  1688  they 
had  arranged  for  a  lease  of  the  Tythes  of  Mullingar,  asking  to 
be  relieved  of  his  lease  as  he  had  been  unable  to  collect  the 
tythes.  This  the  Governors  refused  but  offered  if  he  paid  the 
arrears  to  abate  the  rent  in  the  last  half  year.  For  the 
Government  was  now  in  the  deepest  straits  for  monies. 
Trnde  being  paralyzed,  they  must  raise  it  or  create  it 
anyhow.  In  the  ten  months  after  the  relief  of  Derry  the 
factiousness  of  the  English  Parliament  gave  the  Castle 
and  the  Irish  Parliament  a  free  hand  which  the^^  used  to 
carry  on  the  war.  Then  the  King  coined  copper  money, 
making  four  pence  worth  legal  tender  for  a  sovereign  and 
seized  on  all  property  they  could.  Most  Protestants  wlio  had 
any  and  could  do  so  escaped.  Then  by  the  Sullan  Proscrip- 
tion Act,  known  as  the  great  attainder,  they  were  ordered 
to  return  forthwith  on  pain  of  being  hanged  and  quartered  for 
high  treason  ;  this  they  no  more  dared  do  than  the  French 
emigrants  dared  return  to  Louis  XIV.  Sir  Josua  Allen,  Van 
Homrigh,  and  Otterington  thus  ceased  to  be  Governors  of 
our  school,  and  in  November,  1689,  Tyrconnell  seized  on  our 
Hospital  and  "  turned  out  all  the  poor  Blew  Boys  who  were 
still  there  to  the  number  of  sixty,  with  all  the  servants  and 
officers,  and  all  the  bedding  goods  and  all  the  household  stuff 
which  were  carried  away  to  the  great  Hospital  at  Kilmain- 
ham  (lately  founded  by  Charles  II.)  for  their  wounded  sol- 
diers.'"' No  funds  were  granted  to  the  school  by  the  new 
regim.e,  and  up  to  this  time  it  had  been  kept  alive  only  by 
subscriptions  collected  by  Moland  the  steward  and  the  chap- 
lain, Thomas  King  ;  the  latter  was  now  imprisoned  and  kept 
there  ten  weeks,  "  for  no  other  reason,"  as  he  says,  "  but  to 
disable  him  from  attending  the  charge  of  the  Hospital,  and 
out  of  malice,  because  Mr.  Moland  and  he  by  borrowing 
money  and  the  charity  of  good  Christians  kept  the  Hospital 
from  dissolving  till  it  was  done  by  force." 

^  Hospital  Minute  Book. 

TEMP.  JAMES  II.  AND  WILLIAM  III.,  1685-1702     iii 

There  was  a  meeting  of  the  Jacobite  governors  in  January, 
1690,  and  a  final  meeting  in  March,  Terence  M'Dermott, 
Lord  Mayor,  in  the  chair,  but  these  were  held  only  to  appoint 
Thomas  Hewlett  as  agent  and  steward  in  Moland's  room,  with 
an  order  to  the  latter  to  deliver  up  the  Charter  and  all  the 
books  of  laws,  orders,  property,  and  accounts,  and  Hewlett  is 
directed  to  take  charge  of  all  the  outstanding  debts  and  rents 
of  the  endowments. 

King  William  was  now  expected  in  Ireland,  and  Louis  sent 
over  a  French  contingent  of  7,000  men  to  the  army  of  James^'^ 
then,  as  our  minute  book  has  it,  "  the  Hospital  was  by  King 
James  given  to  the  French  to  be  an  hospital  for  their  wounded 
officers  and  soldiers,  and  so  continued  till  the  Rout  of  the 
Boyne,  then  they  hastily  forsook  the  same,  and  the  old 
governors  re-entering,  found  great  quantities  of  linen  and 
bedding  the  French  had  left  behind  them,  which  the 
governors  intended  to  use  in  lieu  of  the  household  stuff 
formerly  taken  away  by  the  Lord  Tyrconnell,  but  these 
were  ordered  by  the  new  Lords  Justices  to  be  removed  to 
the  Hospital  of  Kilmainham.^^  For  when  W^illiam  entered 
Dublin  on  the  morrow  of  tlie  battle,  the  place  was  a 
chaos,  and  was  now  occupied  as  a  corn  store  for  the 
victorious  army. 

All  things  now  changed  ;  the  Ins  were  Outs  and  the  dread 
policy  of  Vae  Victis  which  had  raged  three  years  swung  to 
the  other  side  to  harden  into  penal  laws.  Sir  Chas.  Porter 
resumed  as  Chancellor,  vice  Fitton  ;  Reynell  became  Chief 
Justice  of  the  King's  Bench,  vice  Nugent ;  Sir  Richard  Pyne 
of  the  Common  Pleas,  vice  Keating  ;  and  Hely,  Chief  Baron, 
vice  Rice.  Our  exiled  governors  returned,  ^lotley  became 
Lord  Mayor  to  September,  succeeded  then  by  Otterington, 
\^an  Flomrigh,  who,  as  a  Dutchman  was  persona  "rata  to 
William,  was  made  commissioner  of  the  public  revenues. 
But  it  was  not  till  May,  1691,  the  governors  could  meet  in 
the  Blue  Coat,  and  all  was  a  scene  of  dilapidation  still. 
Allen  and  Ram,  back  from  exile,  were  there,  and  several 

'■'See  Minute  Book  21st  Septembtr,    1694. 
1^  Gilbert's  Calendar,   5,  iviii. 


other  displaced  members  :  but  the  spirit  of  patronage  is 
strong  in  spite  of  ruins,  the  board  had  before  them  a  letter 
from  Archbishop  Francis  Marsh  of  Dublin,  also  a  late 
refugee,  and  from  Thomas  Conyngsby,  one  of  the  new  Lords 
Justices,  pressing  for  the  appointment  of  Mr.  Francis  Higgins 
as  chaplain.  Conyngsby,  who  had  been  member  for  Leo- 
minster, and  who  Macaulay  calls  a  busy  and  unscrupulous 
Whig,  had  accompanied  William  and  fought  by  his  side  at 
the  Boyne  ;  left  behind  at  the  Castle  in  high  places  of  trust, 
which  it  is  said  he  abused.  He  was  nevertheless  ennobled 
here,  and  afterwards  advanced  in  the  peerage  in  England.  The 
reply  of  the  governors  to  these  letters  was  that  taking  into 
consideration  the  low  estate  and  condition  of  the  Hospital, 
the  Lord  Mayor  and  Governors  cannot,  at  present,  maintain 
a  chaplain,  nor  is  there  as  yet  any  occasion  for  such  a  person 
to  be  employed  therein. 

In  spring,  1692,  the  school  being  still  uninhabitable,  poor 
Thomas  King,  our  late  imprisoned  chaplain,  wrote  to  the 
Board,  detailing  his  losses,  as  quoted  above,  and  asking 
some  relief.  The  governors  had  then  no  assets  available,  but 
they  assigned  over  to  him  in  lieu  of  his  unpaid  salary,  the 
£30  payable  by  Doctor  William  King,  who  had  just  been 
consecrated  Bishop  of  Derry,  and  who  was  his  uncle.  He,  too, 
had  been  imprisoned  by  Tyrconnell  twice  in  the  Castle,  for  he 
was  leader  of  the  opposition  and  a  fighting  man.  He  was  then 
Dean  of  Christ  Church,  andon  King  William's  entry  he  preached 
the  sermon  in  Christ  Church  in  the  King's  presence.  It  is  said 
that  when  sending  him  to  Derry,  His  Majesty,  who  seldom 
joked,  asked  him  what  was  the  difference  between  them, 
and  the  Bishop  failing  to  answer  the  riddle,  explained  "  you 
are  William  King,  but  I  am  King  William."  We  shall  have 
to  refer  to  King  again  when  Archbishop  of  Dublin  and  one 
of  our  greatest  governors.  He  now  at  once  honoured  our 
assignment  of  the  £30.  He  was  generous  to  a  fault,  and  is 
noticed  in  our  books  as  the  only  prelate  who  at  this  time 
paid  the  ^^30  tax  in  lieu  of  consecration  feasts. 

It  was  not  till  April,  1692,  the  governors  could  appoint  as 
chaplain,  Mr.  Thomas  Hemsworth;  they  were  seeking  to  collect 

TEMP.  JAMES  II.  AND  WILLIAM  III.,  1685-1702     113 

their  arrears  and  debt  to  rehabilitate  the  house,  but  owing 
to  the  desolation  of  the  country,  they  were  forced  to  remit 
much.  There  is  an  entry  in  May  that  the  circumstances  of 
the  several  tenants  in  the  late  troublesome  times,  differ  much 
from  each  other,  some  being  forced  to  fly  from  their  habita- 
tion, whilst  others  lived  all  the  while  in  their  houses  and  were 
not  sharers  in  the  late  calamities,  and  the  agent  is,  therefore, 
empowered,  if  it  appear  that  their  losses  and  suffering  have 
been  great,  to  make  an  abatement  as  he  shall  think  reason- 
able, not  exceeding  one  year  and  a  half. 

Though  the  Hospital  was  still  in  a  wretched  condition, 
the  governors,  in  July,  brought  back  twelve  of  the  children 
expelled  nearly  three  years  before,  and  a  few  weeks  after- 
wards admitted  twenty  new  boys.  Big  people  again  took 
an  interest  in  the  School,  one  of  the  recommendations  for 
admission  is  by  Sir  Richard  Reynell.  and  one  by  Lady 
Porter,  the  Lord  Chancellor's  wife.  Mr.  Hemsworth,  the 
chaplain,  was  now  appointed  schoolmaster  also,  his  salary 
was  slightly  raised,  though  many  of  the  arrears  were  now 
pronounced  desperate,  and  the  Board  were  still  struggling 
hard  to  make  the  buildings  inhabitable  whilst  most  of  their 
rents  were  in  arrear. 

In  their  straits  at  this  time  the  governors  had  unchecrful 
relations  with  the  greatest  scholar  of  the  times,  Dr.  Dudley 
Loftus,  polyglot  writer  in  twenty  tongues,  who  was  then  the 
most  learned  orientalist  in  Europe.  Syriac,  Armenian, 
Ethiopic,  to  say  nothing  of  Hebrew,  to  him  were  alike  familiar ; 
then  he  was  a  great  Jurist,  a  Theologian,  and  an  Antiquary. 
Some  might  say  much  learning  had  made  him  mad,  and  one  did 
say  : — ''  he  never  knew  so  much  learning  in  the  keeping  of  a 
fool,"  but  he  had  mother  wit  enough  for,  successively, 
royalist, Cromwellian,  royalist  again,  Jacobite,  andWilliamite, 
he  lived  in  Dublin  through  the  revolution,  and  on  under 
William,  respected  by  all  the  five  regimes.  He  was  Crom- 
well's judge  advocate-general,  and  Charles  H.'s  vicar- 
general.  But  he  owed  King's  Hospital  £800,  for  which  they 
threatened  to  sue  him  in  1692  ;  it  was  still  due  when  he  died 
in  1695,  and  was  only  realized  far  in  Arme's  time,  our  books 



through  all  the  interval  being  dotted  with  entries  of  his 
arrears.  It  might  be  too  much  to  expect  that  one  who  wrote 
reams  in  Ethiopian  could  think  of  such  small  things  as  debts. 
Our  security  was  his  house  on  the  Blind  (now  Essex  Qua}/), 
where  he  lived  and  wrote  ;  money  was  very  scarce  ;  3'et  he 
left  a  fortune.  He  was  a  cadet  of  the  eminent  family, 
descended  from  Adam  Loftiis,  Queen  Elizabeth's  Primate, 
ancestor  of  the  Marquises  of  Ely,  and  his  brother  was  owner 
of  Rathfarnham  Castle,  the  seat  of  the  Marquises  till 
Victoria's  reign. ^- 

In  the  year  1692  an  apparent  source  of  revenue  was 
granted  to  the  Hospital,  which  illustrates  some  of  the  then 
conditions  of  the  city.  The  coal  ships  were  still  discharged 
at  Ringsend,  whence  the  cargoes  were  still  carried  up  river 
in  gabbards  to  the  Wood  and  the  Merchants'  Quay,  where 
only  they  were  allowed  to  land.  The  merchants  hod  now 
combined  to  delay  the  gabbards  in  the  tideway  and  on  the 
quay,  refusing  to  sell  till  they  had  unduly  raised  the  market 
prices,  so  the  city  passed  ordinances  creating  two  new  land- 
ing quays,  Ormonde  and  Arran,  which  marks  the  extension 
of  the  town  on  the  north  side,  and  compelling  the  merchants 
to  discharge  at  one  of  these  four  wharves  within  six  days 
under  penalty  of  two  shillings  per  ton  per  day  demurrage, 
one  half  of  which  was  assigned  to  the  Blue  Coat.  These 
merchants  had  further  charged  exorbitantly  for  the  carriage 
from  Ringsend ;  they  were  now  confined  to  twelve  pence  per 
ton  under  penalty  of  thrice  that  sum  for  extorting  more,  one 
half  of  which  was  likewise  assigned  to  our  Hospital.  This, 
however,  brought  little  present  income,  if  it  ever  brought 
any.  Meanwhile  little  could  be  done,  and  the  meetings  of 
the  Board  for  two  years  were  few  and  far  between.  But  in 
1693-94  Sir  John  Rogerson  was  Lord  Mayor  and  our  Chair- 
man, and  one  of  the  most  eminent  of  our  citizens  in  his  long 
public  life.  He  found  the  shock  of  the  revolution  still 
paralyzing  the  Hospital  structurally  and  financially,  as  it 
continued  to  do  during  all  the  reign  of  William.    In  this  year 

12  There  is  an  admirable  sketch  of  Dr.  W.    Lofuis'  career  in  (4eorge   Stokes, 
Some  Irish  Worthies  oj  the  Itish  Church. 

TEMP.  JAMES  II.  AND  WILLIAM  III.,  1685-1702     115 

there  were  fourteen  meetings  of  the  governors,  at  aU  of  which 
he  presided.  The  front  of  the  Hospital  was  so  mutilated 
that  it  was  essential  to  replace  it,  and  the  governors  them- 
selves subscribed  for  the  restoration  ;  the  royal  arms  of 
William  and  Mary  were  erected  with  an  inscription  "  Anno 
Domini,  1694.  This  frontispiece  was  rebuilt  at  tlie  charge 
of  the  benefactors.  Sir  John  Rogerson,  then  Lord  Mayor, 
John  Page,  and  Robert  Twigg,  Sheriff."  But  all  our  endow- 
ments were  in  arrear,  the  building  on  St.  Stephen's  Green 
had  ceased  during  the  troubles,  and  the  rents  on  the  Lotts 
belonging  to  the  Hospital  were  in  arrear,  as  were  those  of  the 
the  tythes  of  Mullingar,  the  Dean's  orchard,  the  Oxmantown, 
and  the  Nodstown  estates  and  were  either  irrecoverable  or 
could  only  be  reached  by  large  abatements  and  reduced  rents 
in  the  future.  The  Earl  of  Roscommon  who  had  undertaken 
the  block  between  Hume  Street  and  Merrion  Row,  could  not 
pay,  and  asked  the  governors  to  accept  a  surrender,  and  when 
the  new  tenant  of  Nodstown  was  trying  to  rally  he  was  sued 
in  a  writ  of  dower  by  a  Dam.e  Upton,  claiming  as  widow  of 
the  man  who  had  sold  the  estate  to  Gyles  Martyn  our  bene- 
factor years  before.  This,  the  governors,  of  course,  must 
defend,  they  held  the  claim  to  be  vexatious  and  false,  and 
the  minute  states  the  direction  of  counsel  that  the  Hospital 
sliould  plead  that  the  doweress  had  never  been  married.  Tlie 
litigation  went  on  for  years,  and  though  it  came  to  naught 
it  added  to  burdens  already  scarce  bearable.  Rogerson 
dealt  with  them  bravely,  liberal  arrangements  were  made 
with  all  our  debtois  in  which  he  was  well  aided  by  Nehemiah 
Donellan,  our  new  Recorder,  who  now  came  vice  Thomas 
Coote,  appointed  by  the  restored  regime  in  1690,  and  now 
advanced  to  the  King's  Bench.  Then  the  Board  petitioned 
the  Lords  Justices  setting  forth  their  losses  of  the  last  six 
years,  as  detailed  above,  which  prevent  them  fulfilling  their 
duty  under  the  charter  to  the  Hospital  built  for  three 
hundred  children  ;  they  enclose  a  copy  of  the  ordinance  of 
the  Privy  Council  of  1679  as  to  the  Consecration  Feasts,  nnd 
pray  that  this  may  be  now  revived  and  reinforced,  as  the 
newly  made  prelates  had  ceased  to  pay,  saving  only  William 

it6      foundation    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

King,  the  new  Bishop  of  Derry.  The  Privy  Council  assembled 
and  in  September,  1694,  passed  an  order  in  Council  accord- 
ingly. This  is  signed  by  Lord  Chancellor  Porter,  Narcissus 
Marsh,  now  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  and  Sir  Richard  Reynell, 
now  Chief  Justice  of  the  King's  Bench. 

This  year  was  appointed  one  of  the  best  officers  the 
Hospital  has  ever  enjoyed ;  Bartholomew  Wybrants, 
steward  and  agent,  vice  Thomas  Howard,  who  had  broken 
down  under  the  stress  of  the  troublous  times.  Wybrants 
held  ofiice  for  thirty-six  years  and  will  be  referred  to  again. 

A  curious  entry  of  this  year  marks  the  care  then  taken  of 
the  religious  training  of  the  pupils.  An  order  directs  the 
schoolmaster  and  the  porter  "  to  take  them  each  Monday 
morning  to  Christ  Church  to  prayers  in  a  decent  and  orderly 
manner.  The  nurses  to  take  care  that  their  heads  be 
combed,  their  clothes  clean,  shoes  tied,  stockings  and 
garters."    Tlie  state  of  the  chapel  made  this  necessary. 

The  entries  in  1695-97  deal  chiefly  with  things  of  routine, 
for  the  Board  was  still  crippled  from  want  of  income.  Our 
chairmen  were  successively  Lord  Mayors,  George  Blackball, 
WiUiam  Watt,  and  Wilhani  Billington.  Donnellan,  the 
Recorder,  was  chosen  a  Baron  of  the  Exchequer,  of  which 
he  was  made  chief  in  1703,  and  Sir  William  Handcock  now 
becamxe  our  Recorder  in  his  stead.  One  entry  in  1696  may 
be  noticed  as  bearing  on  discussions  of  the  Board  in  our  own 
time  as  to  the  limit  of  age  in  retaining  pupils,  sixteen  having 
been  adopted  by  the  governors  for  many  years.  This  entry 
directs  that  seventeen  years  should  be  the  limit.  Modern 
ideas  recognize  this  as  essential  if  boys  are  to  be  trained 
beyond  the  mere  elements,  and  it  has  been  again  adopted 
in  our  Hospital  in  the  last  few  years. 

But  1697-8  was  a  notable  twelve  months.  Bartholomew 
Van  Homrigh  was  now  Lord  Mayor  and  proved  to  be  one  of 
the  most  notable  of  our  chairmen.  He,  like  Rogerson, 
presided  at  every  one  of  the  many  meetings  of  the  Board 
in  his  year.  Being  an  eminent  shipowning  merchant  himself, 
he  strenuously  promoted  the  training  of  boys  in  the  mathe- 
matics essential  for  navigation  as  already  encouraged  in  the 

TEMP.  JAMES  II.  AND  WILLIAM  III.,  i()85-r702     117 

School  by  the  Merchants'  Guild  ;  order  is  given  that  every 
boy  should  be  thus  trained,  wlio,  on  examination,  was  found 
capable  of  learning.  At  this  time,  Mr.  Henry  Osborne,  of 
Dardistown,  Co.  Meath,  gave  the  Hospital  £i;0oo  which  had 
far-reaching  consequences.  He  gave  it  by  a  deed  reserving 
to  himself  and  his  heirs  for  ever  the  nomination  of  ten  boys, 
and  to  this  the  governors  assented,  for  they  sorely  then 
needed  /i,ooo.  At  his  death  many  years  later  he  devised 
this  right  to  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Meath  and  liis  successors. 
It  is  very  doubtful  whether  the  governors  had  any  power 
thus  to  alienate  to  strangers  their  duty  as  trustees  over 
admissions,  and  further  whether  under  the  reservation  to 
his  own  heirs  he  could  treat  it  as  a  fee  simple,  devisable  to 
an  ecclesiastic  corporation,  but  the  governors  have  ever 
since  loyally  adhered  to  the  bargain,  and  honoured  the 
nominations  of  the  Bishop  of  Meath  to  the  present  day. 
For  a  single  gift  of  £1,000  hundreds  of  boys  have  been 
trained  free  during  the  two  centuries  since  elapsed.  It  is 
satisfactory  to  know  that  these  episcopal  nominations  have 
been  well  selected  almost  always.  Osborne  was  a  persona 
gratis  si  ma  with  the  governors,  they  asked  to  have  his  portrait 
painted  and  placed  in  the  Hospital  for  ever.^3  This  honour  be 
declines  in  a  quaintly  gracious  letter  ;  "  such  preserving  of 
memories,"  he  says,  "  are  due  only  to  princes  and  great  men  ; 
if  extended  to  some  benefactors  others  would  expect  it,  and  if 
only  given  to  some,  he  humbly  asks  to  be  excepted."  "  I  am  old," 
he  adds,  "  and  going  to  the  place  where  such  things  are 
forgotten,  and  desire  I  may  do  it  silently."  Then  he  pro- 
mises to  befriend  the  Hospital  in  the  future.  By  his  will  he 
left  it  a  large  legacy  of  £1,500,  which,  however,  appears 
never  to  have  been  received.  Perhaps  this  promise  was  an 
element  in  the  governor's  gratitude.  This  £1,000  throws 
light  on  the  then  financial  state  of  the  city.  Part  of  its 
estate  had  been  mortgaged,  there  was  no  money  to  redeem 
the  debt  for  which  the  city  paid  eighty  pounds  3'carly,  so 
the  corporation  applied  to  our  governors  to  lend  them  this 
Osborne    £1,000.     Van  Hom.righ  and  the  Board  assented, 

!■'  Minute,   24  March,    1703. 

ii8       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

they  to  have  eight  per  cent  on  the  loan,  which  gave  the  School 
for  many  years  a  virtual  annuity  of  eighty  pounds. 

In  1698  we  have  the  first  admission  to  the  School  of  a  son 
of  one  of  the  French  refugees,  Stephen  Verger.  They  now 
formed  a  considerable  colony  here  ;  they  were  industrious, 
useful,  citizens,  and  were  welcomed.  The  city  rolls  give  the 
names  of  more  than  150  admitted  to  the  freedom  of  the  city 
by  special  grace,  with  full  libert}-  to  trade,  and  in  our  journal 
through  the  next  fifty  years  it  is  interesting  to  note  the  great 
numiber  of  our  boys  who  were  apprenticed  to  silk  and  ribbon 
weaving,  and  the  serge  and  poplin  manufacture,  introduced 
by  these  skilful  Frenchmen,  whose  work.  Swift,  a  century 
afterwards,  so  laboured  to  promote  througli  Queen  Caroline 
in  London. 

In  1694  the  French  Emigrees  purchased,  for  their 
Cemetery,  Lott  No.  10  on  the  north  side  of  St.  Stephen's 
(jreen.  The  price  was  £16.  They  thus  became  the  tenants 
of  the  Blue  Coat,  in  so  far  as  they  became  subject  to  the 
head  rent  granted  to  the  School  as  its  original  endowment. 
Mr.  T.  P.  Le  Fanu  has  kindly  given  the  writer  some  interest- 
ing notes  on  tliis  subject. 

Van  Homrigh  left  his  mark  on  the  city.  Through  the 
favour  of  his  countryman,  William,  he  now  held  high  office 
in  the  state.  He  was  M.P.  for  Derry  city  from  1692-95,  and 
in  this,  1698,  we  find  him  enrolled  as  one  of  the  first  members 
of  the  Dublin  Philosophical  Society, m  founded  by  William 
Molyneux.  He  used  his  royal  favour  by  petitioning  the 
Government  that  the  ancient,  loyal  and  metropolitan  city 
of  Dublin,  might,  in  everlasting  memory  of  the  great  services 
of  William  III.  to  its  Protestant  inhabitants,  and  as  a  mark 
of  his  royal  grace  and  favour,  be  honoured  with  a  collar  of 
SS.  and  His  Majesty's  effigies  on  a  medal  to  be  worn  by  the 
Mayor  of  tlie  city.  The  King  was  then  in  Flanders,  and  there 
at  his  court  at  Loo,  on  the  28  Oct.,  1697,  he  signed  a  royal 
warrant  under  which  the  Lords  Justices  here  were  to 
authorize  the  making  of  the  collar  and  medal  as  prayed 
to  be  presented  to  Bartholomew  Van  Homrigh,  Lord  Mayor 

^■'  Dr.   Stokes'    Woythics  of  the  Irish  Church,  p.    140. 

TEMP.  JAMES  II.  AND  WILLIAM  III.,  1685-1702     iiq 

of  Dublin,  to  be  worn  by  him  during  his  continuance  in  office 
and  by  the  succeeding  Mayors  for  ever  as  it  has  since  ever 
been.  The  cost,  £770,  was  to  be  paid  out  of  the  Irish  revenue 
and  collar  and  medal  were  "  to  be  made  in  England  by  the 
most  able  and  skilful  artists  in  things  of  this  kind."  ^'  The 
medal  was  executed  by  James  Roettier,  and  is  considered 
one  of  the  finest  of  his  works.  On  the  obverse  is  a  bust  of 
tho  King  in  armour,  and  inscribed  in  capitals  : — "  Gulielmus 
Tertius.  D.G.  Mag.  Brit.  Fran,  et  Hib.  Rex,  James  R.  fecit." 
On  the  reverse  : — "  Gulielmus  III.  antiquam  et  fidelum 
Hiberni?e  IMetropolin  hoc  Indulgentire  Suae  Munere  Ornavit 
Barth  Van  Homrigh  Arm.  Urb.  PrcTtore,  MDCXCVIII." 
After  paying  for  collar  and  medal,  there  was  a  surplus  of 
£250,  and  this,  in  July,  1701,  the  city  voted  should  be  applied 
for  the  purchase  of  three  gold  chains  for  the  Ma3^or  and 
Sheriffs  of  the  city  in  succession.  "  They  to  give  security  for 
the  re-delivery  of  them  as  usual."  Gold  chains  are  tempting. 
The  former  SS.  Chain,  presented  to  the  City  by  Charles  II. 
had  been  abstracted  bv  somebody  in  the  revolutionary 

In  Van  Homrigh's  year  the  city  may  be  said  to  have  been 
lighted  for  the  first  time.  Hitherto  there  were  but  a  few 
lanterns  in  the  principal  streets,  and  these  were  put  out  at 
nine  o'clock,  when,  as  if  a  curfew  tolled,  the  shops  were 
closed.  Now  a  plan  was  adopted  following  that  in  use  in 
Holland  and  in  London,  from  Kensington  to  Whitehall,  for 
erecting  lights  in  all  the  streets  and  lanes  at  intervals  of  from 
six  to  eight  houses,  which  burned  from  six  to  twelve  o'clock 
through  all  the  winter  months.  There  were  then  presumably 
few  burglars  in  Dublin,  for  we  do  not  find  much  record  of 
felonies,  and  yet  the  city  was  in  darkness  from  midnight  to 

So  much  for  Van  Homrigh.  His  name  has  been  made 
classic  by  Swift's  Cadesus  and  Vanessa,  which  surround  it 
with  the  glamour  of  a  sad  romance. 

Of  1698-9  we  have  little  to  record.  Thomas  Quin,  Lord 
Mayor,  was  our  chairman.       Our  chaplain,   Rev.   Thomas 

'•'''  Gilbert's  Calendar,  6,  viii. 


Hemsvvorth,  now  gently  announced  that  he  intended  chang- 
ing his  condition,  which  the  then  rule  enforcing  cehbacy  and 
residence  forbade.  But  lie  soon  after  obtained  preferment, 
and  in  the  beginning  of  1700  resigning,  the  Rev.  Charles  Can 
became  chaplain  and  schoolmaster,  but  under  strictly  ex- 
pressed conditions  that  he  was  to  hold  under  the  same 
obligations  as  to  celibacy  residence,  the  entertaining  of  the 
boys,  the  preaching  in  the  chapel,  expressed  in  the  Order  of 
i6(Si,  when  Benjamin  Colquit  was  appointed,  and  on  these 
terms  his  name  was  sent  by  the  governors  for  confirmation 
by  Archbishop  Narcissus  Marsh,  pursuant  to  the  Charter. 

The  new  century  opened  well  for  the  Hospital,  our  chair- 
man and  Lord  Mayor,  1699-1700,  was  Sir  Anthony  Percy. 
Our  finances  were  at  last  improving,  and  the  governors  now 
raised  the  number  of  the  boys  to  eighty.  A  legacy  of  1^600 
bequeathed  by  the  late  Chief  Baron  Bysse,  was  now  paid  in, 
and  by  Lord  Mayor  Percy's  aid,  was  lent  to  the  city,  which 
was  still  deeply  in  debt,  and  who  now  agreed  to  pay  the 
Hospital  an  annuity  at  eight  per  cent,  or  forty-eight  pounds, 
whilst  the  loan  rem.ained  outstanding.  Percy's  mayoralty 
has  left  a  memorable  mark  in  Dublin.  Under  him  the 
Assembly  resolved  to  erect  a  statue  of  M'^illiam  III.  in  copper 
or  mixed  metal.  A  contract  was  made  under  authority  of 
the  Lord  Mayor,  with  the  celebrated  sculptor,  Grinling 
Gibbons,  for  £800.  Gibbons  or  Gibbon,  Evelyn  gives  it  both 
ways,  was  discovered  by  the  great  Diarist  in  1670,  in  a 
wretched  shanty  near  Deptford,  carvmg  a  splendid  copy  of 
Tintoietto's  Crucifix,  and  he  at  once  perceived  the  man's 
genius.  He  introduced  him  to  his  friend,  King  Charles,  as 
"  this  incomparable  young  man  ;  "  he  proved  to  be  the 
greatest  wood  sculptor  England  has  ever  seen,  and  the  most 
prolific  :  he  was  a  great  statuary,  too.  His  works  still  adorn 
many  of  the  great  cathedralsedilia  andstalls,andmany  palaces 
and  houses.  From  Evelyn  alone  we  have  notes  of  his  deco- 
rating Windsor,  St.  James's,  Whitehall,  and  of  his  equestrian 
statue  of  Charles  II.  On  ist  July,  1701,  anniversary  of  the 
Boyne,  his  statue  of  William  was  inaugurated  in  College 
Green,  the  ceremonial,  as  witnessed  by  a  contemporary,  is 

TEMP.  JAMES  II.  AND  WILLIAM  III.,  1685-1702     121 

described  in  the  preface  of  the  sixth  vohime  of  Sir  John 
Gilbert's  Calendar.  All  the  civic  authorities  were  there,  with 
the  military  and  city  bands,  grenadiers,  militia,  and  crowds 
immense.  At  the  statue  they  received  the  Lords  Justices 
in  State,  Archbishop  Narcissus  Marsh,  and  the  Earls  of 
Drogheda  and  Mount  Alexander.  Then  all  marched  together 
thrice,  nobility  and  gentry  joining  in,  all  uncovered.  Kettle- 
drums, trumpets,  and  all  kinds  of  music  resounded  from  a 
stage  liard  by.  Then  our  Recorder,  Handcock,  made  a 
florid  oration  setting  forth  the  great  deeds  of  the  King,  after 
which  there  was  a  volley  from  the  great  guns.  Then  the 
Lords  Justices,  the  nobility  and  gentry,  with  the  Provost  and 
Fellows  of  Trinity  College,  were  entertained  by  the  Lord 
Mayor  in  an  improvised  building,  and  when  the  King's 
health  was  drunk  the  grenadiers  fired  the  great  guns  again, 
and  hogsheads  of  claret  with  baskets  of  cakes  were  opened 
for  the  multitude.  The  great  people  then  adjourned  to  the 
Mansion  House,  where  the  Lord  Mayor  gave  a  splendid 
banquet,  ladies  being  present,  and  the  night  closed  with 
fireworks,  ringing  of  bells,  illuminations  and  bonfires.  A 
tablet  on  the  north  side  of  the  statue  is  inscribed  : — Inclio- 
atum  An.  Dom.  MDCC.  Antonio  Percy  Equite  Aurato 
Praetore,  Carolo  Forrest,  Jocob  Barlow  vice  Comites. 
Absolutum  An.  Dom.  MDCCL  Marco  Rainsford  equite 
aurato  Praetore  Johanne  Eccles  Rudolpho  Gore,  vice 

Sir  John  Gilbert  states  that  the  execution  of  this  statue 
by  Grinling  Gibbons  had  been  unnoticed  previous  to  the 
publication  of  his  Calendar.  The  inaugural  ceremonial 
throws  light  on  the  periodic  march  of  the  College  students 
around  the  statue  on  festival  days  in  the  two  centuries 
since  elapsed.  Our  modern  crowds  would  bear  this  more 
patiently,  perhaps,  if  the  wine  were  flowing  and  the  cakes 
were  throwing  as  on  that  ist  July,  1701. 

In  this  year  two  ex  officio  governors  were  added  to  the 
Board.  The  Masters,  Wardens,  and  Brothers  of  the  Trinity 
Guild  of  Merchants,  voted  £24  a  year  to  the  Hospital  in  con- 
sideration of  having  three  nominations  of  boys  so  long  as  this 


annuity  continued.  The  then  Masters  of  the  Guild,  Joseph 
James,  and  Thomas  Pleasants,  were  at  once  co-opted  as 
Governors  during  their  term  of  office,  to  be  succeeded  by 
their  successors.  Masters  for  the  time  being.  In  the  next  year, 
1701,  SamAiel  Walton,  being  Lord  Mayor  and  our  Chair- 
man, the  Master  and  two  Wardens  of  St.  Anne's  Guild, 
Charles  Wallis,  Christopher  Borr,  and  John  Quin,  were 
similarly  co-opted,  ex  officio,  that  Guild  having  voted  £40' 
a  year  to  the  Hospital  some  time  before. 

In  1701,  Sir  W.  Handcock,  the  Recorder,  died,  and  John 
Forster  was  chosen  in  his  stead.  One  of  the  first  duties  of  his 
active  Recordership,  was  to  draw  up  the  address  of  con- 
dolence on  the  death  of  King  William  the  Third,  "  of  blessed 
memory,"  and  of  loyal  congratulation  to  the  new  Queen  Anne.. 
The  address  is  given  in  full  in  Sir  J.  Gilbert's  Calendar. ^^^  It 
bears  date  only  five  days  after  the  King's  demise,  on  the 
8  March,  1702. 

Osborne's  gift  brought  to  the  Blue  Coat  the  association 
of  names  much  loftier  than  his.  The  gift  was  inspired  by  his 
friend,  William  Molyneux,  philosopher,  patriot,  mathe- 
matician, metaphysician,  the  correspondent  of  Locke,  who 
said  he  was  proud  to  call  him  his  friend.  Representative  of 
the  family  of  Castle  Dillon,  Armagh,  he  was  now  M.P.  for 
Dublin.  Sent,  when  young,  to  report  to  the  Government 
scientifically  on  the  fortresses  of  Holland  menaced  by  Louis, 
he  was  made,  on  his  return,  a  fellow  of  the  newly  formed 
Royal  Society,  and  came  home  ambitious  to  form  a  similarly 
great  institution  here.  In  1653,  he,  accordingly,  formed 
the  Dublin  Philosophical  Society,  which,  though  broken  up 
and  exiled  in  James  II. 's  revolution,  ultimately  evolved  into 
the  Royal  Dublin  Society  as  it  now  exists,  for  restored  from 
exile,  after  the  Boyne,  he  resumed  his  scientific  labours,  and 
also  entered  the  field  of  politics,  wherein,  too,  he  attained 
high  fame.  Our  governors,  grateful  for  his  services  in  the 
Osborne  gift,  elected  him  a  governor,  and  we  find  him  at  our 
Board  in  April,  1698,  sitting  beside  his  friend,  Bartholomew 
Van  Homrigh,  then  Lord  Mayor.      It  was  in  this  year  he 

i«  Vol.  6,  262. 

TEMP.  JAMES  II.  AND  WILLIAM  III.,  1685  1702     123 

published  his  famous  Case  of  Ireland  Stated,  oft  quoted  even 
now,  but  he  sat  little  in  public  places  again  ;  he  died  in  the 
following  October,  He  brought  witli  him  to  our  Ploard,  his 
])rother-in-law,  Dr.  John  Madden,  and  his  brother,  Thomas,, 
whose  scientific  eminence  approached  liis  own.  Madden 
and  Thomas  j\Iol3aieux  were  amongst  the  most  distin- 
guished physicians  of  the  day.  They  had  been  colleagues 
of  William  in  the  founding  of  the  Dublin  Philosophical, 
whicli  Thomas  lived  to  see  merged  in  the  Royal  Dublin 
Society,  and  helped  the  merger.  He  was  physician-general 
to  the  army  in  Ireland,  and  was  made  a  baronet  in  1730. 
Dr.  JMadden,  when  becoming  a  governor,  most  generoush'' 
offered  his  services  as  standing  physician  to  the  School.  He 
is  ancestor  of  the  Right  Hon.  Mr.  Justice  Madden,  \icQ- 
Chancellor  of  T.C.D.,  and  was  father  of  Dr.  Samuel  Madden, 
the  eminent  scholar  and  founder  of  the  great  fellowship 
premium  in  his  University. 

The  names  of  Molyneux  and  Madden  recall  the  connection 
with  the  King  and  Queen's  College  of  Physicians, 
inaugurated  by  them,  which  existed  for  very  many  years 
aftei,  and  which  adds  a  memorable  grace  to  the  Annals  of 
the  Blue  Coat.  Dr.  John  Madden  had  been  President  of  the 
College  in  1694,  1697,  and  in  1700.  Sir  Thomas  IMolyneux 
held  the  same  position  four  times,  in  1702,  1709,  1713  and 
1720,  and  was  a  Governor  of  our  School  in  all  these  years. 
In  1717  the  Blue  Coat  Board  passed  a  resolution  that  all 
Presidents  of  the  College,  for  the  time  being,  should  be 
ex  oificio  Governors.  Of  these  Dr.  Br\'an  Robinson,  President 
in  1708,  1727  and  1739,  and  Dr.  William  Harvey,  President 
in  1784,  1791,  1797,  1802  and  1814,  were  in  turn  the  acting 
medical  officers  of  our  Hospital. 

Our  chairmen  in  King  William's  reign,  were.  Lord 
Mayors,  1690-1,  John  Otterington  ;  91-2-3,  Sir  Michael 
Mitchell  ;  93-4,  Sir  John  Rogerson  ;  94-5,  George  Blackball  ; 
95-6,  William  Watt  ;  96-7,  Wm.  Billington  ;  97-8,  Bartholo- 
mew Van  Homrigh  ;  98-9,  Thomas  Quin  ;  99-700,  Anthony 
Percy  ;  1701-2,  Samuel  Walton. 

124       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

During  the  revolution,  and  for  some  years  after,  the 
extension  of  the  city  was  checked,  for  its  chiefs  were  more 
occupied  in  fiUing  the  wastes  already  taken  in  than  in  enclos- 
ing others.  In  1699,  reciting  the  great  increase  of  the  city 
"  which  is  now  much  greater  in  the  suburbs  than  within  the 
walls,"  the  Assembly  resolve  that  the  ancient  gates  are  now 
of  little  use  or  security,  and  so  decree  that  the  old  Damas 
gate,  the  principal  entrance  to  the  city,  shall  be  pulled  down, 
as  some  others  have  been  by  toleration  of  the  Government." 
So  down  went  the  historic  approach  to  the  Castle  through 
which  the  Piantagenet  pageants  had  passed.^/  Reform  is 
ruthless,  yet  the  Order  vindicates  its  vandalism,  stating  the 
entrance  to  be  uphill,  and  only  nine  feet  across,  whilst  the 
removal  \^iil  give  fourteen  feet  at  Crane  Lane,  and  so  let  two 
carriages  pass.  Crane  Lane  to-day  where  Dame  Street 
narrows  at  the  Lower  Castle  Yard,  marks  the  site  of  the 
mediaeval  tower. 

1'  Gilbert's  Calendar,  6,  222. 

[      125      ] 


1702-1 7 14.      TEMP.     QUEEN   ANNE. 

An  entry  in  our  books  in  Queen  Anne's  first  year,  indicates 
that  she  acknowledged  the  loyal  address  of  the  City  by  a 
royal  gift  to  King's  Hospital.  It  runs  :  "^200  given  b}^ 
the  Queen  out  of  the  quarter's  vacancy  of  the  Primacy.'^ 
This  is  noteworthy,  as  suggesting  a  remnant  of  the  Pre- 
rogative by  which  during  the  vacancy  of  a  See  or  Diocese 
its  revenues  vested  in  the  Crown.  It  was  by  this  assumed 
right,  William  Rufus  left  bishoprics  vacant  for  years, 
seizing  the  income  meanwhile,  and  this  led  to  his  murder, 
for  murder  it  was,  in  the  New  Forest.  When  King  Henry 
VIII.  became  Caput  Ecclesiasticum,  this  prerogative  again 
attached  to  the  supremacy  and  went  to  his  successors,  and 
it  was  used  by  Charles  II.,  when  needy,  or  his  ladies  were 
greedy.  In  December,  1702,  Primate  Michael  Boyle  died 
after  a  reign  at  Armagh  of  twenty-four  years,  and  in  Spring 
Narcissus  Marsh  was  appointed.  Dr.  Wm.  King  of  Derry 
being  translated  to  Dublin.  Thus  there  was  a  vacancy  of 
three  months,  during  which  Dr.  King  administered  the 
revenues  under  the  Crown,  and  probably  prompted  our 
royal  gift.  The  loyal  city  for  some  time  afterwards  styled 
our  School,  "  The  Queen's  Hospital."  One  of  Anne's 
best,  because  sincerest,  characteristics,  was  her  devotion 
to  the  Church,  as  evinced  by  Queen  Anne's  Bounty,  and  the 
surrender  to  the  Church  of  the  First  Fruits  or  first  year's 
revenue  of  benefices  which  Henr}^  had  taken  from  the 
Pope  in  his  own  supremacy.  This  grace  was  soon  after 
conferred  by  the  Queen  on  the  Church  of  Ireland,  mainly 
owing  to  Swift's  mission  and  exertions. 

King's    Hospital    just    now    obtained    a    parish    church 
with    parochial    rights.         Hitherto    St.    Michan's    covered 

126      FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL. 

the  whole  north  side  of  the  river  from  the  Park  to  the 
North  Strand,  with  houses  few  and  far  between.  But  after 
the  Restoration  the  City  spread,  and  many  nobles  now  had 
villas  in  Oxmantown.  By  Statute  of  9  William  III.,  c.  16, 
reciting  that  from  the  late  increase  of  buildings  and  inhabi- 
tants in  the  Parish  of  St.  Michan's  in  tlic  suburbs  of  Dublin 
the  cure  of  souls  had  become  too  great  for  a  single  minister, 
it  was  divided  into  three — St.  PauTs,  taking  Oxmantown 
Green  from  the  Park  to  Smithfield,  St.  Mary's,  extending 
east  from  Capel  Street  to  the  sea,  the  centre  being  reserved 
to  the  mother  parish,  St.  Michan's.  In  1702,  St.  Paul's  was 
ready  for  consecration.  At  this  ceremonial  a  deed  of  gift 
in  perpetuity  was  always  exhibited  which  on  the  petition 
of  the  new  Parish,  the  City  now  gi anted,  but  thereby 
reserved  "a  seat  in  the  Church  for  the  Lord  Mayor  and  his 
successors,  and  a  place  for  the  Blew  Boys  of  King  Charles's 
Hospital,"  which  then  lay  almost  adjacent  to  the  new 
Parish  Church.  Dr.  Ezekiel  Burridge  was  first  rector  of 
St.  Paul's — he  was  one  of  our  benefactors. 

As  its  own  Chapel  and  Chaplain  were  part  of  its  Chartered 
Constitution,  the  Blue  Coat  did  not  often  need  to  claim  its 
statutory  rights  in  St.  Paul's,  though  the  boys  were  sometimes 
sent  there  when  our  chapel  was  not  available.  And  when 
in  1821  St.  Paul's  was  being  re-built,  our  governors  granted 
the  Blue  Coat  Chapel  to  be  used  temporarily  as  the  parish 
church,  in  response  to  a  memorial  from  the  Rev.  ]\Ir.  Radcliffe 
the  rector  of  St.  Paul's. 

This  year  the  number  of  boys  was  increased  to  82,  the 
patronage  of  the  two  city  guilds  proved  a  great  stimulus  to 
the  Governors  and  the  staff.  The  tiaining  in  mathematics 
was  specially  committed  to  Moland,  our  steward,  who  was 
■also  surveyor  and  accountant  of  the  Corporations  and  to 
Mead,  our  second  master,  who  was  with  us  from  the 
beginning,  and  who  was  this  year  specially  thanked  by  the 
Board,    and   his   salary   raised.  The    Trinity     Guild   of 

Merchants  recognised  the  carrying  out  of  the  p(.)hcy  by 
raising  their  annual  contribution  to  the  Hospital  to  /50, 
which  they  paid  for  many  years.      In  171 0  the}^  by  leave 

TEMP.  QUEEN  ANNE,  1702-1714  127 

of  the  Governors,  formed  a  Mathematical  class-room  in  a 
gallery  of  the  Hospital,  they  had  a  Navigation  school  ot 
their  own,  and  in  1711  arranged  with  our  board  to  train  in 
this,  four  of  our  best  lads,  sending  to  our  class  four  boys 
of  their  own  nomination,  and  a  few  years  after  they  gave 
a  further  grant  of  £20  yearly  for  a  master  to  teach  eight 
of  our  boys  the  art  of  navigation. 

The  return  of  Archbishop  King  to  Dublin  was  a 
momentous  event  for  oui  Hospital,  for  the  many  3^ears  in 
which  as  buildei  of  churches,  reformer  of  abuses  in  church 
and  state,  organiser  of  charities,  promoter  of  education, 
he  wrought  with  a  generous  energy  which  has  never  been 
rivalled,  up  to  his  death  in  1729. ^  His  influence  operated 
everywhere,  for  with  the  Corporation  it  was  immense. 
We  can  trace  it  thus  early,  though  unseen,  in  the  advance 
our  School  now  makes.  In  1704  all  our  boys  were  trained 
in  Church  music  systematically,  and  we  find  them  two  years 
after  placed  under  a  skilled  musician,  Neville  Fane.  This 
step  taken  two  centuries  ago  in  a  Dublin  Charity  School, 
is  noteworthy,  when  we  think  of  how  little  the  example 
has  been  followed  since,  or  even  in  these  days  of  universal 
education  of  all  classes  in  all  things.  This,  with  the  progress 
of  our  Mathematical  classes,  brought  us  new  governors, 
as  always  happened  when  the  school  throve.  The  Hon. 
Sir  Charles  Fielding,  Colonel  of  the  King's  Regiment  of 
Guards,  and  a  Privy  Councillor,  now  joined  the  board.  He 
was  brother  of  the  Third  Eail  of  Denbigh,  and  grand-uncle 
of  the  great  novelist,  Henry  Fielding.  At  his  deatii  a  few 
years  afterwards  he  left  us  a  legacy.  With  him  came 
William,  second  Viscount  Charlemont,  to  remain  a  governor 
for  the  rest  of  his  life.  Then  we  have  nominations  by  the 
Duchess  of  Ormond,  the  wife  of  the  Lord  Lieutenant,  second 
Duke  ;  she  was  Mary,  daughter  of  the  Duke  of  Beaufort ; 
and  by  the  Lord  Chancellor,  Sir    Richard  Cox. 

And  yet  at  this  time  we  find  the  sequelae  of  the  Revolu- 
tion still  seriously  weakening  us   in   the  general  want   of 

1  On  his  return  his  nephew,  Thos.  King,  our  Old  Chaplain,  Tyrconnell's 
prisoner,  was  chosen  Prebendary  of  Swords  in  S.  Patrick's  Cathedral. 


money  ;  our  waste  grounds  in  Stephen's  Green  and  Oxman- 
town  still  unbuilt  on,  and  our  rents  of  these  and  through 
the  country  deeply  in  arrear,  owing  to  what  are  now  called 
the  late  troublous  times.  So  our  governors  were  obliged 
to  look  out  on  all  sides  for  ways  and  means. 

A  source  of  income  had  been  devised  by  letting  the  great 
hall  for  public  entertainments :  this  was  now  put  an  end  to. 
A  rope  dancer  had  given  us  one  benefit  night  in  1703  for 
the  use  of  the  hall,  which  yielded  just  £20,  but  the  Governors 
decreed  that—"  such  diversions  were  very  prejudicial  to 
good  government,  causing  the  boys  to  be  disorderly,  to 
break  the  glass  windows  and  cause  scandal," — so  the  rope 
dancing  ceased,  doubtless  much  to  the  disgust  of  our  boys^ 
and  a  Board  Order  forbade  the  future  letting  of  the  Hall 
save  by  special  leave  of  the  Governors.  This  seems  to  have 
been  given  some  time  after,  when  the  great  Italian  Opera 
singer,  Nicolini,  came  to  Dublin.  He  had  taken  London  by 
storm,  he  was  the  Mario  of  his  day,  and  was  known  in 
Naples  as  Cavaliere  Nicolini,  and  Addison  pronounces  him 
the  greatest  performer  in  dramatic  music  then  living,  or 
that  perhaps  ever  appeared  on  our  stage,  but  our  Governors 
did  not  appreciate  the  memory  this  celebrity  would  leave 
to  King's  Hospital ;  though  he  gave  them  a  benefit  night 
which  fetched  £40,  they  treated  his  performance  as  they 
had  done  that  of  the  poor  nameless  acrobat,  for  in  December, 
171 1,  the  Board  resolved  that  the  use  of  the  hall  for  such 
purposes  had  given  great  offence,  and  that  it  should  never 
again  be  employed  for  "  Musick  Meetings,"  or  public  diversions 
of  any  kind.  But  the  loss  from  this  source  was  paitly 
compensated.  There  was  then  a  usage  that  each  newly 
co-opted  alderman  should  give  a  feast  to  the  Lord  Mayor 
and  his  fellows  in  our  boardroom,  not  in  the  Tholsel.  Thomas 
Bell  being  Lord  Mayor  and  chairman,  it  was  ordered  that 
the  three  late  chosen  aldermen  and  all  their  successors 
should  in  lieu  of  the  banquet  pay  £10  to  the  Hospital,  and 
this  usage  continued  for  many  years. 

At  this  time,  too,  the  medical  care  of  the  School  was  placed 
upon  a  systematic  basis,  and  the  connexion  with  the  K.  and 

TEMP.  QUEEN  AXNE,  1702-1714  129 

Q.  College  of  Physicians  confirmed  which  lasted  for  generations, 
to  the  lasting  honour  of  the  College,  whose  generosity  to  our 
Hospital  was  beyond  all  praise.  Their  original  charter  bore 
nearly  equal  date  with  ours.  Their  royalty,  like  ours,  comes 
from  Charles  IL  Foi  ten  years  past  the  Surgeon-General, 
Dr.  Proby,  had  taken  medical  charge  of  the  School  gratui- 
tously ;  in  1705  he  was  obliged  to  discontinue  for  a  time,  and 
a  special  meeting  of  our  Board  was  held,  and  very  largely 
attended.  Proby  was  called  in,  and  the  Lord  Mayor  conveyed 
to  him  the  thanks  of  the  Governors  for  his  great  charity  in 
taking  care  of  the  sick  and  distempered  children  for  all  those 
years.  He  was  thereupon  elected  a  Governor,  and  took  his 
seat  then  and  there,  promising  to  continue  his  good  offices  so 
far  as  possible.  Dr.  Minchin,  who  had  acted  in  his  absence, 
was  also  thanked,  and  a  resolution  passed  to  attend  at  the 
College  of  Physicians  and  ask  that  they  might  be  pleased 
to  allow  one  of  their  Fellows  always,  by  turns,  to  afford  their 
charitable  advice  to  the  children  as  occasion  should  require. 
In  March,  1706,  Dr.  Grattan,  the  President,  conveyed  to  the 
Board  the  decision  of  the  College  that  they  were  so  charitably- 
disposed  as  to  give  their  advice  and  assistance  to  the  Hos- 
pital on  all  occasions  gratis,  and  would  take  care  that  one  of 
their  members  should  every  three  months  by  turns  constantly 
visit  the  School  ;  and  they  asked  that  three  of  the  waste 
rooms  should  now  be  set  apart  as  an  Infirmary,  and  this  was 
done.  The  names  of  Grattan  and  Minchin  have  been  honor- 
ably represented  in  the  medical  profession  of  Dublin  through 
many  years,  nearly  reaching  to  our  own  times. 

1706  witnessed  a  great  movement  in  the  making  of  Dublin 
which  promised  to  be  a  signal  aid  to  King's  Hospital.  The 
VI.  Anne,  c.  20,  made  Dublin  for  the  first  time  a  real  Port. 
Reciting  the  miserable  condition  of  the  river  estuary  and 
consequent  necessity  of  discharging  the  ships  at  Ringsend 
and  carrying  the  cargoes  up  river  through  sandy  shoals,  this 
Act  created  a  Ballast  Office,  which  was  in  truth  our  first  Port 
and  Harbour  Boaid  ;  its  chief  members  were  the  Lord  Mayor 
and  aldermen.  All  ships  were  now  obliged  to  take  ballast 
from  the  estuary  bed  at  a  shilling  per  ton,  with  twopence  per 



ton  besides  as  harbour  dues,  foreign  vessels  being  charged  at 
higher  rates  ;  and  it  was  provided  that  the  whole  surplus 
revenue  of  the  new  board  should  be  paid  over  towards  the 
maintenance  of  the  Blue  Coat  School.  This  apparently  splendid 
subsidy,  howevei,  proved  nugatory  as  such,  for  the  operations 
of  the  Ballast  Office  throughout  the  century  were  so  large 
and  continuous  in  channelling  the  Liffey  and  construct- 
ing quays,  that  they  not  only  never  had  a  surplus,  but  were 
always  heavily  in  debt.  The  provision,  nevertheless,  marks 
the  high  estimate  in  which  our  School  was  now  publicly  held, 
and  its  part  in  the  life  of  the  city,  whose  governors,  as 
presently  seen,  gave  the  Hospital  a  considerable  equivalent 
for  the  income  that  thus  proved  illusory.  The  proposed 
appropriation  of  the  Port  revenue  to  the  city  school  was  sup- 
ported in  an  address  by  the  City  Assembly  to  Prince  George 
of  Denmark,  the  Queen's  Consort,  then  High  Admiral  of 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  on  the  ground  that  the  boys  were 
instructed  in  navigation  to  qualify  them  for  Her  Majesty's 
sea  service.- 

What  would  our  temperance  reformers  of  to-da}'  think  of 
the  governors  who  erected  a  brewery  in  King's  Hospital  to 
brew  our  own  beer  for  our  boys  ?  We  may  plead  in  mitigation, 
however,  that  it  was  only  small  beer.  There  were  even  then 
nearly  seventy  brewers  in  Dubhn  ;  they  had  suffered  like 
other  trades  through  the  political  convulsions.  In  the  fever  of 
these,  in  1689,  Tyiconnell's  troopers  had  impressed  their 
horses,  with  such  a  paralysis  to  trade  and  excise  that  the 
Jacobite  Government  had  to  stop  their  ov/n  troopers  by  pro- 
clamation, and  even  now  the  small  beer  was  dear.  So  our 
governors  petitioned  the  Corporation,  which  was  not  then  so 
strongly  represented  by  "  the  Trade  "  as  now,  and,  in 
January,  1707,  the  Assembly  voted  ;£ioo  to  the  Hospital  foi 
a  brewhouse — "  whereby  the  number  of  poor  bovs  main- 
tained therein  may  be  encouraged  in  the  frugal  management 
of  brewing  their  own  drink."'  ■'  Our  governor,  Alderman  Hen- 
drick,  who  lived  close  by,  and  from  whom  Hendrick  Street  is 
named,  was  commissioned  to  carry  out  the  work.         The 

-  Gilbeit's   Caloidar,   6,    274.  ^  Gill)crt's   Calenclay,   C\    36 

TEMP.  QUEEN  ANNE,  1702-1714  131 

quality  of  our  brewings  may  be  understood  by  exports  from 
an  entry  in  our  minutes  directing  that  18  barrels  of  beer  shall 
be  brewed  from  8  barrels  of  malt. 

In  1707  Ezekiel  Burridge,  first  rector  of  the  new  St.  Paul's. 
died,  and  thereon  en-^aed  an  unseemly  quarrel,  which  affected 
our  school  routine  for  a  time, and  which  throws  curious  light 
on  the  judicial  system  then  in  force.  In  May,  1708,  there  is 
an  order  of  our  Board  directing  Charles  Cair,  the  chaplain,  to 
preach  every  Friday  morning  and  read  prayers  in  the  chapel, 
and  in  the  afternoon  to  catechise  the  boys  and  read  evening 
prayers,  as  provided  by  the  original  Order  of  1675,  and  that 
for  the  future  the  boys  should  not  continue  to  attend  St. 
PauFs.  This  order  they  respited  a  few  days  after—"  till  the 
law  suite  between  Mr.  Carr  and  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of 
Christ  Church  be  ended,  provided  it  continue  not  more  than 
six  months  ;  "  and  this  respite  was  afterwards  extended,  for 
the  suit  continued  through  ten  long  years.  Our  books  give  no 
further  hint  of  the  subject  of  dispute,  those  of  Christ  Church 
scarce  more,  and  no  trace  can  be  found  either  in  the  Public 
Records  Ofhce  or  the  Irish  Law  Books.  But  a  search  has 
unearthed  the  story  in  Josiah  Brown's  reports  of  Cases  in  the 
English  House  of  Lords,  and  shows  it  to  be  a  first  chapter  of 
the  fierce  conflict  which  waged  for  sixteen  years  between  the 
Dean  and  Chapter  and  Archbishop  Kmg.4  Burridge  died 
4th  August,  1707,  and  on  the  selfsame  day  the  Dean  and 
Chapter,  in  indecent  haste,  nominated  Revd.  William 
Williamson  rector,  acting  on  the  right  of  nomination  reserved 
to  them  by  the  Act  of  1696  ;  executed  the  Instrument  of 
Induction  on  the  following  day,  and  before  Burridge  was 
buried ;  and  certified  their  act  to  the  Archbishop  in  Septem- 
ber. On  Sunday,  9th  November,  Williamson  came  to  St. 
Paul's  and  read  the  morning  prayers  ;  but  before  he  could 
read  himself  in  according  to  law,  our  chaplain,  Carr,  shut  the 
doors  and  excluded  the  congregation  at  evening  service,  and 
when  Williamson  proceeded  again  to  officiate,  Carr  with  both 
hands  closed  his  eyes  and  mouth,  and  he  was  unable  to  read 

'  For  more  of  this  quarrel,  see  Dr.  George  Sloke's  Woyihic.'i  of  the  Irish 
Church,  Chapter    X. 


himself  in,  a  form  then  essential  to  perfect  his  title  as  rector, 
even  if  otherwise  valid.  This  more  than  strong  measure  was 
manifestly  dictated  by  the  Archbishop  in  order  to  cast  on 
Christ  Church  the  burden  of  proving  title,  rather  than  forcing 
him  to  proceed  against  a  rector  de  facto  in  possession,  for  the 
real  objection  to  Williamson  was  that  the  Dean  and  Chapter 
had  refused  to  present  him  for  approval  of  the  Archbishop  as 
"Ordinary  of  the  Arch-Diocese.  The  Dean  was  then  Dr.  Welborc; 
Ellis,  Bishop  of  Kildare,  so  appointed  in  1705.  He  was  tiuly 
a  lighting  prelate.  The  contention  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter 
was  that,  as  the  successors  to  the  Abbey  of  the  Holy  Trinity, 
reconstituted  by  Henry  VHL  as  a  cathedral,  the}'  still  had 
the  old  abbatial  right  to  a  jurisdiction  of  their  own,  free  from 
that  of  the  Archbishop,  and  extending  over  all  the  prebendary 
churches  of  the  cathedral,  of  which  Old  St.  Michan's  was  one, 
and  that  this  right  was  preserved  when  the  parish  was  divided 
into  three  under  the  words  of  the  statute,  which  gives  them 
the  patronage  of  all  three  in  such  manner  as  the  right  of 
presentation  to  the  old  parish  of  St.  Michan's  had  previously 
existed,  and  not  otherwise  ;  or,  as  the  lawyers  expressed  it, 
that  their  rights  were  donative,  in  their  own  free  gift,  and  not 
presentativc  and  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Ordinary'  as 
all  other  parishes  were.  So,  in  1708,  they  proceeded  in  the 
Irish  Common  Plea,s  by  a  feigned  plaintiff  against  Carr  for 
the  prevention  and  exclusion  of  Williamson,  and  his  personal 
acts  of  the  9th  November.  The  Common  Pleas  decided  on 
full  argument  in  favoui  of  Christ  Church  that  the  living 
was  donative  ;  but  an  appeal  then  lay  from  them  to  the 
Irish  Queen's  Bench,  who,  on  bill  of  exceptions  and  writ  of 
error,  unanimously  reversed  the  Common  Pleas.  This  was 
in  Hilary^  170Q.  From  the  Irish  Queen's  Bench  there  was 
a  similar  right  of  appeal  to  the  Queen's  Bench  in  England, 
which  was  taken  in  1712,  and  they  unanimously  affirmed  the 
Queen's  Bench  here,  but  Christ  Church  still  went  on.  They 
took  the  case  to  the  English  Lords,  where  it  was  argued  in 
1717  at  gi-eat  length  by  great  lawyers  ;  Constantine  Phipps, 
Lord  Chancellor  here  when  the  litigation  began,  but  who  had 
returned  to  the  English  Bar  when  superseded  on   the  acces- 

TEMP.  QUEEN  ANNE,  1702-1714  133 

sion  of  George  I.,  was  for  Christ  Church,  and  Raymond,  the 
great  lawyer  and  reporter,  was  counsel  for  Carr.  The  Lords 
unanimously  affirmed  the  two  Queen's  Benches,  and  gave 
judgment  for  Carr,  deciding  that  the  Rectory  was  presen- 
tative,  and  that  on  the  division  into  three  parishes  each 
became  like  all  others  in  tlie  city  subject  to  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  Metropolitan,  the  statute  merely  preserving  the  right  of 
Christ  Church  to  present,  like  other  patrons.  Three  other 
contention?  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  met  a  similar  fate.  On 
similar  grounds  they  had  denied  the  Archbishop's  right  to 
visit  the  Cathedral,  and,  locking  the  gates,  compelled  him  to 
liold  his  visitation  outside  the  west  door.  They  also  spurned 
his  right  to  summon  to  his  visitation  the  prebendaries  of 
their  cathedral  stalls  ;  obliged  Theophilus  Harrison,  rector 
of  old  St.  John's,  to  refuse  to  attend  them  and  to  bring  an 
action  against  the  Archbishop  ;  they  refused  to  admit  the 
Archbishop's  nephew,  Archdeacon  Dongat,  to  his  ex- officio 
seat  in  the  Chapter,  unless  he  first  swore  canonical  obedience 
to  the  Dean.  All  these  ca\ises,  like  Carr's,  went  each  to  the 
four  above-named  tribunals,  and  in  all  twelve  hearings  the 
Archbishop  prevailed,  ha\-ing  fifteen  judgments  in  all  against 
the  single  one  against  Carr  on  the  original  hearing  in  the 
Common  Pleas. 

Meanwhile  the  Archbishop,  as  upon  a  lapse,  had  presented 
Dr.  Carr  to  St.  Paul's  to  hold  along  with  his  Blue  Coat  Head- 
mastership  and  chaplaincy,  and  it  was  thus  he  could  not 
officiate  on  Sunday  in  our  chapel — obliged  to  keep  William- 
son out  and  himself  in,  at  St.  Paul's  Church.  He  had  now 
become  a  notable,  and  was  appointed  also  Chaplain  to  the 
House  of  Commons,  for  the  Archbisliop  was  a  staunch  friend. 
This  Christ  Church  episode  is  more  interesting  to  us  from  our 
relations  in  other  things  with  the  Dean  Bishop  Welbore  Ellis  ; 
during  Anne's  reign  the  name  of  Dean  Pierre  or  Peter  Drelin- 
court  very  often  appears  in  our  records  as  a  governor  and 
benefactor.  He  gave  the  Hospital  £700  charge  on  the  estate 
of  Sir  William  Ellis,  a  relative  of  the  bishop.  This  estate 
proved  insolvent,  and  our  governors  were  involved  in  litiga- 
tion with  its  representatives,  of  whom  the  bishop  was  one,  to 


raise  the  cliarge,  and  it  was  only  after  several  years  that,  in 
1709,  when  the  Christ  Church  suit  was  at  its  height,  the 
bishop  compromised  our  claim,  paying  himself  £500  to  the 
Board.  Though  a  fierce  litigant,  he  did  not  resent  the  action 
of  the  Hospital  ;  his  animus  was  against  the  Archbisho]).  for, 
a  Jacobite  himself,  he  hated  the  Archbishop,  who  was  an 
arch-William ite,  and  for  a  worse  motive,  because  the  Arch- 
bishop was  bent  on  suppressing  the  abuses  at  Christ  Church, 
many  of  which  were  flagrant,  and  which  he  has  thus  summed 
up: — "  They  live  in  opposition  to  all  mankind  except  their- 
lawyers,  squander  their  earnings,  have  turned  their  Chapter 
House  into  a  tov  shop,  their  vaults  into  wine  cellars,  and 
allowed  a  room  in  the  body  of  the  church,  formerly  for  a  ( rrand 
Jury  room,  now  for  a  robe  room,  for  the  judges,  and  are 
greatly  chagrined  at  my  getting  two  or  three  churches  built 
in  the  parishes  belonging  to  them,  which  were  formerl}^ 
neglected,  as  several  others  still  are  ;  their  Cathedral  is  in  a 
pitiful  condition,  and  they  seem  to  have  little  regard  to  the 
good  of  the  Church  or  the  service  of  God.  This  has  made  me 
zealous  to  settle  my  jurisdiction  over  them,  and  the  same 
makes  them  unwilling  to  come  under  it."  These  abuses 
could  only  plead  prescription,  for  we  have  seen  how  toy  shops 
and  wine  cellars  had  been  denounced  by  Strafford  and 
Primate  Bramhall  seventy  years  before  ;  and  yet  Bishop 
Ellis  merits  a  kindly  word  here,  for,  after  his  final  defeat  in 
the  St.  Paul's  case,  he  joined  our  Board  in  1715,  though  Carr 
was  still  our  chaplain,  gave  us  £50  in  1720  and  £50  in  1729  ; 
and  when  made  Bishop  of  Kildare  and  Dean,  he  had  paid  his 
Consecration  Feasts,  £30,  which  so  many  other  bishops  were 
then  very  chary  of  doing.  He  died  in  1731,  Bishop  of  Meath 
and  a  Privy  Councillor,  and  is  ancestor  of  the  Agar  Ellises, 
Viscounts  Clifden.  He  came  from  Oxfoid,  where  his  portrait 
still  hangs,  imported  to  Ireland  like  so  many  bishops  then,  as 
so  furiously  denounced  by  Swift  ;  but  he  rests  in  Christ 
Church,  headc|uarters  of  his  lengthened  wars. 

Dean  Drelincouit's  ^^700  was  munificent,  for  he  was  him- 
self a  refugef^  the  son  of  a  notable  French  Protestant 
Minister.     He  came  here  in  1681,  and  was  made  chaplain  to 

TEMP.  QUEEN  ANNE,  1702-1714  135 

the  great  Duke  of  Ormond  and  Precentor  of  Christ  Church. 
Struck  by  the  warm  welcome  his  compatriots  received  from 
the  city,  he  preached  a  famous  sermon  before  the  Lord  Lieu- 
tenant and  Privy  Council  there,  to  return^  as  he  said,  the 
humble  thanks  of  the  French  Protestants  arrived  in  Dublin 
and  graciously  relieved  ;  and  this  sentiment  was  doubtless  the 
motive  of  his  gift  to  the  City  School.  In  1691  he  became 
Dean  of  Armagh,  but  still  retained  his  connection  with  Christ 
Church  and  with  our  Board,  loyally  helping  us  to  realise  his 
gift.  His  correspondence  with  the  governors,  of  whom  he 
was  an  active  one,  exhibits  the  amiable  personality  whicli 
made  him  popular  here  and  in  Armagh.  At  tlie  request  of 
the  governors,  he  sat  for  his  portrait,  which  for  several  gene- 
rations decorated  oui  walls,  but  which  has  disappeared,  we 
know  not  how.  He  died  in  1722,  Dean  and  Rector  of 
Armagh,  where  his  handsome  monument  in  the  cathedral 
preserves  a  worthy  memory.  His  portrait  was  by  Michael 
Mitchell,  who  painted  many  celebrities  of  the  day,  including 
that  of  George  L  presented  by  that  king  to  the  city,  but  which 
was  cut  to  pieces  in  1719  by  unknown  vandals,  presumably 
Jacobites,  who  forcibly  broke  into  the  City  Hall  of  the 
Tholsel  by  night. "^ 

In  1709  oui  chairman  and  Lord  Mayor  was  Sir  William 
Fownes,  one  of  the  worthies  and  makers  of  Dublin.  Fownes's 
Street  was  laid  out  by  him,  as  was  Cope  Street  hard  by, 
which  is  named  from  his  son-iu-la>\'.  A  ver\^  interesting 
letter  of  Fownes'  to  Swift,  who  many  years  after  consulted 
him  on  his  project  foi  Swift's  Hospital,  describes  the  con- 
dition of  Dublin  as  regards  the  Insane,  during  the  period  of 
his  mayorality,  which  is  memorable  for  the  presentation  of 
the  freedom  by  him  of  the  city  to  ' '  the  Right  Honourable 
Joseph  Addison,  Esquire,  Chief  Secretary  of  State  to  the 
Lord  Lieutenant  of  this  Kingdom."  He  had  come  with  Lord 
Wharton  on  his  first  visit  to  Ireland,  but  his  lame  had  pie- 
ceded  him.  No  other  Secretary  had  till  then  been  called  "Chief," 
and  he  is  perhaps  the  only  one  who  has  been  publicly  styled 
a  Secretary  of  State.       Amongst  our  benefactions  at  the 

■'•  GilhpTt's  CaJoular  7,  viii. 


period  were  ;{400  by  the  will  of  Dr.  Steevens,  who  also  left 
;£6oo  a  year  to  found  the  Hospital  called  by  his  name,  and 
which  his  sister,  Madame  Griselda  Steevens,  generously  com- 
pleted in  the  following  reign  ;  ;^ioo  left  b}^  Mr.  John  Salmon, 
a  London  merchant,  and  some  similar  bequests  of  the  same 
amount  ;  and  amongst  our  nominators  we  find  Sir  Richard 
Pyne,  Lord  Chief  Justice  of  Ireland,  and  the  Countess  of 
Donegall  ;  she  was  a  daughter  of  the  Earl  of  Granard.  There 
is  also  a  legacy  of  £50  by  Dr.  Ezekiel  Burridge,  our  old  neigh- 
bour, first  rector  of  St.  Paul's  alluded  to  above.  It  was  a 
liberal  bequest  from  a  clergyman  who  was  not  rich.  We  find 
his  namesake,  Ezekiel  Burridge,  amongst  the  forty  boys 
admitted  to  the  School  under  the  Toll  Corne  Subsid}^,  pre- 
sently mentioned,  on  the  request  of  his  widow,  and,  having 
regard  to  this  benefaction ;  it  was  his  testimony  as  a  witness 
to  the  value  of  the  School,  close  by  which  he  had  officiated 
in  the  new  parish  church. 

The  success  and  popularity  of  the  School  had  naturally  led 
to  an  increase  in  the  admissions,  which,  in  1713,  had  reached 
no  ;  this  encouraged  the  governors  to  petition  the  city  for 
such  an  annual  allowance  as  would  enable  them  to  utilise  the 
building  constructed  to  receive  300  boys.  There  was  a  tax 
on  all  grain  coming  into  the  city  then,  for  free  fooders  were 
not  3^et  in  evidence.  This  was  known  as  the  "  Toll  Corne." 
The  Assembly  thereupon  ordered  that  £250  per  annum,  in 
case  the  Toll  Corne  should  answer  same,  should  be  appropria- 
ted for  the  support  of  forty  boys  to  be  added  to  the  number 
in  the  Hospital. 6  This,  commencing  from  All  Saints,  1712, 
proved  one  of  our  main  sources  of  income  for  over  eighty 
years.  Some  seventeen  new  boys  were  now  admitted,  but 
the  full  carrying  out  of  the  project  was  checked  by  the  city 
schism  in  the  last  years  of  Queen  Anne  and  the  consequent 
interregnum  to  the  mayoralty.  About  the  same  time  two 
houses  in  Smithfield  were  devised  to  the  Hospital  by  the  will 
of  Dr.  Pooley,  Bishop  of  Raphoe,  and  which  we  still  hold  at 
the  present  day.  He  was  an  old  neighbour,  when  rector  of 
the  old  undivided  parish  of  St.  Michan's,  and  as  such  had 

'■'  Gilbert's  Calendar,  6,  479. 

TEMP.  QUEEN  ANNE,  1702-1714  137 

been  a  Prebendary  of  Christ  Church.  He  was  a  Fellow  of 
Trinity  College,  and  was  raised  successively  to  the  Bishoprics 
of  Cloyne  and  Raphoe  ;  but  he  never  forgot  his  old  friends  of 
Oxmantown,  and  showered  gifts  on  his  old  St.  Michan's, 
where  he  lies,  and  where  his  monument  still  records  his  large- 
hearted  charities,  of  which  a  list  is  given  in  Harris's  Jl'<r/r. 
This  Toll  Corne  subsidy  was  presumably  granted  owing  to 
the  failure  of  the  Ballast  Office  grant  as  a  source  of   income. 

The  Three  Years  War. 

The  history  vi  England  in  the  last  four  years  of  Queen 
Anne  was  reflected  in  Dublin,  and  affected  even  the  Blue 
Coat  School.  Our  minute  book,  which,  save  in  James  H.'s 
time,  has  given  an  unbroken  record  from  the  opening  to  1713, 
shows  an  hiatus  of  fourteen  months  from  September,  1713, 
to  November,  1714.  This  is  not  neglect  or  mutilation,  but 
the  mute  evidence  of  an  interregnum  when  no  meetings  were 
held,  due  to  the  three  years'  conflict  between  the  Irish 
Government  and  the  Corporation,  which  itself  reflected  the 
conflict  that  then  raged  through  the  three  Kingdoms.  Tlius 
the  story  has  a  place  here.  The  flight  of  Bolingbroke,  the 
impeachment  of  Harley,  the  attainder  and  exile  of  the  Duke 
of  Ormonde,  were  the  outcome  of  the  intrigues  in  the  Tory 
ministry  which  Swift's  genius  kept  in  power  through  the 
preceding  four  years,  when,  conscious  of  the  Queen's 
yearnings  towards  her  stepbrother,  some  of  them  at  least 
schemed  to  bring  home  the  Chevalier  of  St.  George  as  James 
HI.  on  the  next  demise  of  the  Crow^n.  The  Irish  Govern- 
ment, under  the  second  Duke  of  Ormonde,  had  certainly 
leanings  that  way  ;  but  the  aldermen  of  the  Corporation,  or 
their  great  majority,  were  Williamite  or  Hanoverian  to  the 
core.  Even  in  1712  they  addressed  the  Queen  after  the 
Treat}'-  of  Utrecht,  thanking  her  for  supporting  the  succes- 
sion of  the  Crown  in  the  illustrious  House  of  Hanover.  By 
a  very  ancient  usage  our  Mayors  were  elected  annually  at  the 
Easter  Assembly,  to  hold  office  from  the  Morrow  of  Michael- 
mas for  the  ensuing   year.      Essex's    Rules    of   1672,    pro- 

138       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

vided  that  the  Lord  Mayor,  the  Sheriffs,  and  the  Treasurer 
should  be  elected  by  the  Lord  Mayor  and  aldermen  of  the 
city,  that  no  other  person  should  have  a  vote,  and  if  any  of  these 
officers  should  not  be  approved  by  the  Privy  Council  within 
ten  days  of  presentation  of  their  names,  the  aldermen  should 
proceed  to  a  new  election.  In  Elizabeth's  time,  the  expense 
of  the  miayoralt}'  being  onerous,  a  byelaw  was  made  by  the 
Corporation  that  each  alderman  should  keep  his  turn  foi 
bearing  the  charge  of  the  Mayoralty  "  according  to  his 
ancientry,"  that  is,  that  the  alderman  next  below  the  cushion 
as  it  was  called,  should  serve.  This  byelaw  was  repealed  in 
Oliver's  time,  but  re-enacted  in  his  son  Henry's,  in  1657  ! 
nevertheless  this  order  of  succession  had  frequently  not  been 
observed.  In  1709,  when  the  strong  Whig,  Lord  Wharton, 
was  Lord  Lieutenant,  Alderman  Robert  Constantine  was 
senior  alderman  below  the  cushion.  He  was  a  very  respec- 
table gentleman,  a  druggist  and  apothecary,  had  been  Sheriff 
in  1696,  and  for  some  fourteen  years  had  been  one  of  the 
most  attentive  of  our  governors  ;  in  some  years  his  name 
appears  at  every  one  of  our  meetings.  At  the  Spring  election 
of  1709  for  the  Mayoralty  his  name  was  put  up  with  two 
others  of  our  governors,  Alderm.en  Forrest  and  Ecclcs. 
Forrest  was  elected,  though  not  the  senior.  Constantine  then 
relying  on  the  rule,  petitioned  the  Lord  Lieutenant  in  Council 
to  withold  approval ;  but  the  Council,  regarding  the  rule  of 
succession  as  "  a  sleepy  and  obsolete  law,"  confirmed  Forrest 
as  Lord  Mayor.  At  the  Easter  Assembly,  1710,  Constantine 
was  again  similarly  passed  over,  Alderman  Eccles,  his  junior^ 
being  elected  ;  and  again  appealing  to  the  Privy  Council,  he 
was  refused  permission  to  appear  by  Counsel,  and  Eccles' 
election  was  confirmed.  But  in  Spring,  171 1;  things  had 
changed  ;  the  Tories  had  swept  the  elections  in  England  in 
1710,  and  the  second  Duke  of  Ormonde  was  now  Lord  Lieu- 
tenant. With  him  came  Sir  Constantine  Phipps  as  Lord 
Chancellor.  He  had  won  high  fame  at  the  English  Bar  as 
counsel  for  Dr.  Sacheverel  at  the  historic  state  trial,  and  next 
year  was  honoured  with  the  Irish  Seals.  He  was  High 
Church,  High  Tory,  and  Jacobite,  and  became  the  recognised 

TEMP.  QUEEN  ANNE,  1702-1714  139 

leader  of  those  principle's  liere.  The  great  majority  of  the 
gentry,  nearly  all  the  middle  classes,  and  the  upper  artizans 
were  predominantly  Protestant  and  opposed  to  the  Pretender. 
To  all  these  Phipps  became  suspect  ;  he  added  early  to  their 
suspicions  by  directing  a  nolle  proscpii  of  the  prosecution  of 
a  gentleman  who  had  written  a  Memoir  of  the  Chevalier  of 
St.  George,  and  by  refusing  to  permit  the  decorating  of  the 
statue  of  King  William  in  College  Green,  which  had  already 
become  an  annual  festivity  and  a  tribute  to  the  pious  and 
immortal  memory,  not  unknown  even  in  Queen  Victoria's 
time,  and  even  in  that  of  Anne  not  always  unpro- 
vocative  of  riot.  For  the  Roman  Catholic  citizens 
and  the  mass  of  the  mob  were  partial  to  Phipps 
and  the  Pretender ;  though  even  the  mob  had  a  good 
sprinkling  of  the  orange  weaveis  of  St.  Werburgh's  and 
the  Coombe.  With  the  Chancellor,  Vesey,  Archbishop  of 
Tuam,  acted  as  Lord  Justice.  He  had  no  reason  to  welcome 
the  Pretender,  for  when  James  II.  was  here,  he  had  to  fly 
froin  Tuam  for  his  life  with  an  episcopal  famii}^  of  twelve 

So  when,  at  the  Easter  Assembh'  of  171 1,  the  Lord  Mayor 
and  Aldermen  for  the  third  time  superseded  Constantine  and 
elected  Alderman  Barlow,  the  Privy  Council,  on  Constan- 
tine's  petition,  ordered  the  Lord  Mayor  and  aldermen  to 
answer,  and  directed  both  sides  to  appear  by  counsel  before 
the  full  Council  board.  The  answer  is  signed  by  fourteen 
aldermen,  including  Eccles,  Lord  Mayor.  It  claimed  the 
right  of  election  to  be  in  them,  which  would,  it  said,  be  no 
election  if  they  were  compelled  to  choose  the  senior  ;  and, 
traversing  the  immemorial  usage  alleged,  it  denied  there  was 
any  irregularity  in  electing  Alderman  Barlow,  unless,  indeed, 
it  added  rather  sarcastically,  not  electing  the  petitioner  be  one. 
The  argument  lasted  two  days.  Forster,  the  Recorder,  acting 
as  counsel  for  the  Corporation.  The  Privy  Council  affirmed 
the  byelaw  of  ancientry  and  sunmiarily  disappro\'ed  Barlow. 

Archbishop  King,  who  sat  at  the  hearing,  writes  to  Swift, 
who  was  in  London,  an  impartial  account  of  the  trial. 7     He 

•  T5th  May,   171;.      Scott's    Swift,  Vol.  XV.,  448. 

140       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

says  the  case  turned  on  the  most  slender  point  of  the  old  bye- 
law  ;  that  as  Archbishop  of  Dublin  he  thought  he  should 
support  the  city,  and  as  the  byelaw  had  been  passed,  not  to 
coerce  the  electors,  but  to  compel  reluctant  mayors  to  serve, 
and  had  frequently  been  disregarded,  he  warned  his  colleagues 
that  the  decision  would  beget  ill  blood,  and  that  it  was  not 
the  Duke  of  Ormonde's  interest  to  clash  with  the  city  ;  but 
they  said  they  didn't  foresee  any  hurt  to  his  grace,  "  and  I 
pray  God  it  may  not."  "  You  must  know,''  he  says,  "  this 
is  made  a  party  affair,  as  Constantine  sets  up  for  a  high 
churchman,  which  I  never  heard  of  before  ;  but  whoever  has 
a  private  quarrel  and  finds  himself  too  weak,  becomes  a 
partizan,  and  makes  his  private  a  public  quarrel." 

The  Privy  Council  thus  drew  first  blood.  But  in  the  whole 
three  years'  war  we  discern  through  the  mist  a  strong, 
skilful,  and  resourceful  hand  guiding  the  Corporation.  This  was 
Forster's,  the  Recorder.  He  had  been  made  Solicitor-General 
by  Lord  Wharton  in  1708,  vice  Sir  Richard  Levinge,  who  was 
a  Tory,  but  displaced  on  the  return  of  the  Tories,  when  Sir 
Richard  became  Attorney- General.  Forster  keeps  in  the 
background  in  this  conflict,  but  his  knowledge  and  his  spirit 
animated  it  throughout.  Accepting  the  decision  in  favour  of 
the  byelaw,  a  full  assembly  was  convened  for  the  following 

All  the  aldermen  and  all  the  Commons  were  summoned, 
and  the  byelaw  was  formally  repealed.  The  Privy  Council 
two  years  afterwards  alleged  that  this  meeting  was  tumul- 
tously ushered  in  with  great  noise  and  clamour,  that  there 
was  a  cry  of  "  Poper}^  Popery,"  and  "  that  the  bvelaw  was 
repealed  as  Popish,  though  made  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Eliza- 
beth." But  the  aldermen  proceeded  with  all  constitutional 
forms.  To  make  Constantine  again  legally  eligible  they 
rescinded  an  ordei  by  which  some  time  before  he  had  been 
placed  above  the  cushion  "  and  to  wear  a  scarlet  gown  "  ; 
then  they  proceeded  to  the  second  election,  at  wliich  Con- 
stantine, Barlow,  and  Alderman  Samuel  Cooke  were  duly  put 
in  nomination  ;  Barlow  was  re-elected  Lord  Mayor.     In  the 

*'  See  Eccles'  Statement.     Gilbert's  Calendar,  7,  564. 

TEMP.  QUEEN  ANNE,  1702-1714  i^i 

above  cited  letter  Arcbbisliop  King  strongly  deprecated  the 
summary  action  of  the  city  as  provocative,  and  the  Privy 
Council,  angrily  regarding  it  as  such,  and  "  a  contempt  of 
authority,"  again  disapproved.  The  aldermen  proceeded  to 
a  third  election,  this  time  nominating  Constantine,  Cooke, 
and  Ralph  Gore  ;  there  were  only  three  votes  for  Constan- 
tine, against  16  for  Cooke,  who  was  declared  duly  elected,  but 
who  in  turn  was  duly  disapproved  by  the  Privy  Council.  A 
fourth  election  followed  in  August,  when  Constantine's  name 
was  dropped,  and  Alderman  T.  Ouin,  Samuel  Walton,  and 
John  Page  were  put  forward.  Page  being  declared  Lord 
Mayor  with  seventeen  votes,  but  confirmation  was  again 
withheld.  At  a  fifth  election,  also  held  in  August,  Alderman 
Gibbons  was  nominated  with  Quin  and  Walton,  and  receiving 
fifteen  votes,  was  chosen,  with  the  same  fate,  however,  as  his 
predecessors.  But  the  aldermen  were  not  daunted.  At  a 
sixth  election  they  nominated  Walton  again,  now  with 
Gibbons  and  Benjamin  Barton,  and  Walton  was  elected  with 
thirteen  votes.  This  was  on  the  31st  August.  The  Privy 
Council  once  more  declined  to  approve,  and  as  Michaelmas 
was  now  in  sight,  when  the  existing  Lord  Mayor  Eccles' 
tenure  would  cease,  and  no  one  yet  appointed  to  succeed  liim, 
the  Corporation,  despairing  of  the  Privy  Council,  addressed 
a  petition  to  Queen  Anne  herself.  It  is  a  very  able  document 
— firm,  dignified,  and  loyal.  After  reciting  the  Essex  Rules 
vesting  the  election  of  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Sheriffs  in  the 
Lord  Mayor  and  aldermen,  and  in  no  one  else,  it  states  that 
so  careful  has  the  city  been  in  the  election  of  its  Lord  Mayor 
that,  since  1672  to  within  a  few  months  past,  no  elected  Lord 
Mayor  was  ever  disapproved  by  the  Privy  Council,  save 
when,  in  1687,  T3a"connell,  having  superseded  the  ancient 
charters,  refused  approval  in  favour  of  Sir  Thomas  Hackett  ; 
"  yet  your  petitioners,"  it  proceeds,  "  have  been  so  unfor- 
tunate as  to  have  been  obliged  five  several  times  since  Easter 
to  proceed  to  a  new  choice  by  reason  the  Council  were  pleased 
so  often  to  disapprove  the  person  elected,  though  no  objection 
had  been  made  to  their  sufficiency  or  loyalty,  they  being  all 
educated  in  the  Church  of  Ireland  as  by  law  established,  and 

142        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

men  who  had  always  shown  hearty  affection  toward-".  Your 
Majesty's  Government."  Referring  to  the  rule  of  seniority, 
the  pretext  for  the  original  disapproval  of  Barl(m%  the 
petitioners  set  forth  three  precedents  in  1672,  1674,  and  1696, 
in  which  the  byelaw^  had  not  been  followed,  and  implore  Hot 
Majesty's  generous  interposition  that  the  right  of  electing 
magistrates  for  the  city  may  not  be  turned  into  a  nomination 
by  the  Government  and  the  Council.  "  Placing  entire  re- 
liance in  the  Queen's  justice  and  goodness,"  they  repudiate 
any  disrespect  or  opposition  to  the  Government  placed  over 
them,  and  state  their  willingness  to  make  any  compliance 
"  consistent  with  oui  right  and  freedom  of  election  and  the 
oaths  we  have  taken  to  maintain  the  liberties  of  Your 
Majesty's  most  ancient  and  loyal  city."  This  petition  was 
forwarded  to  the  Lord  Lieutenant,  Ormonde,  b}^  Eccles,  the 
Lord  Mayor,  for  transmission  to  the  Queen.  The  Duke  re- 
plied on  7th  September,  saying  he  had  sent  it  into  England. 
But  Michaelmas  was  imminent,  so,  pending  the  Queen's 
decision,  a  seventh  election  was  had,  at  which  Alderman 
Pearson  with  Gibbons  and  Barton  were  nominated,  and  Pear- 
son elected  with  thirteen  votes,  only  to  be  disapproved  like 
the  six  that  went  before  him.  Michaelmas  was  now  at  hand, 
and  no  new  Lord  Mayor. 

The  aldermen  refused  to  be  defeated.  On  the  27th  Sep- 
tember they  proceeded  to  the  eighth  election.  To  emphasise 
their  attitude,  they  again  put  forward  Constantine  along 
with  Ralph  Gore,  who  had  already  been  nominated  at  the 
third  election,  and,  with  these,  x\lderman  Robert  Mason. 
There  were  twenty  votes,  of  which  two  went  for  Constantine, 
and  eighteen  for  Gore. 

Michaelmas  had  come,  and  no  Lord  Mayor.  On  the  ist 
October  the  Corporation  met  and  affirmed  "  the  undoubted 
right  of  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen  of  the  City  of  Dublin 
to  elect  to  the  Mayoralty  such  of  the  aldermen  as  they  sh;dl 
think  most  fit,  without  legard  to  seniority  or  juniority." 
For  this  resolution  twenty  voted  ;  there  were  only  two  voices 
contra.  At  last  the  Government  caved  in.  Whether  they 
had  a  hint  from  London,  or  as  yet  dared  not  contemplate 

TEMP.  QUEEN  ANNE,  1702-1714  143 

anything  so  dreadful  as  a  city  without  a  head,  they  approved 
Alderman  Gore,  who  became  Lord  Mayor  from  Michaelmas, 
1711-1712.  The  year's  campaign  thus  ended  with  a  decisive 
victory  for  the  Corporation. 

The  Privy  Council,  however,  yielded  with  a  bad  grace. 
We  have  not  involved  the  story  with  the  case  of  the  sheriffs, 
but  should  state  that  at  five  of  the  above  elections  the 
Council  had  disapproved  the  choice  of  the  sheriffs  along  with 
the  mayor  ;  and  at  the  sixtli,  wdiile  giving  way  as  to  the 
Mayoraltv,  they  disapproved  as  Sheriff  Daniel  Falkiner,  the 
banker,  though  without  impeachment  and  chosen  unani- 
mously, and  Walker,  though  chosen  by  sixteen  votes  to  live, 
and  a  seventh  election  for  the  Shrievalt}^  became  necessary. 

The  war  was  renewed  next  year  ;  this  campaign  was  shorter 
than  the  last,  but  sharp.  From  the  lecord  of  May,  17 12,  it 
would  seem  there  had  been  some  abortive  meetings  at  Easter, 
for  it  recites — "  former  elections  having  been  rejected."  At 
this  May  assembly  our  old  friend  Constantine  was  again  put 
forward  with  Barlow,  who  had  been  twice,  and  Cooke,  who 
had  been  once  disapproved,  as  we  have  seen,  in  the  previous 
year  ;  but  he  had  only  a  single  vote,  and  Barlow,  with  thir- 
teen, was  chosen  Lord  Mayor.  With  him  were  named 
Sheriffs  Glegg  and  Somerville,  who  had  both  been  disap- 
proved as  such  in  1711.  This  election  the  Privy  Council 
regarded  as  a  further  disrespect  to  the  Government,  and  in- 
dignantly refused  approval.  But  the  aldermen  stood  to  tlieir 
guns.  In  July  they  again  nominated  Constantine  with  Cooke 
and  Mason  ;  again  Constantine  had  only  one  vote.  Cooke 
had  fourteen,  and  was  elected,  w'ith  Bradshaw  and  Aldrich 
as  Sheriffs. 

The  Privy  Council  at  last  approved  of  Cooke,  who  duly 
became  Lord  Mayor  from  Michaelmas,  1712  to  1713  ;  but 
Aldrich  was  angrily  disapproved  for  the  Shrievalty.  In  their 
address  to  the  Queen  next  year  the  Council  say — "  With  the 
same  spirit  of  obstinacy  the  aldermen  had  also  certified  one 
Aldrich  for  Sheriff,  who  had  been  twice  before  disapproved, 
and  is  a  factious  person  and  a  dispenser  of  libels  against  the 
Government,"  but  they  omit  to  state  that  they  had  them- 

144       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

selves  first  disapproved  such  a  nominee  as  Thomas  Somer- 
ville,  against  whom  there  was  no  objection,  and  who  was  a 
gentleman  of  substance,  and  very  many  others  who  were 
equally  without  reproach. 

The  laurels  of  this  campaign  were  again  with  the  Corpora- 
tion, though  their  victory  in  the  person  of  Samuel  Cooke  was. 
as  the  sequel  proved,  not  so  great  as  they  had  supposed  ;  and 
possibly  the  Council  in  approving  him  knew  what  they  were 

The  third  campaign  opened  in  April,  171 3,  at  their  Easter 
Assembly.  Lord  Mayor  Cooke  presiding.  Poor  Constantine 
was  once  more  put  in  nomination,  this  time  with  Mason  and 
John  Stoyte,  yet  again  he  had  one  vote  only.  Stoyte  carried 
seventeen.  Stoyte's  return  with  the  Sheriffs  is  certified  to 
the  Privy  Council  with  the  signatures  of  nineteen  aldermen, 
including  Cooke,  thougli  his  name  appears  only  third.  As 
Stoyte  was  the  junior  of  the  three,  the  Council,  "therefore, 
and  for  other  good  reasons,"  conceived  him  unfit,  and  dis- 
approved. There  was  a  new  Assembly  in  May,  at  which 
Lord  Mayor  Cooke  appeared  in  a  new  character.  He  took 
from  his  pocket  a  piece  of  paper  with  the  names  of  Sir 
William  Fownes,  Constantine,  and  Mason  on  it,  and  proposed 
them  for  election.  Then  the  storm  broke  out  ;  seventeen 
aldermen  insisted  on  first  putting  the  question  whether  any 
of  the  three  should  be  elected.  Fownes  was  objected  to  as 
having  already  served  as  Mayor  in  1708,  and  Constantine  as 
having  been  already  eight  times  rejected  by  great  majorities  ; 
and  a  formal  vote  was  proposed  whether  Constantine  should 
be  "  put  in  election."  Cooke  refused  to  put  the  question,  and, 
declaring  if  they  would  not  proceed  to  his  three  nominations 
he  would  allow  no  other  choice,  he  rose  to  go.  They  implored 
him  to  remain  ;  he  refused.  Then  they  told  him  if  he  wilfully 
withdrew  they  would  proceed  for  the  purpose  for  which  they 
were  duly  summoned,  and  that  they  were  almost  unanimous 
for  electing  Adderman  Pleasants  for  the  ensuing  year.  The 
Lord  Mayor  withdrew  nevertheless  ;  seventeen  aldermen 
remained.  After  waiting  some  hours  in  hope  Cooke  would 
return,  they  sent  to  him,  expressing  their  extreme  reluctance 

TEMP.  QUEEN  ANNE,  1702-1714  145 

to  proceed  in  his  absence  without  absolute  necessity.  He  ■ 
replied  that  he  would  not  come  ;  so  the  seventeen  thereupon 
elected  Pleasants  unanimously,  and  returned  his  name  under 
their  seventeen  signatures.  Of  course  the  Privy  Council  dis- 
approved. The}'^  advised  the  whole  case  to  be  argued  before 
them.  Then,  after  solemn  debate  on  the  3rd  and  4th  Septem- 
ber, they  declared  the  election  of  Pleasants  void,  and  directed 
a  new  election  ;  and,  on  the  nth  September,  sent  to  Lord- 
IMayor  Cooke  two  resolutions  affirming  the  right  of  the  Lord 
Mayor  to  nominate  three  candidates,  one  of  whom  must  be 
chosen,  and  that  the  proceeding  in  the  Lord  Mayor's  absence 
was  illegal  and  a  breach  of  the  Rules  of  1672.  The  question 
what  punishment  was  to  be  meted  to  the  seventeen  recusants 
was  reserved  ;  they  seemed  to  forget  that  there  was  no  Star 
Chamber  now.  The  aldermen,  still  undaunted,  called  a  new 
Assembly  on  the  21st  September,  and  putting  forward  Con- 
stantine  with  Mason  and  Alderman  Thomas  Bolton,  returned 
the  latter  as  Lord  Mayor  by  eighteen  votes  to  two,  he  being 
the  junior  and  one  of  the  seventeen.  With  him  they  again 
named  the  "  factious  person,"  Aldrich,  as  Sheriff,  and  certi- 
fied to  the  Privy  Council  on  24th  September  with  the  signa- 
tures of  twenty-two  aldermen,  including  Cooke,  who  signs 
second.  The  Privy  Council  were  incensed  ;  they  directed 
that  the  seventeen  recusants  should  be  prosecuted,  ordering 
an  immediate  new  election,  for  Michaelmas  was  again  at 

Cooke  accordingly  re-summoned  the  aldermen  on  the  25th, 
and  offered  them  as  candidates  Constantine,  Mason,  and 
French  ;  but  the  meeting  refused  to  vote  for  any  of  them. 
Ormonde  had  now  gone,  and  the  Duke  of  Shrewsbur}^  had 
just  become  Viceroy.  The  Privy  Council  some  time  before 
had  sent  over  their  statement  of  the  case  to  the  Government 
in  London.  It  waL  not  so  successful  as  they  had  hoped.  On 
the  27th  September  they  received  a  letter  from  the  Secretary 
of  State,  Lord  Bolingbroke,  suggesting  as  a  compromise  that 
the  Loid  Mayor  should  nominate  a  new  person  vice  Sir 
William  Fownes,  whom  the  aldermen  had  rejected  as  a  past 
Lord  j\Iayor.     Professing  high  satisfaction  at  tliis  suggestion, 



the  Council  directed  the  aldermen  to  attend  on  Michaelmas 
Day  itself,  and,  reading  Bolingbroke's  letter,  invited  them  to 
act  accordingly.  They  acceded  to  the  plan  as  one  whicli 
"  would  effectually  quiet  all  their  disorders,"  and  forthwith 
assembled  to  carry  it  out.  Sir  Samuel  Cooke,  however,  still 
in  the  Lord  Mayor's  chair,  put  forward  again  Constantine, 
Mason,  and  French,  the  three  who  had  been  rejected  only 
four  days  before,  alleging  French  to  be  a  new  person,  in  place 
of  Fownes,  in  accordance  with  Bolingbroke's  compromise. 
The  aldermen  regarded  this  as  a  mere  pretence  ;  they 
besought  Cooke  to  be  moderate,  and  stated  their  willingness 
to  accept  any  other  nominee  whom  they  had  not  previously 
rejected  ;  but  Cooke  persisted,  and  the  meeting  broke  up, 
facing  the  catastrophe  of  Michaelmas  come  and  Michaelmas 
gone  and  no  Lord  Mayor  of  Dublin. 

On  ist  October  the  Privy  Council  in  deep  chagrin  sent  their 
statement  to  the  Queen.  Petulant  in  tone,  and  partial  as  to 
facts,  it  sadly  contrasts  with  the  petition  of  the  Corporation, 
which  soon  after  followed  it.  It  asserts  the  usages  and  law, 
but  without  adducing  proof  or  precedent,  and  bitterly 
inveighs  against  the  obstinacy  of  the  aldermen.  Yet  it  had 
high  sanction,  signed  by  the  Lord  Chancellor,  Sir  Constantine 
Phipps,  and  Vesey,  Archbishop  of  Tuam  ;  Sir  Richard  Cox, 
Lord  Chief  Justice  ;  Sir  Robert  Doyne,  Lord  Chief  Baron  ; 
the  Earls  of  Inchiquin,  Abercorn,  and  Kerry  ;  the  Bishops 
of  Meath,  Kildare,  and  Raphoe.  With  the  statement  they 
forwarded  the  opinions  of  some  of  the  Judges  and  all  the 
Crown  Counsel  in  favour  of  the  Lord  Mayor's  prerogative 
claim,  and  his  right  to  continue  in  office  till  his  successor  was 
regularly  appointed  and  approved.  Sir  Constantine  Phipps 
wrote  privately  to  Swift,  asking  his  assistance  with  Harley 
and  Bolingbroke,  and  appeals  to  have  had  a  reply  which 
pleased  him,  for  he  writes  again  to  Swift  in  Octobei ,  thanking 
him  effusively  foi  "  burning  his  fingers  on  his  behalf  ;  "  but 
though  Swift  did  then  secure  for  the  Chancellor's  son  a  good 
office  he  was  seeking,  he  writes  the  week  after  to  Arch- 
deacon Walls — "  Your  Mayor's  squabble  we  regard  as  much 
here  as  if  you  sent  me  an  account  of  your  little  son  playing 

TEMP.  QUEEX  ANNE,  1702-1714  147 

at  cherry  stones.  I  received  the  Lord  Justice's  representa- 
tion sent  to  the  Queen,  and  have  said  more  on  it  than  anyone 
else  would,  and  I  hope  the  new  Lord  Lieutenant  will  put  an 
end  to  the  dispute." 

•  Still  the  aldermen  stood  staunch.  They  refused  to  recognise 
Cooke  as  Lord  Mayor,  and, as  the  Privy  Council  had  declared 
his  presence  essential  for  every  legal  assembly  and 
corporate  act,  they  refused  to  exercise  their  corporate 
functions,  to  hold  assemblies,  to  open  the  City  Court  at  the 
Tholsel,  or  to  have  meetings  of  the  Governors  of  the  Blue 
Coat.  Under  counsel's  advice  the  outgoing  sheriffs  refused 
to  exercise  office.  These  were  Thomas  Bradshaw  and  Edward 
Somerville.  The  Government  ordered  them  still  to  act,  and 
directed  them  both  to  be  prosecuted.  This  was  the  inter- 
■  regnum.  Thereupon  the  aldermen  also  addressed  a  petition 
to  the  Queen.  Signally  able,  moderate,  learned,  and 
exhaustive,  it  was  supported  by  proofs  and  precedents  which 
seem  irrefragable  and  conclusive.  The  Recorder  and  three 
aldermen  weie  sent  with  it  to  London  to  argue  the  cause  and 
negotiate  with  the  Government.  They  went  at  their  own 
expense,  for  they  could  not  in  the  interregnum  touch  the  city 
funds.  They  would  appear  to  have  made  in  their  mission  a 
considerable  stay.  The  petition  cites  the  royal  charters  of 
Dublin,  of  Henry  IIL,  Edward  IIL,  Henry  IV.,  and  Henry 
VL,  giving  choice  of  the  Mayor  to  the  citizens  of  Dublin.  It 
sets  forth  a  byelaw  in  the  time  of  Richard  III.  providing  that 
the  Jurees.  the  old  name  for  the  aldermen,  should,  on  each 
Holyrood  Day,  name  one  of  themselves  as  Mayor  for  a  3^ear 
from  Michaelmas,  and  the  new  Rules  of  1672,  enacting  that 
the  election  of  Lord  Mayor  and  Sheriffs  should  be  for  ever 
thereafter  only  by  the  Lord  Mayor  and  aldermen,  eight  being 
present.  A  result  of  a  search  thiough  all  the  records  for 
the  trace  of  any  rule  giving  the  Lord  Mayor  alone  the  right 
to  nominate  three,  of  whom  one  must  be  chosen,  showed  that 
none  such  existed.  By  accumulated  instances  it  is  shewn  that 
though  the  Lord  ^Mayor  in  form  always  put  forward  these  three 
names  to  the  Assemblv,  this  was  always  done  after  a  con- 
ference with  the  aldermen,  and  that  even  then  the  right  of  the 


Assembly  to  reject  the  seniors  or  to  substitute  a  new  name 
was  repeatedly  recognised.  The  petition  shows  further  that 
Sir  Samuel  Cooke  was  himself  a  subscribing  party  to  the 
order  of  October,  17 ii,  which  declares  the  undoubted  right 
"  of  the  Lord  Mayoi  and  aldermen  "  to  elect  to  the  Mayoralty 
such  of  the  aldermen  as  they  thiak  lit,  without  regard  to 
seniority  ;  and  several  other  orders  of  similar  purport  to 
which  he  is  a  signatory  are  also  put  in  evidence. 

Cooke's  assumption  to  remain  in  office  till  his  prerogative 
claims  are  acceded  to  is  refuted  with  equal  force.  It  is  shown 
that  the  entries  of  elections  always  mentioned  that  the 
Mayor  and  Sheriffs  are  elected  and  approved  to  serve  for  one 
year  only.  A  bye-law  of  13  James  I.,  is  cited,  enacting  that 
no  one  should  be  continued  Mayor  two  years  successively, 
and  though  in  the  distraction  of  the  lebellion  of  1641,  Smith 
was  continued  Mayor  for  four  successive  years,  the  entries 
showed  he  was  duly  elected  at  the  close  of  each  ;  whilst  all 
the  records  proved  a  constant  usage  that  the  jMayor  should 
hold  office  only  to  the  morrow  of  ^Michaelmas,  when  his 
successor  was  sworn  in,  save  when  Michaelmas  was  on 
Saturday,  and  then  he  only  held  till  the  Monday  follov.'ing, 
the  only  case  to  the  contrary  being  that  of  Hackett  aforesaid, 
when  Tyrconnell  was  Lord  Deputy. 

The  extracts  from  the  charters  and  rolls  are  attested  with 
a  precision  which  would  do  credit  to  our  Court  of  Chancery 
to-day.  Certiiicates  are  added  :  one,  by  eight  ex-Lord 
Mayors,  testifying  that  they  always  conferred  with  their 
brethren,  the  aldermen,  and  had  their  approbation  for 
their  three  nominees,  and  that  no  Mayor  within  memor}^ 
had  ever  held  over  after  Michaelmas  ;  another,  b}^ 
twelve  aldermen  below  the  cushion,  testifying  that  the 
right  of  nominating  the  three  was  always  in  practice  in  the 
Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen,  and  not  in  the  Lord  Mayor 
alone.  And  there  is  a  sworn  deposition  of  Sir  John  Eccles, 
who  served  1610-1611,  to  the  same  effect,  in  which  he  adds, 
that  when  at  the  close  of  his  year,  his  successor,  Ralph  Gore, 
had  not  been  approved  on  the  Monday  after  Michaelmas, 
which  had  fallen  on  Saturday,  he  threw  off  his  gown,  laid 

TEMP.  QUEEN  ANNE,  1702-1714  149 

aside  rod,  swoid,  and  mace,  and  walked  the  streets  to  the 
Tholsel  as  a  private  man. 

The  petitioners,  speaking  throughout  in  most  respectful 
and  loyal  language,  protest  they  have  no  other  view  than  a 
faithful  discharge  of  tlieir  trust,  and  of  their  oaths,  to  main- 
tain their  rights  and  charters  derived  from  the  Crown,  and 
under  the  royal  prerogative,  and  they  deeply  deprecate  the 
course  by  which  "  the  city  has  been  thrown  into  disorder 
and  confusion,  and  its  sessions,  assemblies,  and  courts  have 
remained  ever  since  unattended." 

If  Cooke  and  the  Privy  Council  were  right,  it  is  plain  that 
the  franchise  of  choosing  the  civic  officers  would  be  illusory, 
and  this,  with  the  power  of  perpetual  disapproval  in  the 
Crown,  would  give  the  appointment  of  j\Iayor  and  Sheriffs 
to  the  Government  of  the  day,  whenever  the  Lord  Mayor 
was  subservient.  But  the  appeals  to  the  Crown  were  never 
actually  decided.  We  know  how,  in  the  last  year  of  Queen 
Anne,  the  disputes  between  Harley  and  Bolingbroke  had 
become  acute,  and  even  Swift,  dear  friend  of  both,  failed  to 
reconcile  them ;  this  hastened  the  Queen's  death,  and  when 
the  year  began  to  wane,  on  the  ist  August,  she  died.  Death 
was  the  deus  ex  machina  that  severed  the  knot  which  was 
strangling  the  mimicipal  life  of  Dublin.  The  Jacobites  were 
routed  in  London  and  Dublin  alike,  the  Hanoverians  ruled 
supreme.  Whilst  Harley  was  being  impeached,  Lord  Chan- 
cellor Phipps  retired  to  the  Middle  Temple,  and  resumed 
private  practice  at  the  Bar.  All  things  were  changed.  At 
Michaelmas,  1714,  the  interregnum  ceased,  and  James 
Barlow,  the  thrice  rejected  elect  and  original  casus  belli,  was 
knighted  and  duly  installed  Lord  Mayor  of  Dublin. 

The  war  ended  in  conquest  by  the  Corporation.  Sir  John 
Forster  was  made  Lord  Chief  Justice  of  the  Common  Pleas, 
and  John  Rogerson,  Sir  John's  son.  Recorder,  in  his  stead. 
To  Forster  the  city  voted  ^500  "  as  a  mark  of  favour  to  their 
late  worthy  Recorder,  who,  by  his  abilities,  vigilance,  and 
steady  adherence  to  the  true  interests  of  the  city,  was  highly 
instrumental  in  preserving  its  liberties,  to  the  neglect  of  his 
private   concerns,    and   the   considerable   detriment   of   bis 

150       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

private  fortune/"  and  his  portrait,  painted  at  the  expense  of 
the  city,  was  ordered  to  be  placed  in  the  Tholseh  He  had 
also  a  lease  from  the  city  of  the  lands  and  house  at 
Donnycamey,  Clontarf,  where  he  resided.  These  passed 
later  in  the  century  to  Lord  Charlemont,  on  which  he  formed 
his  beautiful  demesne  of  Marino,  and  which  are  now  in 
the  possession  of  the  Christian  Brothers.  The  new 
House  of  Commons,  in  1716,  voted  to  him,  and  to  the  nine- 
teen survivors  of  the  twenty  stalwarts,  and  to  Somerville, 
the  surviving  sheriff,  who  had  refused  to  continue  in  office, 
contrary  to  law,  the  Thanks  of  the  House,  for  their  great 
virtue  in  defending  the  rights  of  the  city.  £900  was  voted 
in  the  Assembly  to  the  Aldermen  and  Sheriffs  to  defray  their 
costs  of  the  late  litigation  before  the  Privy  Council,  the 
Queen's  Bench,  and  in  England.  The  disapproved  Lord 
Mayors  elect,  Stoyte,  Pleasants,  and  Bolton,  were  successively 
placed  in  the  civic  chair.  Barkey,  Quaile,  Wilkinson,  Forbes, 
Curtis  and  Dickson,  followed  as  Lord  Mayors  in  each 
successive  year  up  to  1723,  and  Somerville  had  a  special 
grant  of  £200.  Sir  Samuel  Cooke  was  indicted  before  the 
Assembly  for  having  betrayed  the  city,  and  acted  as  the 
instrument  of  arbitrary  power.  He  defended  himself  ably, 
relying  on  the  opinions  of  the  Privy  Council  and  Crown 
lawyers,  but  after  an  elaborate  hearing,  the  sentence  was 
that  he  "  be  disfranchised  from  all  the  franchises  and 
liberties  of  the  city,  be  henceforth  rejected  and  taken  as  a 
foreigner,  and  removed  from  the  place  of  alderman.'' 

It  may  be  thought  unreasonable  thus  at  length  to  wake 
the  echoes  of  this  long  sleeping  strife,  and  to  call  from 
oblivion  these  phantoms  of  our  city  worthies  long  ago  for- 
gotten, but  to  Blue  Coat  Hospitallers,  the  story  is  acutely 
interesting.  To  us  the  actors  are  not  phantoms.  These 
names  that  have  shifted  now  before  us  like  colours  of  the 
kaleidoscope,  are  all  inscribed  in  living  letters  on  the  records 
of  the  meetings  of  our  governors  in  those  stirring  years.  The 
seventeen  recusants— Sir  John  Eccles,  Sir  John  Rogerson^ 
Sir  Ralph  Gore,  Sir  James  Barlow,  Thos.  Quin,  Samuel 
Walton,  John  Page,  Benjamin  Barton,  John  Pearson,  John 

TEMP.  QUEEN  ANNE,  1702-1714  151 

Stoyte,  Tliomas  Bolton,  Anthony  Barkey,  William  Quaile, 
Thomas  Wilkinson,  George  Forbes,  Thos.  Curtis,  and 
William  Dickson,  who,  with  Thomas  Pleasants,  Matthew 
Pearson,  and  Robert  Cheatham,  made  up  the  twenty  stal- 
warts, all  are  living  in  our  Minute  Books  to-day,  as  nomi- 
nating children,  apprenticing  pupils,  raising  ways  and  means, 
managing  our  estate.  Some  of  them  attended  almost  every 
meeting,  and  the  governors  of  to-day  cannot  but  have  a 
pride  in  corporate  ancestors,  so  strong,  so  firm,  and  so  brave. 
They  are  not  wholly  dead.  Streets  of  Dublin  still  record  the 
names  of  Rogerson,  Fownes,  Eccles,  Pleasants,  and  the 
names  of  many  of  these  sleeping  combatants  still  survive  in 
theii  posterity.  Phipps  is  lineal  ancestor  of  the  Mulgraves 
and  Normanbys,  and  Constantine,  first  Marquess  of  Normanby, 
Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland  in  1835.  ^^^  wonders  if  that 
Christian  name  attracted  the  Chancellor  towards  his  name- 
sake, our  so  oft-re]ected  candidate.  Vesey,  Archbishop  of 
Tuam  and  Lord  Justice,  is  lineal  ancestor  of  the  Lords  de 
Vesci.  Somerville,  the  disapproved  sheriff,  is  lineal  ancestor 
of  the  Lords  Athlumney.  Benjamin  Barton,  the  banker, 
the  disapproved  sheriff,  is  lineal  ancestor  of  the  Bartons  of 
Pollacton,  County  Carlow.  Daniel  Falkiner,  the  banker, 
another  of  the  disapproved,  is  great-great-great-granduncle 
of  the  present  writer.  Sir  Samuel  Cooke  is  ancestor  b}^  the 
female  descent  of  one  of  the  best  country  gentlemen  of  our 
day,  Thomas  Cooke-Trench,  late  of  Millicent,  Kildare,  who 
carried  the  memory  of  his  fighting  forbear  in  his  own  gentle 
person  and  name,  andjmany  a  family  pedigree  in  Ireland 
would  probably  trace  through  others  of  these  civic  worthies 
of  two  centuries  ago. 

[Chairmen  and  Lord  Mayors. 


Our  Chairmen  and  Lord   ^Mayors  in  Queen  Anne's  reign 
were: — 


1 708-9 

I  7 1  o- 1 1 

Samuel  Walton. 
Thomas  Bell. 
John  Page. 
Francis  Stoyte. 
Wm.  Gibbons 
Benj.  Burton 
John  Pearson. 
Sir  Wm.  Fownes. 
Charles  Forrest. 
John  Eccles 
Sir  Ralph  Gore 
Sir  Samuel  Cooke. 

The  evolution  of  the  City  was  somewhat  stayed  b}^  the 
poHtical  contest  of  the  three  years  war,  but  two  of  the  most 
important  events  in  the  development  of  the  City  were 
inaugurated  in  this  reign.  The  Constitution  of  the  first 
Harbour  Board,  known  as  the  Ballast  Office,  and  the  con- 
struction of  the  South  Wall  by  Sir  John  Rogerson,  which  was 
continued  by  the  City  so  as  to  enclose  the  gulf  between 
Townsend  street  and  Ringsend. 

^  The  above  nairative  is  drawn  from  the  original  records  which  are  given 
in  full  in  Gilbert's    Calendar,  Vol  VI.,  and   Appendix  to  Vol.  VII. 

L     153     ] 


TEMP.  GEORGE  I.,    1714-1727 

Queen  Anne  died  ist  August,  1714.  The  old  regime  had 
resumed  here,  as  we  have  seen,  with  the  new  reign.  The  lirsl 
act  of  the  City  Assembly  was  to  present  Archbishop  King 
with  the  freedom  of  the  city  in  a  gold  box,  a  distinction  then 
only  conferred  on  Lord  Lieutenants  or  personages  of  highest 
rank  or  celebrity.  The  Archbishop  was  now  the  presiding 
member  of  the  Government  in  the  absence  of  the  Duke  of 
Shrewsbur}^,  the  new  Lord  Lieutenant.  The  meetings  of  our 
governors  were  resumed  in  November,  under  Sir  James 
Barlow,  Chairman  and  Lord  [Mayor  ;  their  first  business  was 
to  complete  the  admission  of  forty  new  boys,  as  arranged 
with  the  Corporation.  In  the  next  few  years  their  work  is 
routine,  and  demands  no  special  remark  ;  but  we  note  next 
year  nominations  of  boys  by  the  famous  Earl  of  Galway,  who 
was  then  the  Lord  Justice.  This  was  Henry,  ]\Iarquess  de 
Ruvigny.  He  was  one  of  the  French  Protestant  exiles,  and 
had  come  to  England  as  representative  of  all  the  Protestant 
churches  of  France.  He  was  a  great  soldier  of  William  HI, 
for  whom  he  fought  at  the  Battle  of  Aughrim,  and  by  whom 
he  was  given  an  earldom  in  our  peerage.  In  1716,  as  we  have 
already  mentioned,  our  chaplain  and  schoolmaster,  Charles 
Carr,  became  Lord  Bishop  of  Killaloe,  and  Rev.  Richard 
Gibbons  was  appointed  in  his  place.  In  1717  some  important 
additions  to  our  Board  were  made — Major-General  Frederick 
Hamilton,  who,  dying  a  few  years  after,  left  the  Hospital  a 
legacy  of  £300  ;  Forster,  our  late  Recorder,  who  now 
rejoined  as  Lord  Chief  Justice  of  the  Common  Pleas.  At  the 
same  time  the  Presidents  of  the  College  of  Physicians  were 
made  ex-officio  governors.       But   far    the    most    important 


accession  was  that  of  Archbishop  King  himself  at  tlie  special 
invitation  of  the  governors,  for  he  was  perhaps  the  greatest 
governor  the  Blue  Coat  has  had  ;  and  almost  up  to  his  death 
in  1729  he  gave  it  a  good  share  of  his  marvellous  organizing 
power  and  generous  liberality,  which  far  outweighed  the 
contentiousness,  which  made  him  some  enemies,  not  the  less 
because  it  was  always  directed  against  abuses,  and  in  almost 
all  cases  prevailed.  In  1718  he  sent  the  Lord  Mayor  a  cheque 
for  /500  as  a  gift  to  the  School.  In  the  next  year  a  bill  was 
brought  into  the  Commons  by  our  Recorder,  John  Rogerson, 
who  was  M.P.  for  the  city  and  Solicitor-General,  for  regula- 
ting the  streets,  and  he  was  directed  b}^  the  Government,  of 
which  the  Archbishop  was  a  leading  member,  to  insert  a  clause 
for  limiting  and  licensing  the  coaches  and  sedans  of  the  city. 
The  Archbishop  was  also  then  a  leader  in  the  Lords  ;  more 
than  half  the  peers  who  attended  then  were  bishops.  This  bill, 
6  Geo.  I.,c.  15,  reciting  the  recent  growth  of  the  city,  provided 
for  licensing  fifty  more  hackney  coaches  and  forty  more 
chairs,  with  an  annual  tax  of  £1  5s.  od.  each,  to  be  applied 
to  the  support  of  the  Blue  Coat  Hospital  for  six  years.  This 
increased  its  income  by  £180  ;  and,  thanking  the  Ciovern- 
ment,  the  Board  increased  the  number  of  boys  to  180,  the 
highest  mark  they  had  hitherto  reached.  When,  seven  years 
after,  this  benefit  had  expired,  it  was  renewed  in  another 
form.  In  1727  the  James's  Street  Workhouse  was  recon- 
structed by  I  Geo.  II.,  c.  27,  under  commissioners  who  may 
be  regarded  as  precursors  of  the  South  Dublin  Union,  and 
perhaps  the  most  distinguished  Poor  Law  Guardians  on 
record  ;  they  included  the  chief  magnates  in  Church  and 
State,  members  of  the  Government  of  both  Houses  of  Parlia- 
ment, and  the  high  civic  dignitaries,  Archbishop  King  being 
nearly  first  on  the  list.  One  of  our  statutory  sources  of 
income  was  the  tax  on  the  hackney  coaches  and  chairs,  which 
was  now  remodelled.  The  new  license  duties  and  annual  tax 
were  to  be  paid  to  the  Commissioners,  of  which  the  revenue 
of  one  hundred  and  fifty  coaches  and  one  hundred  and  sixty 
chants  was  allocated  to  the  Workhouse,  and  that  of  fifty 
coaches  and  forty  sedans  to  the  Blue  Coat  School.    This  aid 

TEMP.  GEORGE  I.,  1714-1727  155 

was  continued  to  us  for  forty-four  years,  when  it  was  taken 
away  by  11  (!S:  12  Geo.  III.,  c.  11,  and  given  to  the  Rotunda 
Hospital.  Some  of  the  accounts  show  more  than  £200  paid 
in  a  single  year.  The  Archbishop  was  now  Treasurer  of  the 
Erasmus  Smith's  Board,  and  his  practical  wisdom  saw  the 
policy,  so  often  ignored  in  the  history  of  beneficence,  of 
making  cognate  charities  work  in  alliance  rather  than  in  over- 
lappmg  machinei}'.  In  1723  he  formed  a  Committee  of 
King's  Hospital  to  confer  with  a  committee  of  the  Erasmus 
vSmith's  board,  and  these,  in  July,  in  his  own  palace  in  St. 
Sepulchre's,  agreed  on  a  scheme  of  ten  clauses  by  which  the 
Erasmus  Smith's  board  should  contribute  £300  towards  the 
building  of  an  infirmary  in  King's  Hospital,  which  was  sorely 
needed,  the  Hospital  to  receive  from  time  to  time  any  number 
of  boys  up  to  twenty  nominated  by  the  Erasmus  Smith's 
board,  to  be  maintained  in  all  respects  under  the  same  regula- 
tions as  the  other  boys  on  our  foundation.  For  these  the 
Erasmus  Smith's  board  are  to  provide  the  necessary  furniture 
and  to  pay  quarterly  a  rateable  proportion  of  the  expenses 
of  the  School.  They  also  undertake  the  apprenticing  of  their 
twenty  pupils,  and  to  pay  £5  a  year  to  our  head  master  ;  the 
Lord  Mayor  and  the  Recorder  for  the  time  being  are  to  be 
standing  governors  of  the  Eiasmus  Smith's  school, 
four  of  whose  members  reciprocally  are  to  be  standing 
governors  of  the  Blue  Coat  ;  and  the  Erasmus  Smith's 
board  undertake  to  apply  to  the  ensuing  session  of 
Parliament  for  an  Act  to  ratify  the  contract.  This  scheme 
was  confirmed  by  our  Board  at  their  September  meeting,  and 
our  seal  affixed  to  the  heads  of  the  bill  brought  in  under  the 
Archbishop's  auspices,  and  passed  that  session,  during  which 
he  was  an  assiduous  attendant  in  the  Lords.  This  statutory 
alliance  has  now  existed  for  more  than  180  years,  for  it  was 
fully  recognised  by  the  Municipal  Corporations  Act  of  1840, 
and  was  never  more  faithfully  carried  out  than  in  the  late 
long  years  in  which  Vice-Chancellor  Chatterton  has  presided 
at  the  Erasmus  Smith's  Board. 

This   Bill   was  passed  in  the    session  of  1723-24  as  an 
Act  for  further  application  of  the  rents  given  by  Erasnms 

156       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL    . 

Smith  for  charitable  purposes.  The  clauses  affecting  the 
Blue  Coat  will  be  found  in  Appendix  B,  It  contains  a  clause 
empowering  our  governors  to  make  building  leases  of  their 
waste  lands  in  Dublin  for  ninety-nine  years  ;  our  charter 
limited  the  term  to  forty-one.  This  valuable  power,  hidden 
away  in  the  unnumbered  sections  of  a  local  Act  dealing 
with  another  charity,  has  been  unnoticed  in  the  indexes  to 
the  statutes  and  text  books,  and  has  been  unnoticed  by  our 
governors  for  the  past  tifty  years,  during  which  they  have 
believed  it  necessary  to  apply  to  Chancery  or  Charity  Com- 
missioners for  leave  to  grant  building  leases.  The  only  clue 
given  in  our  minute  books  is  an  entry  in  1724  of  ten  guineas 
paid  to  one  John  Dexter,  "  for  his  extraordinary  trouble  in 
London  in  soliciting  a  clause  in  a  late  Act  of  Parliament  "  to 
the  above  effect,  without  further  indication  of  what  statute 
it  was. 

Our  records  of  this  time  include  the  names  of  manv  distin- 
guished persons  nominating  boys  : — The  Duchess  of  Grafton, 
the  Lord  Lieutenant's  wife,  in  1722  ;  she  was  wife  of  Charles 
Fitzroy,  the  second  Duke,  and  giand-daughter  of  the  Duke  of 
Beaufort  ;  Lady  Carteret,  wife  of  the  Lord  Lieutenant  in 
1725  ;  and  Chief  Justice  Whitshed,  Swift's  prosecuting 
judge  ;  Presidents  of  the  College  of  Physicians,  in  succession 
Doctors  Grattan,  Jammett,  and  Mitchell  ;  and  several 
nominations  by  the  \'estries  of  the  city  churches,  whose 
recommendations  were  always  honoured  by  our  governors. 

Under  the  Erasmus  Smith's  alliance,  the  much  needed 
Infirmary  of  our  old  Hospital  was  built.  The  energy  and 
example  of  the  Archbishop  was  visible  everywhere.  Alder- 
man Quaile,  who  had  been  our  Lord  Mayor  and  Chairman  in 
1719,  now,  himself ,  expended  £500  on  the  infirmary,  and  old 
Sir  John  Rogerson's  legacy  of  £100  was  added.  The  restora- 
tion of  our  chapel  was  also  taken  in  hand,  to  which  Dr. 
Daniel,  the  Dean  of  Armagh,  contributed  £50,  and  a  charity 
sermon  preached  by  Dr.  Maule,  Bishop  of  Cloyne,  presumably 
at  the  Archbishop's  instance,  realised  £60  towards  this 
object.  Hitherto  there  had  been  no  supervision  of  the 
Hospital  accounts  ;  and  a  drastic  order,  reciting  that  there 

TEMP    GEORGE  I.,  1714-1727  157/ 

was  no  method  of  charging  the  agent  with  his  receipts  of 
casual  revenue,  is  made  in  the  Archbishop's  presence  that 
one  of  the  governors  should  be  annually  chosen  as  Treasurer, 
he  to  give  his  discharges  for  all  contributions  in  support  of 
the  Hospital  ;  all  tradesmen's  bills  to  be  confirmed  by  a 
standing  committee.  An  order  also  directs  that  the  chaplain 
shall  in  future  catechise  the  boys  weekly,  as  provided  by  the 
charter  ;  another  that  each  of  the  180  boys  should  have  a 
Bible ;  and  another  that  a  sufficient  number  of  the  x\rchbishop 
of  Tuam's  (Dr.  Edward  S\-nge's)  exposition  of  the  Church 
Catechism  should  be  bought  for  the  boys  ;  a  list  of  all  the 
benefactors  of  the  School  from  the  beginning,  with  a  proper 
preamble,  is  directed  to  be  made,  and  hung  on  tables  in  the 
Hall  of  the  Hospital ;  and  this  was  carried  out  and  continued 
for  years.  An  inventory  of  all  goods  and  chattels  in  the  house 
is  to  be  made  out  and  continued  from  time  to  time,  and 
examined  by  the  Committee  periodically.  Had  this  order 
been  maintained,  we  should  possess  many  memorials  now, 
historic  pictures,  whole  libraries  of  books,  which  have  long 
since  vanished.  It  was  found  there  were  now  188  boys,  occu- 
pymg  twenty-nine  rooms,  with  twenty-nine  more  for  officers 
and  servants,  beside  the  Hall  Chapel  and  schoolrooms,  and 
other  such  buildings.  Finally,  this  committee  are  directed 
to  inspect  all  the  laws  of  the  house  and  the  regulations  affect- 
mg  the  officers  and  servants,  and  to  report  what  further 
laws  they  recommend  for  the  good  government  of  the 
Hospital.  The  Archbishop  was  present  at  the  election  of  an 
additional  schoolmaster  m  1725.  Our  chaplain,  with  our 
increased  numbers,  needed  assistance.  Mr.  John  Connell  was 
elected.  We  can  see  the  strong  reforming  hand  in  the  minute 
which  orders  that  the  schoolmaster  in  future  bring  neither 
wife  nor  child  to  lodge  or  diet  or  to  be  a  charge  or  incumbrance 
upon  this  house  ;  that  he  apply  himself  wholly  to  the  busi- 
ness of  the  School,  and  teach  no  other  boys,  either  at  home 
or  abroad  ;  and  that  he  attend  them  constantly  to  church  or 
chapel,  so  that  they  behave  themselves  reverently  there,  and 
orderly  and  decently  at  their  meals.  That  "  in  future  "  in 
the  above  has  a  latent  lumiour,  suggesting  how  things  had 

158       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

previously  gone  on,  and  it  is  more  pointed  by  the  fact  that  the 
Archbishop  was  a  stern  bachelor  to  the  end.  He  last  attended 
our  Board  in  April,  1726,  when  he  announced  a  benefaction 
of  £500  from  Lady  Midleton,  sent  by  her  to  himself :  she  was 
widow  of  Lord  Chancellor  Allen  Broderick,  first  Lord  Midleton. 
Oh,  that  Archbishop  King  had  been  with  us  for  many  a  year 
before  and  after  !  His  work  at  the  Blue  Coat,  which  was  but 
a  fringe  of  his  vast  official  labour,  might  further  illustrate  the 
story  of  his  life  as  told  by  Dr.  George  Stokes  in  the  latest 
volume  from  his  luminous  pen,  Some  Worthies  of  the  Irish 
Church,  edited  by  Rev.  H.  Lawlor  in  1900. 

A  fresh  wreath  has  just  been  placed  on  his  memory  here. 
By  the  munificence  of  Lord  Iveagh,  the  north  choir  aisle  of 
St.  Patrick's  Cathedral  had  a  few  years  since  been  restored 
and  relighted  by  the  removal  of  the  darkening  organ  loft 
back  towards  the  choir.  Then  the  fine  memorial  to  the  late 
Dean  Jellett  was  erected  in  the  eastern  window,  and  the  old 
chapel  of  St.  Peter,  which  formed  this  part  of  the  aisle,  was 
reconstituted.  The  side  lights  in  the  northern  wall  of  this 
chapel  are  formed  by  two  arches,  each  with  two  lancets. 
Those  in  the  eastern  arch  are  the  memorial  windows  to 
Provost  Salmon.  The  second  lancet  of  the  other  arch,  the 
collateral  descendants  of  Archbishop  King,  Sir  Charles 
Simeon  King,  of  Corrard,  and  Sophia,  his  wife,  have,  at  the 
invitation  of  Dean  Bernard  and  the  Chapter,  this  year  filled 
with  a  beautiful  memorial  window  to  the  memory  of  their 
noble  ancestor.  It  shows  St.  Peter  receiving  the  keys  above, 
and  addressing  the  multitude  on  the  Day  of  Pentecost  below. 
The  inscription  records  the  Archbishop's  connection  with 
the  Cathedral  as  Chancellor  and  Dean.  In  the  lancet  close 
by,  to  the  left,  posteri  memores  of  Archbishop  Usher  have 
similarly  erected  a  memorial  window  to  the  great  Primate, 
shewing  above  St.  Peter  named  Cephas  by  Christ,  and  his 
release  from  prison  below.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  choir 
aisle  is  Swift's  fierce  inscription  over  Schomberg's  grave. 
In  this  illustrious  company  we  recall  the  days  when  these, 
the  two  greatest  Deans  of  St.  Patrick's  in  the  past,  worked 
as  contemporaries,  and  yet  we  are  reminded  how  different 

TEMP.  GEORGE  I.,  1714-1727  159 

were  their  methods,  though  both  were  masterful.  This 
memorial  has  an  interesting  link  with  the  Blue  Coat,  for 
Sir  Charles  Kmg,  who  erected  it,  is  son  of  Sir  James  Walker 
King,  second  baronet,  who  was  once  our  Chaplain  and 
Head  Master,  and  grandson  of  Sir  Abraham  Bradley  King, 
our  long  time  Governor  and  twice  our  Chairman,  as  hereafter 
shewn.  All  four  lancets  illustrate  scenes  in  St.  Peter's  life, 
and  have  been  beautifully  designed  by  C.  L.  Kempe,  Esq., 
as  conceived  by  Dean  Bernard. 

We  have  curious  entries  at  this  period  illustrating  the 
working  of  the  New  Penal  Laws.  One  in  1721  records  that 
judgment  was  had  in  the  Common  Pleas  by  default  against 
Pierce  Butler,  a  Papist,  for  ;{5oo,  for  taking  upon  him  the 
guardianship  of  a  minor,  and  the  penalt}^  was  awarded  to  the 
Blue  Coat.  The  Recorder  is  asked  to  give  directions  for 
enforcing  it ;  next  year  Mr.  Butler  petitioned  the  governors  for 
a  remission,  and  a  committee  was  appointed  to  treat  with 
him  for  a  settlement.  They  appear  to  have  forgiven  the 
penalty,  for  our  accounts  of  casual  revenue  show  nothing 
received  on  this.  But  a  few  years  after,  in  1729,  we  have 
record  of  a  legacy  of  Henry  Turner,  Esq.,  "  bequeathed  for 
education  of  children  in  the  Popish  religion,"  and  adjudged 
by  the  Court  of  Chancery  to  be  for  superstitious  uses.  One 
moiety  is  ordered  to  be  paid  to  the  Blue  Coat  Hospital,  and 
the  other  to  the  Green  Coat  in  Cork.  Our  half,  £956,  was 
duly  paid. 

The  Archbishop  sent  us,  under  the  Erasmus  Smith  alliance, 
four  \'ery  eminent  governors,  one  the  most  illustrious  man  of 
his  day  here — Jonathan  Swift, — the  Earl  of  Abercorn, 
Viscount  Charlemont,  and  the  Right  Hon.  Marmaduke 
Coghill.  Lord  Abercorn  and  Swift  were  old  friends,  though 
the  intimacy  had  cooled.  Twelve  years  before,  when  Swift 
was  the  idol  of  London  society,  courted  by  the  Ministry  for 
the  political  aid  of  his  matchless  pamphlets  and  pasquinades, 
by  Dukes  and  Duchesses  for  his  influence  with  Harley,  the 
Prime  Minister,  by  the  wits  of  the  town  for  his  startling  genius, 
Lord  Abercorn  had  sought  his  advocacy  for  an  object  he  had 
then  much  at  heart.     He  was  James  Hamilton,  eighth  Earl 

i6o       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

of  Abercorn,  and  was  then  seeking  from  the  Court  of  France 
the  Dukedom  of  Chatelherault,  for  which  his  kinsman  the 
Duke  of  Hamilton  was  as  eagerly  competing.  The  claims 
were  well  balanced  ;  both  nobles  were  descended  from  the 
Earl  of  Arran,  Regent  of  Scotland,  on  whom  the  Dukedom 
of  Chatelherault  was  confirmed  by  Henry  II.  of  France  in 
1548,  in  the  time  of  the  Franco-Scottish  Alliance.  The 
Abercorns  were  of  the  strict  male  line,  the  Duke  claimed 
through  an  elder  son  ;  but  the  male  line  was  broken  when 
the  Duke  of  Chatelherault  left  a  daughter  sole  heir,  and  this, 
Lord  Abercorn  contended,  gave  him  precedence  under  the 
patent  and  on  the  analogy  of  the  Salique  law.  In 
March,  171 2,  Swift  tells  Stella  that  Lord  Abercorn  was 
wanting  him  to  get  him  the  Dukedom  from  the 
King  of  France  ;  "  his  pretensions  were  very  just  ;  it's  a 
great  stir  getting  this  Dukedom,  but  it's  only  to  speak  to  the 
Secretary  (Bolingbroke)  and  get  the  Duke  of  Ormonde  to 
engage  in  it,  and  mention  the  case  to  Lord  Treasurer  (Harley)  * 
and  this  I  shall  do  ;  "  and  so  he  did.  But  soon  he  was 
similarly  courted  by  the  rival  claimant.  The  Duchess  of 
Hamilton  knitted  him  a  pocket  "  with  belt  and  buckles  like 
a  woman's  "  for  a  splendid  gold  snuffbox  given  him  by  Col. 
Hill,  the  famous  Lady  Masham's  brother.  Then  Swift 
advised  a  compromise.  It  is  most  amusing  to  read  how  each 
side  wooed  him  as  if  he  were  Prime  Minister  of  Louis  XIV. 
The  Duke  shortly  after  was  killed,  some  said  assassinated, 
in  a  duel  with  Lord  Mohun,  who  was  also  killed  ;  but  the 
Duchess  and  the  Duke's  brother,  Lord  Selkirk,  still  pressed 
the  claim.  In  1713  Swift  writes  : — "  Lord  Abercorn  was 
here  teasing  me  about  his  French  Duchy,  and  suspecting  me 
of  partiality  to  the  Hamilton  family  in  such  a  whimsical 
manner  that  Dr.  Pratt  (Provost  of  Trinity  College),  who  was 
by,  thought  he  was  mad.  Then  comes  in  the  Earl  of  Selkirk 
(the  Duke's  brother),  whom  I  had  never  seen  before.  He  is 
going  to  France  to  negociate  their  pretensions  to  the  Duchy 
of  Chatelherault.  He  teased  me  for  two  hours  in  spite  of  my 
teeth,  and  held  my  hand  when  I  offered  to  stir  ;  would  have 
me  engage  the  Ministry  to  favour  him  against  Lord  Abercorn, 

TEMP;  GEORGE  I.,  1714-1727  161 

and  convince  them  he  had  no  pretensions  ;  and  concluded 
he  was  sorry  I  was  a  greater  friend  to  Abercorn  than 
Hamilton.  I  had  no  patience,  and  used  him  with  some  plain- 
ness. Am  not  I  gravely  handled  between  a  couple  of  puppies  ? 
The  Ministers  gave  me  leave  to  tell  the  Hamiltons  they  are 
to  agree  with  Abercorn."  Swift's  mediation  met  the  common 
fate  of  mediators  ;  he  tells  Stella  "  neither  Abercorn  or  Sel- 
kirk will  now  speak  with  me,  I  have  disobliged  both  sides." 
Strange  enough,  this  Cause  Chatelheraidt  remained  undecided 
till  our  day,  when  our  princely  Lord  Lieutenant,  the  first 
Duke  of  Abercorn,  brought  it  to  a  crisis  in  the  regime  of 
Napoleon  IIL,  when  the  French  tribunal  finally  decided  in 
favour  of  the  Duke  of  Hamilton's  claim. 

Dr.  Coghill  was  also  an  old  friend  of  Swift's  in  the  Queen 
Anne  period.  The  Journa/  to  Stella  tells  how  "  Dr.  Coghill 
and  I  dined  by  invitation  at  ]\Irs.  Vans'  ".  For,  alas,  even 
when  writing  these  immortal  love  letters,  Swift  was  visiting 
constantly  at  the  Van  Homrighs  ;  but  he  takes  care  never  to 
mention  poor  Vanessa's  name,  suggesting  the  attraction  to 
be  her  mother,  Mrs.  Van.  Coghill  was  an  eminent  man,  a 
Piivy  Councillor,  M.P.  for  Dublm  University,  Chancellor  of 
the  Irish  Exchequer,  and  Judge  of  the  Prerogative  Court. 
In  this  latter  capacity  lies  his  present  chief  claim  to  immor- 
tality. In  a  conjugal  suit  here  he  decided  that  "  moderate 
chastisement  with  a  switch  "  of  a  wife  by  her  lord  was  within 
the  male  conjugal  right.  This  was  very  good  old  Common 
Law,  having  been  laid  down  by  husband  judges  ;  but  Coghill 
was  unmarried.  He  was,  at  the  time  of  the  decision,  wooing 
a  lad}'  with  some  success,  but  when  she  heard  of  his  judgment 
she  cut  him  at  once,  and  he  died  an  old  bachelor.  Strange, 
too,  that  this  legal  question  was  only  decided  in  our  day. 
In  the  last  case  aigued  at  the  Bar  by  the  Master  of  the 
Rolls,  Sir  Richard  Collins,  it  was  his  duty  to  contend  for 
the  doctrine  of  moderate  chastisement,  but  Lord  Halsbury 
closured  him  peremptorily,  and  denounced  the  old  dicta  as 
the  theories  of  a  savage  age.  Coghill  was  son  of  Sir  J. 
Coghill,  Master  in  Chancery,  and  grand-uncle  of  the  first 
of  the  Coghill  baronets. 

i62       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

These  new  governois  were  all  accessions  to  our  Board. 
Swift  was  with  us  for  twelve  years,  an  assiduous  attendant 
till  his  infirmities  became  acute.  He  at  once  joined  Arch- 
bishop Kmg's  committees  for  the  infirmary  and  the  reform  of 
our  house  and  government.  These  included  the  restoration 
of  our  chapel,  for  the  Archbishop  was  a  wholesale  restorer  of 
churches,  and  to  the  Dean  was  specially  entrusted  the  altar, 
the  seats,  and  the  pulpit.  We  shall  have  occasion  again  to 
recur  to  him   as   a   governor. 

Our  Board  had  now  become  the  fashion,  and  was  joined 
by  many  of  the  highest  in  the  land.  The  Primate,  Hugh 
Boulter,  who  then  virtually  governed  in  Ireland,  became  a 
governor  in  1726,  and  was  a  valuable  member  for  many  years. 
He  does  not  seem  to  have  attended  any  meeting  at  which 
Archbishop  King  was  present.  They  were  antipathetic  both 
in  politics  and  in  Church  affairs.  Dr.  King  being  wholly 
opposed  to  his  exclusion  of  all  Irishmen  from  dignities  in 
Church  and  State,  and  his  general  anti-Irish  and  somewhat 
secular  spirit.  The  Primate  had  been  elevated  to  Armagli 
in  1724,  though  usage  would  have  pointed  rather  to  the 
Archbishop  of  Dublin.  This  was  about  the  time  of  their 
memorable  first  interview,  when  Dr.  King,  remaining  seated 
in  his  chair,  received  the  Primate,  sa.ying,  as  he  answered  his 
salutation,  "  You  see.  Your  Grace,  I  am  too  old  to  rise." 
About  the  same  time  we  co-opted  Sir  Ralph  Gore,  Chancellor 
of  the  Exchequer,  Lord  Justice  and  a  baronet.  He  had  just 
presented  to  us  a  gift  of  £500  placed  in  his  hands  by  his 
relative  General  Richard  St.  George,  then  the  heir  of  the 
Kilkenny  family  of  Woodsgift.  St.  George  was  cousin 
german  of  St.  George  Ashe,  Bishop  of  Clogher,  a  bosom 
friend  of  Swift,  and  one  of  his  brilliant  coterie  of  punsters 
known  as  the  Castilian  Club  in  the  early  days  of  Queen  Anne. 
Sir  Ralph, who  lived  at  Belleisle  on  Loch  Erne, in  his  diocese, 
had  married  his  daughter.  Sir  Ralph,  as  will  be  seen,  had 
much  to  do  with  our  after  story. 

George  the  First  died  in  June,  1727.  In  April,  John 
Rogerson,  our  Recorder,  who  had  filled  that  office  just  for 
the  term  of  the  King's  reign,  as  Forster  had  held  it  during 

TEMP.  GEORGE  I.,  1714-1727  163 

Queen  Anne's  reign,  was  now  mada  Chief  Justice  of  the 
King's  Bench.  For  ten  years  he  had  sat  at  our  Board  with 
his  father,  old  Sir  John,  till  the  death  of  the  latter  in  1724. 
For  thn-ty-two  years  Sir  John  had  been  one  of  our  best 
governors  ;  he  was  a  Dublin  worthy,  and  must  always  be 
remembered  as  one  of  the  chief  makers  of  Dublin  as  it  now 

In  1708  our  hrst  Ballast  or  Port  and  Docks  Board 
as  already  mentioned  had  been  formed,  as  the  growing 
city  required  that  the  river  channel  should  be  so  deepened 
and  widened  as  to  allow  vessels  to  come  up  to  the 
Custom  House  without  discharging  cargoes  at  Ringsend, 
to  be  carried  in  boats  up  the  shallow  estuar}'-,  which 
then  stretched  in  the  form  of  an  irregular  V  from  the 
apex  at  Essex  Bridge  to  the  open  sea,  over  shoals, 
sands,  and  gravel.  There  was  no  South  or  North  Wall. 
Sir  John  Rogerson  had  leases  from  the  city  of  the  southern 
coast  land,  and  he  offered  the  Ballast  Board  to  construct  a 
wall  and  quay  from  Lazy  PTill  to  Ringsend,  along  the  foreshore 
fronting  the  line  of  the  present  Brunswick  Street,  if  the  city 
would  grant  him  the  intervening  land  in  fee,  and  the  Ballast 
Board  would  allow  him  the  use  of  the  surplus  sand  and  gravel 
from  which  they  raised  their  revenue  by  ballasting  the  ships, 
and  which  he  needed  to  raise  the  low  shore  behind  his  sea 
wall.  This  was  agreed.  This  great  work  occupied  many  years, 
but  Sir  John  lived  just  to  see  it  completed.  It  not  only 
formed  our  first  South  Wall,  but  the  raising  of  the  quays 
enabled  the  necessary  deepening  of  the  channel,  and  led  to 
the  construction  of  the  North  Wall  on  the  opposite  shore. 
Sir  John's  ground,  however,  left  the  shore  to  the  west,  where 
College  Street  stands,  open  to  the  tides,  which  menaced  the 
new  work,  so  the  city  took  on  itself  the  continuation  of  the 
wall  here,  and  thus  we  understand  how  these  southern  quays 
are  still  respectively  known  as  Sir  John  Rogerson's  and  the 
City  Quay  respectively.  The  hinter-lands  now  became  a 
very  valuable  heritage,  which  descended  to  the  new  Lord 
Chief  Justice.  He  proved  one  of  the  most  eminent  judges 
of  Ills  day.       With  the  Recordership  he  held  the  Solicitor- 

i64       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

and  Attorney-Generalship  successively,  and  was  a  strong 
candidate  for  the  dignity  of  Lord  Chancellor  just  before  he 
became  Chief  Justice.  His  daughter  married  Abraham 
Crichton,  the  first  Lord  Erne,  whose  successors  still  inherit 
the  large  property  by  Liffey  side  behind  and  be3''ond  the 
quays  that  still  hand  down  the  Rogerson  name.  In  the  same 
year  the  Corporation  undertook  the  construction  of  the 
North  Wall  on  the  opposite  shore,  on  the  line  of  the 
present  Custom  House  and  steamship  quays.  x\ll  the 
slob  lands  behind,  and  estuary  of  the  Tolka  to  the  Clontarf 
Road  was  now  laid  out  in  lots  by  the  iVssembly.  An  interest- 
ing map  of  the  design  and  the  city  order  appears  in  Sir  John 
Gilbert's  Calendar  ;  it  shows  a  channel  left  for  the  Tolka  on 
the  line  from  Baliybough  Bridge  to  the  Clontarf  Island  still 
lying  opposite  the  Clontarf  Road,  with  the  allotments  as 
ordered  by  Thomas  Bolton,  Lord  Mayor,  and  our  Chairman 
in  1717.  In  these  signal  advances  of  Dublin  the  Blue  Coat 
played  a  part  ;  for  the  city,  in  debt  for  Rogerson's  South 
Wall,  applied  to  our  Board,  and  obtained  from  us  a  loan  of 
/i,ooo  at  six  per  cent. 

Our  Chairmen,  Lord  ^Mayors  in  George  I.'s  time,  were  : — 

John  Stoyte 


Thos.  Bolton     ... 


Anthony  Barkey 


William  Quaile 


Thomas  Wilkinson 


George  Forbes 


Thomas  Curtis 


WiUiam  Dickson 


John  Porter 


John  Reyson     ... 


Joseph  Kane 


WiUiam  Enipson 


[     i^^5     ] 

TEMP.   GEORGE   II.     i7_^7-i744. 

The  first  act  of  the  Board  in  George  II. 's  reign  was  to  re-elect 
Chief  Justice  Rogerson  :  the  assembly  had  chosen  Francis 
Stoyte,  who,  like  his  predecessor,  was  a  Lord  Mayor's  son, 
Recorder  in  his  place.'  The  Lord  Mayors  of  this  period  used 
to  give  a  ball  on  each  St.  Stephen's  Night,  but  in  1728  the 
Assembly  made  an  order  reciting  that  great  inconveniences 
had  ensued  in  late  years  from  the  custom,  and  directed  that 
it  should  be  discontinued,  and  that  the  Lord  Mayor  for  the 
time  being  should  pay  over  twenty  guineas  to  the  Blue  Coat 
School  in  lieu  of  his  feast  ;  the  Lord  Mayors  were  thus  raised 
to  the  level  of  the  Bishops.  It  is  not  stated  what  the  incon- 
veniences of  these  revelries  were,  but  the  Lord  Mayors  would 
seem  to  liave  made  a  good  bargain  by  the  composition,  and 
the  Blue  Coat  School  certainly  gained.  In  the  same  year, 
1728,  Richard  Wesley,  afterwards  first  Lord  Mornington,  and 
who  had  been  some  time  a  governor,  transmitted  to  our  Board 
a  legacy  of  £500,  left  by  the  will  of  his  relative,  Garret  Wesley 
of  Dangan,  in  Meath,  whose  heir  and  executor  he  was  and 
whose  surname  he  took  ;  for  his  birth  name  was  Richard 
Colley,  representative  of  the  Colleys  of  Castle  Carbery.  He 
was  raised  to  the  peerage  as  Lord  Mornington  in  1746,  and 
then  altered  the  surname  to  Wellesley.  By  his  son  Garrett 
he  was  grandfather  of  the  great  Marquess  Wellesley  and  his 
greater  brother,  the  great  Iron  Duke.  He  was  one  of  our  most 
assiduous  governors  for  years,  and  his  name  gives  us  an  his- 
torical association  to  which  we  gladly  hold.  In  1729  the 
Speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons,  the  Right  Hon.  WilHam 
Connolly  of  Castletown,  sat  on  our  Board,  but  he  died  in  the 

^  Gilbert's  Calendar    7,   425. 

i66       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

following  year;  and  at  the  same  time  sat  the  Lord  Chancellor, 
Thomas  Wyndham,  of  whom  a  word  presently.  In  1730, 
after  the  death  of  Archbishop  King,  his  successor,  Dr. 
Hoadley,  was  co-opted  a  governor  in  his  stead. 

All  this  led  to  onr  recognition  in  other  public  quarters. 
The  Royal  College  of  Ph57sicians,  one  of  whose  members  had 
attended  as  our  medical  oiftcer  ever  since  their  recognition  of 
the  School  in  1701,  now  sent  us  in  1729  a  fresh  resolution 
stating  that  the  President  and  Fellows,  out  of  regard  for  the 
good  and  welfare  of  the  Hospital,  had  transferred  their 
attendance  thereat  for  the  future  to  Dr.  Alexander 
McNaghten,  as  fully  qualified  for  the  charge,  the  President, 
Dr.  Cope,  assuring  our  Board  that  on  the  removal  of  Dr. 
McNaghten  by  death  or  otherwise  the  College  would  always 
take  care  that  our  house  should  be  supplied  with  physicians 
as  formerly.  This  was  gratefully  accepted  ;  we  thus  obtained 
a  permanent  doctor  who  acted  without  salar}^ 

The  Parliament  of  the  Blue  Coat. 
The  patronage  of  some  of  our  grandee  governors  at  this 
time  was  not  perhaps  given  without  some  ulterior  object  of 
their  own.  In  1729  was  laid  the  foundation  stone  of  the  new 
Houses  of  Parliament,  on  the  site  of  Chichester  House,  in 
College  Green,  Lord  Chancellor  Wyndham  taking  a  leading 
part  in  the  ceremony.  Meanwhile  the  Houses  had  not  where 
to  lay  their  heads  :  there  was  no  room  at  Castle  or  Four 
Courts.  Lord  Carteret  being  then  Lord  Lieutenant,  the 
Government,  at  the  end  of  1728,  applied  to  our  Board  to  give 
the  Houses  place  in  the  Hospital  in  the  ensuing  session.  At 
our  meeting  in  November  Sir  Ralph  Gore  obtained  a  Com^- 
mittee  to  consider  the  question,  who  reported  forthwith, 
assigning  as  "  most  convenient  for  the  use  of  Parliament  " 
the  whole  ground  and  first  floor  of  the  Hospital  and  School, 
viz.,  the  Great  Hall,  the  Governors'  room,  with  the  Clerk's 
office,  the  Chaplain's  apartmicnts  upstairs,  with  the  two 
rooms  on  the  same  floor,  the  several  rooms  on  the  side  of  the 
passage  leading  from  the  hall  to  the  garden,  the  Chapel  and 
the  Ste\\ard's  apartments  upstairs,  with  the  three  rooms 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1727-1744  167 

opposite  same.  Thisappro]:)riation  the  Committee  concedes  to 
be  the  '"  most  proper,  and  which  can  best  be  spared  with  the 
least  prejudice  and  inconvenience  to  this  House."'  "  In  the 
meantime,  the  boys,"  they  add,  with  dehghtful  naivete,  "  may 
eate  in  the  Stone  Gallery,"  and  that  "  the  chaplain  do  read 
prayers  in  the  school  room  up  two  paire  stairs."  He  and  the 
steward  are  to  provide  lodgings  "  near  at  hand."  The  report 
ends  with  a  very  wise  direction  that  "  all  avenues  "  are  to  be 
made  up,  to  prevent  the  boys  interfering  with  the  part  of  the 
Hospital  granted  to  Parliament.  The  temptation  to  enter 
tlie  House  prematurely  might  be  too  strong  even  for  boys 
with  a  better  place  to  '•  eate  "  in  than  the  Stone  Gallery.  This 
report,  however,  was  adopted  unanimously  and  at  once.  No 
wonder  Sir  Ralph  Gore  was  chosen  Speaker  next  year.  The 
Hospital  paid  dearly  for  their  complacent  hospitality.  So 
King's  Hospital  was  the  Parliament  House  of  Ireland  from 
23rd  September,  1729,  to  15th  April,  1730.  The  session  was 
opened  by  Lord  Carteret  in  person,  who  "  arrayed  in  royal 
robes  entered  the  House  of  Lords  with  the  usual  ceremonies  of 
grandeur,  and  seated  himself  in  the  chair  of  State."  His 
influence  in  this  parliament  was  very  great,  for  great  was  the 
interest  he  took  in  its  proceedings.  He  attended  again  on 
24th  October,  when  Sir  Ralph  Gore  presented  himself  on 
knee  as  newly  chosen  Speaker  in  the  room  of  the  Right  Hon. 
William  Connolly,  who  had  just  resigned  from  ill  health. 
Thrice  again  he  came  in  person,  in  December  to  receive  the 
loyal  addresses  voting  supplies  to  the  Crown,  and  in  April  to 
give  the  royal  assent  to  the  bills  before  prorogation.  But  his 
keen  sympathy  in  all  that  was  for  the  material  prosperity  of 
Ireland,  and  which  he  transfused  through  the  Houses,  was 
the  chief  ground  of  his  popularity.  In  the  same  year  he  for- 
warded to  Holies,  Duke  of  Newcastle,  a  memorial  of  the 
Dublin  merchants  complaining  that  under  Acts  of  Chas.  11. 
and  Wm.  III.  importation  into  Ireland  was  penally  forbidden 
of  any  merchandise  from  the  English  plantations  in  America, 
Africa,  or  Asia,  and  the  consequent  loss  and  inconvenience. 
Carteret  indorses  the  memorial,  stating  "  I  have  personally 
inquired  into  the  particulars,  and  find  that  Ireland  is  under 


necessity  of  sending  to  foreign  markets  and  trading  with  tne 
French  and  other  foreigners  to  procure  commodities  which 
they  are  prohibited  from  importing  from  British  plantations." 
Verily  we  are  not  ashamed  of  this  our  Parliament  of  the  Blue 
Coat.  Reading  the  Journals  one  might  think  he  had  before 
him  proposals  of  our  Congested  Districts  Board  or  Sir  Horace 
Plunkett,  for  they  cast  striking  lights  on  social  and  material 
problems  even  now  in  evolution.  The  great  measure  of  the 
session  was  that  "  for  the  encouragement,  the  better  employ- 
ment of  the  Poor,  for  more  effectively  draining  and  improving 
Bogs  and  unprofitable  ground,  and  for  expediting  the 
carriage  of  goods  from  one  part  to  another  of  the  Kingdome." 
This  became  3  Geo.  II.,  c.  3.  By  this  a  Commission  of  the 
magnates  of  Ireland  was  constituted,  with  elastic  powers, 
armed  with  a  Developement  Fund  raised  bv  taxes  on 
carriages  and  chairs,  plate,  cards  and  dice. Then  there  are  bills 
for  cleansing  the  ports  and  harbours  of  Cork,  Waterford, 
Limerick,  Galway,  Sligo,  Wexford,  and  New  Ross  ;  for 
establishing  ballast  boards  in  Belfast  and  Drogheda  ;  one  to 
promote  the  finding  of  mines  and  minerals  within  the  King- 
dom, and  one  to  enable  the  governors  of  the  Workhouse  in 
Dublin  to  employ  the  poor  therein.  We  have  the  germ  of 
Trades  Union  law  in  a  bill  to  prevent  unlawful  combinations 
of  workmen,  artizans,  and  labourers,  with  beneficent  pro- 
visions for  the  better  paym.ent  of  their  wages.  An  early  order 
directs  our  Recorder,  Francis  Stoyte,  then  sitting  for  Hills- 
borough, to  attend  the  Lord  Lieutenant  with  the  heads  of  a 
bin  to  prevent  the  running  of  goods  and  encouragement  of 
Fair  Traders  to  be  transmitted  to  London  under  Poyning's 
Act.  Were  these  "  runners  "  the  forerunner  of  Mr.  Chamber- 
lains "  dumpers,"  and  the  Fair  Traders  a  shadow  of  Tariff 
Reform  ?  There  are  beneficent  measures  for  Relief  of  Insol- 
vent Debtors,  for  the  extension  and  repair  of  churches,  for 
enforcing  residence  of  the  clergy,  and  many  local  ones,  as  for 
the  better  lighting  of  Dublin  and  Cork,  and  for  making  the 
present  coach  road  to  Naas  and  Dublin.  And  the  House 
could  deal  strongly  with  abuses.  Aldermen  Wilkinson  and 
Bolton,  both,  alas  !  governors  of  ours,  are  by  statute  made 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1727-1744  169 

incapable  of   being   made  Justices  of    the  Peace  for  taking 
extortionate  fees  in  that  capacity. 

But  our  glory  in  this  Parliament  is  the  spirit  of  our  own 
great  governor,  Swift,  which  it  breathed.  He  was  then  in 
the  fury  of  his  marvellous  war  against  the  trade  greed  of 
England,  and  the  anti-Irish  policy  of  Primate  Boulter.  We 
can  see  his  figure  now  animating  the  generosity  of  Carteret 
and  the  patriotism  of  the  Houses.  Their  measures  are  at 
least  an  effort  to  reflect  the  Short  View  of  the  State  of 
Ireland  which  he  had  thundered  forth  to  greet  Carteret's 
return  to  Ireland  in  1727.  This  he  had  followed  in  1729  witli 
his  historic  letter  to  Archbishop  King,  and  then  with 
his  Modest  Proposal  for  fattening  Irish  Babes,  our  only 
available  manufactm-e,  for  market,  which  is,  perhaps,  the 
most  consummate  sample  of  hideous-grotesque  power  the 
genius  of  satire  has  ever  conceived.  With  much  of  his  policy 
Carteret  had  a  sympathy  intense.  They  were  now  close,  social, 
and  literary  friends.  Swift  dined  tete-a-tete  with  the  ^'iceroy 
repealedly  during  this  session.  One  clause  in  the  great  bill 
for  encouraging  industries  would  alone  prove  the  presence  of 
the  spirit  behind  the  scenes  ;  this  was  a  project  for  lending 
money  without  interest  to  deserving  tradesmen  who  had  no 
capital,  a  plan  long  adopted  by  the  Dean  himself  with  self- 
denying  success,  and  which, though  now  forgotten,  was  a  main 
element  in  his  unrivalled  popularity  with  the  people  of 
Dublin.  It  is  not  actually  embodied  in  the  Act  as  passed,  but 
may  have  been  \\ithin  the  powers  of  the  Commission  in 
administering  their  Development  Fund.  When  the  Lord 
Lieutenant  came  in  state  to  close  the  session  in  April  in  the 
Blue  Coat,  both  Houses  presented  him  with  a  cordial  address, 
"  for  his  constant  care  for  the  welfare  and  prosperity  of  the 
Nation,  and  especially  for  obtaining  the  King's  assent  to  the 
Fund  for  improving  tillage  and  trade."  This  referred  to  the 
remission  of  the  hereditary  CrowTx  duties  on  wool  and  yarn, 
which,  in  assenting  to  the  measure,  the  Viceroy  announced 
he  had  obtained  from  the  English  Government.  He  replied 
to  the  address  in  person  with  characteristic  grace.  Shortly 
after  he  resigned  the   \'iceroyalty,   returning  to  England, 

170       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

where  he  became  the  first  Earl  Granville  and  a  great  states- 
man there.  He  was  no  partisan  of  Walpole,  who  was  then 
supreme,  and  to  whom  Swift  was  a  hete  noir,  and  whose 
intimacy,  there  is  too  much  reason  to  believe,  was  in  part  a 
cause  of  his  resignation,  which  was  deplored  by  all  here.  He 
was  a  universal  favourite  in  the  city.  In  1726  the  Corpora- 
tion, in  a  loyal  address  to  George  XL  specially  thank  his 
Majesty  "  for  the  great  regard  shown  to  this  nation  in  sending 
Lord  Carteret,  whose  just  and  prudent  administration  has 
rendered  him  highly  acceptable  to  your  subjects  of  this 
Kingdom."  He  was  very  friendly  to  the  Blue  Coat.  Lady 
Carteret  nominated  several  of  our  boys. 

Our  Blue  Coat  Parliament  has  been  severely  criticized  for 
the  very  unconstitutional  proposal  made  by  Coghill  as  Chan- 
cellor of  the  Exchequer  to  vote  the  additional  duties  for  a 
period  of  twenty-one  years  and  thus  so  far  leave  the  Govern- 
ment independent  of  the  House  for  all  that  time.  To  the 
credit  of  the  House  the  bill  was  rejected,  but  only  by  a 
majority  of  one,  the  votes  being  51  to  50.  It  is  most  unlikely 
that  Carteret  had  suggested  such  a  measure  ;  had  he  been 
more  self-willed  and  ambitious  his  great  talents  would  have 
raised  him  higher  than  he  reached.  The  arbitrary  policy  was 
much  more  likely  to  have  emanated  from  Primate  Boulter, 
who  ruled  as  an  Undertaking  Lord  Justice  in  the  absence  of 
the  Lord  Lieutenant,  and  would  have  ruled  despotically  if  he 
dared.  Our  Parliament  was  the  "  Longest  "  on  record,  the 
Blue  Coat  session  being  its  second  ;  it  lasted  through  the 
whole  reign  of  George  II.,  and  this  abuse  led  to  the 
Octennial  Act  passed  early  in  the  following  reign. 

Pending  the  session,  school  went  on  in  the  Stone  Galler}'" 
and  garrets.  The  Board  had  reserved  a  joint  right  to  their 
own  room  for  their  weekly  meetings,  and,  perhaps  attracted 
by  the  society  of  the  Senate,  the  attendance  of  governors  was 
above  the  average.  But  the  boys  seem  to  have  been  restive 
in  their  attic,  if  not  classical,  quarters,  for  several  were 
discharged  out  of  the  house,  "'never  to  be  admitted  again,"  as 
being  vagabonds  and  running  away  !  and  William  Rowland 
for  being  "  a  stubborne  and  incorrigible  boy  was  straight 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1727-1744  171 

sent  to  sea."  We  may  excuse  Parliament  for  its  monopoly  of 
the  Blue  Coat  in  view  of  their  good  work,  but  when  the 
"  avenues  "  were  removed,  and  the  boys  came  down,  all 
things  were  in  disastrous  disarray.  Every  passage  and  lobby 
had  been  absorbed  and  trampled.  Even  the  poor  butler  had 
been  expelled  to  give  an  office  to  the  House,  and  had  a  grant 
from  the  Board  of  £2  i8s.  4d.  for  three  quarters  of  a  rent  for 
a  room  outside.  Parliament  was  prorogued  by  several 
adjournments  to  the  autumn  of  1731,  for  it  then  sat  in 
alternate  years,  and  when  it  met  Lionel,  Duke  of  Dorset, 
reigned  in  Carteret's  stead.  Our  Board  petitioned  the  Com- 
mons in  November,  1731,  for  the  expenses  of  rebuilding  our 
dilapidated  school,  and  there  was  a  separate  petition  of  our 
officers  to  be  compensated  for  disturbance  and  eviction,  but 
the  result  was  only  a  scanty  vote  of  £200  to  the  governors 
towards  rebuilding  by  reason  of  alterations  made  for  Parlia- 
ment, £30  to  Rev.  Mr.  Gibbons,  our  chaplain  ;  /20  to  Alfred 
Howard,  the  agent  ;  and  £20  to  Thorne,  the  steward.  This 
pittance  was  all  we  ever  received  for  rent  and  the  dilapida- 
tions, from  which  the  old  edifice  never  recovered.  Carteret 
would  have  secured  us  better  than  that. 

It  should  be  mentioned,  however,  that  in  this  session  of 
1731-32  a  Merchant  Seamen's  Act  was  passed,  by  which  all 
penalties  were  appropriated  for  the  benefit  of  King's  Hospital. 

The  return  for  our  hospitality  was  ungracious  as  well  as 
ungenerous.  In  the  Lord  Lieutenant's  absence,  Thomas  Lord 
Chancellor  Wyndham  was  head  of  the  Government  and  Presi- 
dent of  the  Priw  Council,  then  all  potent.  From  the  Council 
came  this  letter  to  our  steward  : 

"  Dublin  Castle,  yth  October,  1732. 
"  Mr.  Thorne, 

"  Their  excellencies  the  Lords  Justices  have  commanded  me 
to  signify  to  you  their  pleasure  that  you  forthwith  deliver  to 
Mrs.  Heath  or  her  order  the  Chair,  Cushion,  and  Footstool 
belonging  to  the  Government  which  were  placed  in  the  House 
of  Lords  when  it  was  held  in  the  Blue  Coat  Hospital, 

''  I  am  your  humble  servant, 

"  Thos   Tickell." 

172       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

This  letter  is  a  prize  among  our  archives,  a  fine  autograph, and 
all  in  the  strong  hand  of  Tickell,  the  poet, eulogist, and  elegist 
of  Addison,  who  first  brought  him  to  Ireland  many  years 
before.  He  was  now  Secretary  to  the  Privy  Council,  the 
intimate  of  Swift  and  Dr.  Delany  of  Delville,  Glasnevin,  so 
continuing  to  his  death  in  1740.  The  sequel  of  the  chair  is 
told  in  a  manuscript  of  Thorne  indorsed  on  Tickell's  letter, 
so  graphic  that  we  give  it  in  full  : — 

"  I  received  this  letter  Munday  morning  about  8  of  the 
clock.  I  told  Mrs.  Heath  that  I  could  do  nothing,  but  would 
waite  on  my  Lord  Mayor  and  give  her  his  lordship's  answer 
by  4  in  the  afternoon.  She  sent  to  me,  and  I  sent  her  word 
that  my  Lord  Mayor  could  give  no  order  without  a  board  of  the 
governors, but  atthenext  meeting  he  would  lay  the  letter  before 
them  and  then  return  an  answer.  Tuesday,  about  two  o'clock 
afternoon,  a  person  came  to  me  from  the  Lord  Chancellor 
ordering  me  to  attend  his  Lordship  at  4  of  the  clock,  at  the 
Bishop  of  Tuam's  in  Cavan  (Kevin)  Street.  I  first  waited  on 
my  Lord  Mayor,  and  acquainted  him  that  I  was  sent  for  by 
the  Lord  Chancellor.  His  Lordship  ordered  me  to  acquaint 
His  Excellency  that  he  could  give  no  order  of  himself,  but  if 
there  were  a  necessity,  he  would  call  a  board  Wednesday 
morning.  I  went  to  my  Lord  Chancellor.  When  he  came 
out  to  me,  and  Secretary  Tickle  (sic)  in  his  company,  he 
demanded  me  why  I  did  not  obe}'  the  Government's  orders. 
I  told  him  I  was  under  the  direction  of  the  governors  of  the 
Blue  Coat  Hospital,  and  could  not  part  with  anything  with- 
out their  orders.  I  also  told  him  I  was  just  come  from  m}^ 
Lord  Mayor,  and  would  have  delivered  my  orders.  His 
Excellency  stopped  me,  and  said  rriy  Lord  Mayor  was 
out  of  the  question.  Demanded  of  me  who  put  the 
Thrown  (sic)  in  my  custody,  and  whether  I  would  keep 
it,  and  said,  '  Sir,  I  demand  of  you  whether  you  will  de- 
liver it  or  not  ?  '  I  answered  I  could  not  without  orders 
from  the  governors.  His  Lordship  replied  with  some  warmth 
— '  Sir,  if  you  do  not,  I  will  have  you  turned  out  of  your  place 
to-morrow,'  to  which  I  made  a  bow.  His  Lordship  returned 
to  his  company.  I  immediately  went  to  my  Lord  Mayor, 
who  dined  at  the  3  tunns  in  Essex  Street.  There  were  present 
Alderman  Curtis,  Alderman  Porter,  Alderman  Hunt,  2 
Shiriffs.  My  Lord  Mayor  with  their  approbation  ordered  me 
to  send  the  Chair  and  Stool  to  the  Castle,  which  I  did  by  John 
Hodgin,  Butler  to  the  Hospital." 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1727-1744  173 

It  is  not  hard  to  decide  as  to  the  relative  dignity  of  the 
peremptory  Lord  Chancellor,  who  would  not  wait  till  Wed 
nesday,and  the  poor  servant,  who  was  only  doing  his  duty  to 
his  masters.  This  throne  left  in  the  fragments  of  our  broken 
furniture  would  have  been  a  splendid  relic  of  our  Parliament, 
for  this  was  the  chair  in  which  Carteret  had  sat  in  state  on  his 
four  visits  to  the  Houses,  under  the  canopy  from  which  he 
gave  the  royal  assent  to  the  aids  voted  to  the  Crown  in  the 
old  Norman  French  :  Le  roy  remercie  scs  bons  sujets,  accepte 
leur  benevolence  et  ainsi  le  veult.  When  in  June,  1904,  Lord 
Dudley  inaugurated  the  completion  of  our  buildings  by  the 
cupola,  after  one  hundred  and  twenty  years,  our  chairman, 
addressing  His  Excellency,  lamented  that  we  had  not  the 
throne  wherein  he  might  sit  as  a  great  predecessor  had  done  : 
it  was  added  that  we  should  have  taken  care  that  he  should 
find  in  it  no  thorn  to  disturb  him. 

The  Lord  Mayor  and  our  Chairman,  under  whom  Thorne 
had  hastened  to  take  shelter,  was  Humfrey  French,  w^ho  had 
just  commenced  his  Mayoralty.  He  is  known  as  the  good 
Lord  Mayor  (1732-33)  ;  his  portrait  is  in  the  National  Por- 
trait Gallery.  He  was  dining  at  the  Three  Tuns  that 
October  day  probably  to  celebrate  his  inauguration,  and  did 
not  care  to  begin  with  a  quarrel  with  the  Privy  Council  even 
for  a  throne  ;  but  he  was  boomed  by  Swift  next  year,  1733, 
W'hen  candidate  for  the  city,  in  a  memorable  broadside  to  the 
freemen  recommending  him  as  one  who  would  vote  patriotic- 
ally, whilst  his  opponent,  Alderman  Macarell,  who  held  an 
appointment  under  Government,  would  not  dare  to  oppose 
anti-Irish  measures.  "  He  has  shewn,"  says  Swift,  "  more 
virtue,  more  activity,  more  skill  in  one  year's  government  of 
the  cit}^  than  a  hundred  years  can  equal."  This  secured  his 
election.  Lord  Chancellor  Wyndham  should  have  been  gentler 
to  Thorne,  for  he  was  himself  one  of  our  governors,  and  had 
been  one  of  thirty-seven  eagles  gathered  together  at  our  P>oard 
of  September,  1729,  when  Thorne  was  elected  our  Steward, 
vice  John  Kirkwood,  deceased.  Lord  Mayor  Page  in  the  chair, 
and  with  him,  beside  Wyndham,  sat  Primate  Boulter, 
Connolly,  Speaker  of  the  House,  the  Bishops  of  Meath  and 

174       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Kildare,  and  a  great  tale  of  aldermen  and  sheriffs  ;  and  he 
was  still  a  member  of  the  Board.  He  afterwards  acted  on  our 
Committee  in  1737  to  support  our  petition  to  Parliament  for 
a  grant  to  rebuild,  and  at  his  death  he  bequeathed  £300  to 
the  Hospital.  Perhaps  he  felt  he  had  been  a  little  too  severe 
in  the  case  of  the  throne.  He  was  ancestor  of  the  Right  Hon. 
George  Wyndham,  lately  our  brilliant  Chief  Secretary  for 
Ireland.  Secretary  Tickell,  too,  should  have  been  friendly  ; 
we  had  admitted  a  boy  at  his  request  in  1727. 

In  January,  1730,  our  Secretary,  Bartholomew  Wybrants, 
resigned,  after  a  faithful  service  of  thirty-six  years.  He  was 
one  of  those  clerks  whose  clerkly  talent  rises  almost  to  genius, 
and  by  whom  a  vast  part  of  the  world's  work  is  done,  though 
they  be  unknown  to  the  world.  Every  line  of  our  first  Minute 
Book,  from  our  beginning  in  1675  to  1731,  is  under  his  hand  ; 
for,  though  only  appointed  in  1694,  he  transcribed  all  the 
previous  entries  into  the  books,  and  after  his  resignation  con- 
tinued the  entries  for  a  twelvemonth.  During  his  tenure  with 
us  he  also  acted  as  Clerk  to  the  Commons  in  the  Town  Council. 
He  merits  a  kind  memory  for  his  own  sake,  but  a  romantic 
domestic  tragedy  has  connected  him  with  the  literature  of 
Queen  Anne's  time,  for  the  story  is  told  by  Sir  Richard  Steele 
in  No.  172  of  the  Taller,  May,  1710.  Wybrants  belonged  to  a 
respectable  family  of  Dutch  extraction,  which,  like  many 
others,was  made  free  of  Dublin  city  in  Dutch  William's  reign. 
Steele  uses  the  tragedy  as  an  epilogue  to  an  essay  on  the  sad 
results  of  passion  let  loose  between  friends,  and  especially  in 
mariied  life,  strikingly  observing  that  there  is  a  sex  in  souls. 
Wybrants'  daughter  was  the  wife  of  Mr.  Eustace,  a  young 
gentleman  of  a  good  estate  near  Dublin.  She  was  of  a  lively 
spirit,  but  somewhat  high-tempered.  The  married  couple 
and  the  lady's  sister  supped  together  in  the  spring  of  1710. 
when  a  commonplace  wrangle  arose  between  the  sisters. 
Eustace,  intervening,  took  violent  sides  against  his  wife,  who, 
vainly  reminding  him  that  their  disputes  were  forgotten  in 
half  an  hour,  to  close  the  quarrel  retired  to  her  bed.  The 
husband  followed,  and,  with  a  dagger  he  had  brought  with 
him,  stabbed  her  in  her  sleep.    Awaking,  and  thinking  it  was 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1727-1744  175 

an  attack  on  her  husband  by  ruffians,  for  theirs  was  a  lonely 
country  house,  she  roused  him  to  defend  himself ;  he  was 
feigning  sleep,  but  he  gave  her  a  second  wound  in 
the  dark.  Then  by  the  moonlight  she  saw  that 
it  was  he.  Horror  disarmed  her  from  further  struggling, 
and,  enraged  anew  at  being  discovered,  he  fixed 
his  poniard  in  her  bosom,  and,  believing  he  had 
dispatched  her,  souglit  to  escape  b}''  the  window.  But 
when  still  alive  she  called  on  him  not  to  hurt  himself,  as  she 
was  still  alive  ;  in  an  access  of  fury  he  jumped  on  the  bed  and 
wounded  her  all  over  with  as  much  rage  as  if  ever}^  blow  was 
provoked  by  new  aggravations.  Then  he  fled  ;  she  died 
next  day.  Some  weeks  after,  an  officer  of  justice,  attempting 
to  arrest  him,  on  his  resistance  fired  at  him,  as  did  the 
criminal  at  the  officer.  Both  balls  took  fatal  effect.  In  Jones's 
British  Classics,  1823,  there  is  a  sensational  engravmg  bv 
Corbould  of  this  bedroom  scene.  Alfred  Howard  was  chosen 
our  Agent  in  Wybrants'  stead. 

Our  poor  chaplain,  Richard  Gibbons,  did  not  long  survive 
his  extrusion  from  his  quarters  by  Parliament,  or  even  long 
enough  to  receive  the  pittance  of  £30  awarded  him,  for 
he  died  in  December,  1731.  Forty-nine  governors,  eagles 
gathered  together  fro  more,  met  to  elect  his  successor,  the 
Primate,  Lord  Chancellor,  Archbishop  Hoadley,  the  Lord 
Chief  Justice,  Bishops  of  Meath  and  Kildare,  Sir  Ralph  Gore, 
and  Swift  attending.  They  had  before  them  the  valuable 
report  of  a  Committee  as  to  the  duties  of  the  chaplain  and 
schoolmaster,  which  recites  the  original  order  made  when  Mr. 
Colquit  was  appointed  second  chaplain  in  1680,  as  set  forth, 
ante,  p.  88,  also  that  of  7  May,  1708  (p.  131,  ante),  requiring 
the  chaplain  to  preach  and  read  prayers  every  Sunday,  and 
to  teach  and  expound  the  Church  catechism  every  Sunday 
in  the  Chapel  ;  the  Committee  report  that  the  order  as  to 
preaching  was  once  respited  for  six  months  on  account  of  a 
law  suit,  when  Rev.  Mr.  Carr  was  chaplain,  but  was  never 
reversed,  and  they  find  that  several  of  the  above  duties  of 
the  chaplain  and  schoolmaster  have  been  for  some  years  past 
wholly  omitted,  and  are  of  opinion  they  ought  to  be  revived. 


This  report  is  very  noteworthy,  not  only  as  showing  the 
strictly  denominational  nature  of  the  Hospital,  which 
obtained  for  it  an  exemption  from  the  Educational  Endow- 
ments Act  of  1885,  but  because  we  trace  in  it  the  strong  hand 
of  the  great  Dean  of  St.  Patrick's.  The  original,  still  in  our 
archives,  is  signed  by  seven  governors,  of  which  "  Jonath. 
Swift  "  stands  second,  immediately  after  Humfrey  French, 
Lord  Mayor.  An  order  had  been  made  a  few  months  before 
that  Testaments  and  Prayer  Books  should  be  supplied  to 
every  boy,  and  that  in  future  no  boy  should  be  admitted 
without  a  Bible  and  Prayer  Book  provided  by  their  friends 
at  their  first  entrance. 

The   Grattans  and  the    Blue  Coat. 

But  we  scarcely  dare  attribute  this  conflux  of  49 
governors  solely  to  spiritual  zeal.  There  was  the 
great  question  of  the  appointment  of  chaplain  and 
headmaster,  for  which  there  were  several  candidates. 
The  Reverend  Ralph  Grattan  was  chosen.  Small 
chance  for  any  other,  for  ?ie  was  a  nephew  and  namesake 
of  the  speaker,  Ralph  Gore,  one  of  the  49,  as  also 
nephew  of  another  of  them.  Alderman  Sir  Richard  Grattan, 
who,  four  years  after,  was  our  Chairman  and  Lord  Mayor, 
whilst  he  and  his  uncle.  Sir  Richard,  belonged  to  the  clan 
Grattan,  dear  to  Swift,  who  took  a  chief  part,  as  we  have  seen, 
at  the  meeting  that  day.  This  clan  was  of  his  inner  circle, 
he  dubbed  them  "  the  Grattans,  a  set  of  men  as  generally 
acquainted  and  as  much  beloved,  as  any  one  family  in  the 
nation  ;  nay,  to  such  a  degree,  that  some  of  the  most  con- 
siderable men  in  the  church  desired  and  thought  it  a  favour 
to  be  adopted  by  them,  and  admitted  Grattans."  "  Pray, 
my  Lord,"  Swift  asked  Lord  Carteret,  "  have  you  the  honour 
to  be  acquainted  with  the  Grattans  ?"  Carteret  replying 
that  he  had  not  that  honour,  "'  tlien,  pray,  my  Lord,  take 
care  to  obtain  it,  it  is  of  great  consequence,  the  Grattans  can 
raise  ten  thousand  men."  The  Grattans,  properly  so  called, 
were  then  the  seven  sons  of  the  Reverend  Doctor  Patrick 
Grattan,    Senior   Fellow  of   Trinity   College,   of  whom   Dr. 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1727-1744  177 

Delany  (another  Swiftian)  says  he  had  often  heard  the 
Bishop  of  Clogher  (St.  George  Ashe,  another  Swiftian), 
declare  that  he  kept  hospitahty  beyond  both  the  lords  who 
hved  on  either  side  of  him,  though  both  were  considered 
hospitable.  The  seven  sons  were  : — i,  Henry  ;  2,  Rev. 
Wilham  ;  3,  James,  M.D.  ;  4,  Rev.  Robert  ;  5,  Rev.  John  ; 
6,  Sir  Richard  ;  7,  Charles.  Of  these,  Henry  was  father  of 
James  Grattan,  Recorder  of  Dublin,  and  one  of  our  governors, 
1756-66  ;  he  was  father  of  the  great  Henry,  the  patriot,  who 
was  born  in  the  year  after  Swift's  death.  The  Rev.  William 
was  a  Fellow  of  Trinity,  he  married  a  sister  of  Sir  Ralph  Gore, 
and  was  father  of  our  chaplain,  Ralph,  who  held  that  office 
for  forty-one  years.  Dr.  James,  the  third  brother,  \vas  an 
eminent  physician,  and  President  of  the  Royal  College  of 
Physicians,  in  which  office  we  have  seen  him  in  1706,  pro- 
mising, on  behalf  of  the  College,  always  to  supply  a  Physician 
to  our  Hospital,  on  the  wise  condition  that  we  should  set 
apart  rooms  for  an  infirmary.  The  Rev.  Robert  was  pre- 
bendary of  Howth,  in  the  Chapter  of  St.  Patrick's,  and  as 
such,  a  colleague  of  Swift,  and  rector  of  St.  Audoen's.  The 
Rev.  John  was  rector  of  Raheny,  and  became  prebendary 
of  Clonmethan,  in  the  Chapter  of  St.  Patrick's  in  1720, 
doubtless,  due  to  his  friend,  the  great  Dean.  Sir  Richard, 
our  chairman  in  1735-6,  presented  our  petition  to  Parliament 
in  1735  ;  he  died  during  his  mayoralty.  The  youngest  brother, 
Charles,  obtained  a  Fellowship  in  the  Dublin  University 
and  applied  for  a  royal  dispensation  from  taking  Holy  Orders, 
which,  failing  to  obtain  within  the  prescribed  period,  his 
fellowship  lapsed  under  the  College  statutes,  and  he  came 
over  to  London  to  obtain  from  Queen  Anne  such  an  exten- 
sion of  time  as  would  enable  him  to  be  ordained.  Swift, 
then  in  his  zenith  of  favour  with  ministers,  took  up  the  case. 
Writing  to  Stella,  in  March,  1714,  he  tells  her  : — "  I  spoke 
to  all  the  ministers  yesterday  about  it,  but  they  say  the 
Queen  is  angry,  and  thought  it  a  trick  to  deceive  her,  and 
she  is  positive,  and  so  the  man  must  be  ruined,  for  I  cannot 
help  him'-."      We  know  that  Anne,  like  many  weak  people, 

'-Journal  to  S/dla,  iQtli  March,   1712-13. 


178       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

was  adamantine  in  some  things,  and,  especially  on  things 
that  related  to  the  church.  So  Charles  Grattan,  failing  his 
Fellowship,  was  forced  to  be  content  with  the  mastership 
of  the  Royal  School  of  Enniskillen.  This  case  seems  first 
to  have  connected  Swift  with  the  Grattans,  for  he  tells  Stella 
that  he  had  never  seen  Charles  before.  But  the  connection 
was  lifelong.  Dr.  James,  Robert,  and  John  are  all  legatees 
in  Swift's  will,  and  Robert  and  John  are  executors.  To 
Robert  he  leaves  his  gold  corkscrew,  his  best  beaver  hat,  and 
his  strong  box  ;  the  latter  to  go  to  Dr.  James  for  life,  "  as 
having  more  use  for  it,"  for  the  Doctor  was  a  landed  pro- 
prietor. To  John  he  gives  "  my  silver  box,  in  which  the 
freedom  of  the  City  of  Cork  was  presented  to  me,  in  which  I 
desire  said  John  to  keep  the  tobacco  he  usually  cheweth, 
called  pigtail."  Sir  Richard  left  £100  to  the  Blue  Coat,  on 
condition  that  one  of  his  executors  should  be  chosen  a 
governor,  and,  accordingly,  the  Rev.  John  was  elected  in 
1742,  thus  giving  us  again  two  of  "  the  Grattans  "  on  our 
Board.  The  clan  were  chief  members  of  the  symposial  set, 
which  included  their  cousins,  Dan  and  John  Jackson,  Dr. 
Sheridan,  Dr.  Delany,  and  the  Dean  himself.  Their  meets 
were  often  at  Belcamp,  St.  Doulough's,  where  Dr.  James 
lived,  and  where,  perhaps,  that  gold  corkscrew  and  the  pig- 
tail were  not  unknown.  In  the  next  generation  the  connec- 
tion of  the  Grattans  with  King's  Hospital  was  still  main- 
tained, when  their  nephew,  James,  became  our  Recorder, 
and  a  governor,  but  we  must  regret  that  his  son,  the  great 
Henry  Grattan,  never  joined  the  Board.  His  burning 
politics  left  him  no  sympathy  for  anything  so  narrow  as  a 
City  School. 

Belcamp  belonged  successively  to  two  of  our  Grattan 
governors,  for  Dr.  James  left  it  to  his  brother,  John,  and  he, 
in  turn,  devised  it  to  his  nephew,  James,  the  Recorder.  One 
of  the  revellers,  rhyming  upon  it,  says,  that  "  when  Swift 
and  Dr.  Delany  were  absent,  Christmas  appears  at  Belcamp 
like  Lent." 

Thorne  was  a  faithful  steward.  In  1731  there  were  160 
boys  in  the  School.     Their  uniforms  were  made  by  a  con- 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1727-1744  179 

tractor,  one  King,  the  governors  supplying  the  cloth.  The, 
coats  were  of  blue  woollen  frieze,  and  the  cassocks  they  then 
wore  of  yellow,  the  Irish  fabric  Swift  was  so  earnest  to  have 
introduced  into  England  ;  the  linings  were  of  Irish  linen. 
Thome,  observing  the  very  large  measure  charged  in  King's 
accounts,  suspected  something  was  wrong,  and,  of  his  own 
motion,  employed  an  old  Blue  Coat  boy,  Christopher  Evans, 
who  had  gone  into  the  trade,  to  measure  three  of  the  suits, 
which  were  found  to  contain  seven  and  a  half  yards  of  blue,  six 
yards  of  yellow  cloth,  and  three  of  linen,  as  compared  with 
nine  yards  of  blue,  seven  and  a  half  yards  of  yellow,  and  the 
linen  in  proportion, as  charged  in  King's  accounts.  And  Thorne 
thus  calculated  that  in  each  of  a  series  of  years,  the  con- 
tractor had  cheated  the  governors  by  eighty  yards  of  blue, 
and  eighty  of  yellow  cloth,  and  some  twenty-four  of  linen. 
Thome's  calculation  was  examined  by  the  governors  and 
found  to  be  correct.  King  was  found  guilty  of  the  fraud,  with 
the  governors  further  verdict  that  he  intended  to  continue  it. 
So  King  was  ignominiously  dethroned,  and  Christopher 
Evans,  as  the  industrious  apprentice,  was  chosen  in  his 
stead.  But  poor  Thorne,  too,  did  not  long  survive  his 
extrusion  by  the  Parliament  of  the  Blue  Coat.  He  died  in 
1738.  He  was  a  valuable  officer,  holding  with  his  stewardship, 
the  coUectorship  of  the  city  tolls,  and  in  the  letter  of  Sir 
Williams  FowTies  to  Swift,  in  1732,  containing  an  elaborate 
scheme  for  the  founding  of  a  Lunatic  Asylum,  which  the 
Dean  afterwards  so  warmly  adopted,  Thorne  is  suggested  as 
the  proper  treasurer. 

The  state  of  our  structure  was  now  a  burning  question. 
In  1733  the  Board  started  a  rebuilding  fund,  to  which  Lord 
Mayor  Nathaniel  Kane  gave  £100,  and  they  addressed  their 
second  petition  to  the  House  of  Commons  in  the  next  session 
of  1735,  setting  forth  our  needs  and  showing  that  as  their 
income  was  only  sufficient  for  the  maintenance  of  the  school, 
if  this  were  applied  to  rebuilding,  this  useful  charity  must 
cease  for  many  years.  They  annex  a  plan,  which,  if  executed 
in  the  plainest  and  least  expensive  manner,  was  computed 
to  cost  £6,000.  The  Commons  appointed  a  Committee,  whose 

i8o       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

report  was  presented  by  Stannard,  the  Recorder,  then 
Member  for  Middleton,  to  the  effect  that  the  petitioners  had 
proved  their  case,  and  the  Hon.  Arthur  Hill,  Member  for  Co. 
Down,  and  David  Chuigneau,  Member  for  Gowran,  and  both 
governors  were  directed  to  bring  in  a  bill.  This  went  into 
Committee  ;  it  provided  an  aid  to  the  Hospital  by  a  tax  on 
oranges  and  lemons,  but  it  added  a  clause  for  appointing 
new  governors  under  the  Act.  To  this  the  governors 
indignantly  objected  as  an  undue  alteration  of  their  old 
constitution,  whereas  "  no  mismanagement  had  been  alleged 
against  the  present  governors,"  and  they  resolved 
that  the  bill  or  petition  be  no  further  pursued.  This  was 
unfortunate,  as  the  sequel  proved,  for  their  parliamentary 
hopes  were  never  again  so  near  bearing  even  such  fruit  as 
these  oranges  and  lemons  would  have  yielded.  So,  failing 
Parliament,  the  governors  sought  for  voluntary  contributions, 
but  it  would  need  years  to  reach  £6,000  by  these  ;  the  ruin 
was  now  waxing  perilous,  and  a  renewed  petition  to  the  next 
session  of  1737  was  resolved  on.  The  drafting  Committee 
met  at  the  Parliament  House  itself  to  prepare  it,  headed  by 
Sir  James  Somerville,  our  chairman.  It  described  the  build- 
ing as  in  so  ruinous  a  condition  as  to  absolutely  need  restora- 
tion, and  asked  £6,000  as  before,  which,  if  supplied  out  of 
the  Hospital  funds,  would  disable  the  charit}'  for  years.  The 
petition,  presented  by  Somerville  and  his  colleague.  Alderman 
Pearson,  the  members  for  the  city,  was  referred  to  a  Com- 
mittee of  the  House,  who  were  given  special  powers  af 
examining  witnesses  and  calling  for  records.  ]Meanwhile  in 
December  the  peril  became  desperate,  and  a  Minute  records 
"  that  the]\Iiddle  Isle  (aisle)  of  the  Hospital  is  in  so  dangerous 
a  condition,  that  to  preserve  the  liv^es  of  138  boys  and  8 
nurses,  which  will,  in  all  probability,  be  destroyed  with  its 
fall,  which  they  apprehend  ^^dll  be  very  soon  by  the  assistance 
of  the  high  winds  this  winter,  it  is  ordered  that  said  boys 
and  nurses  be  immediately  removed  to  less  dangerous  parts 
of  the  Hospital,  and  in  case  there  be  not  sufficient  room  to 
contain  them,  the  governors'  room  be  fitted  up  to  put  the 
rest  in." 

TEMP.  GEORCxE  II.,  1727-1744  181 

Thereupc»n,  perhaps,  the  strongest  committee  we  ever 
have  had  was  selected  to  support  the  petition  before  Parha- 
ment.  The  Primate  Boulter,  Archbishop  Hoadley  of  Dublin, 
L.  C.  Justice  Rogerson,  Bishop  Price  of  Meath,  and  Dr.  Cobb 
of  Kildare,  and  eleven  members  of  the  Commons,  the 
Speaker,  Henry  Boyle  (Cork),  Somerville  (Lord  Mayor),  and 
Aid.  Eason  (Dublin  City),  Stannard,  Recorder  (Middleton), 
Hon.  xA.rthur  Hill  (Down),  Richard  Wesley  (Trim),  Luke 
Gardiner  (Thomastown),  Aid.  Chuigneau  (Gowran),  Aid. 
Dawson  (Portarlington),  Aid.  Falkiner  (Baltinglass),  M. 
Coghill  (Dublin  University),  and  Robt.  Ross  (Newry).  Armed 
with  the  terrors  of  the  "  Middle  Isle,"  it  might  be  thought  sucli 
voices  as  these  must  prevail  for  at  least  /6,ooo,  but  the 
petition  seems  never  to  have  emerged  from  the  Select 
Committee.  This  may  have  been  because  the  Commons  were 
offended  at  the  rejection  by  our  governors  of  their  lemon  bill 
of  the  previous  session,  or  more  probably  because  they  were 
then  engaged  in  finding  money  to  complete  their  own  Parlia- 
ment House,  which,  for  several  years,  remained  incomplete 
after  the  Houses  had  actually  sat  there.  And  yet  our 
supporters  were  amongst  the  strongest  men  in  the  Commons. 
Henry  Boyle,  who  had  succeeded  Sir  R.  Gore  as  Speaker, 
ruled  the  country  for  many  years,  as  one  of  the  Undertaking 
Lords  Justices,  now  the  friend,  now  the  enemy,  of  the 
handsome  Primate  Stone,  and  was  ultimately  raised  to  the 
Earldom  of  Shannon.  Coghill  was  Chancellor  of  the 
Exchequer,  two  were  afterwards,  peers,  Arthur  Hill 
as  Viscount  Dungannon,  Richard  Wesley,  first  Viscount 
Mornington,  and  Luke  Gardiner's  son  was  afterwards  Lord 
Mountjoy.  Sir  James  Somerville,  one  of  the  most  respected 
citizens,  came  to  us  as  Master  of  St.  iVnne's 
Guild ;  he  was  ancestor  of  the  Lords  Athlumney. 
They  might  have  secured  us  £6,000.  This  failure  deterred 
the  Board  from  appealing  to  Parliament  for  a  generation 
to  come.  The  condition  of  the  buildings  during  this  decade 
had  a  calamitous  effect  on  the  discipline  of  the  School,  as  the 
fierce  quaint  entries  too  often  show.  In  1732,  Adam  Darling 
is  discharged  as  a  runaway  vagabond,  and  John  Mead  is 

i82       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

ordered  "  to  be  publicly  whipped  by  all  the  boys  of  this  house 
out  of  the  gate  thereof,  and  never  more  admitted  therein." 
He  was  an  E.  Smith  boy,  and  Coghill  the  treasurer,  is  ordered 
to  have  notice.  In  1735,  James  Maddox  is  sent  to  the  work- 
house "  for  stealing  wine  out  of  the  Rev.  Ralph  Grattan's 
chambers,  and  enticing  John  Davis  and  Wm.  Brown  to  do 
the  same,  for  which  said  Davis  and  Brown  are  ordered  to  be 
severely  lashed  in  the  hall  in  the  presence  of  all  the  boys." 
This  wine  story  seems  to  imply  that  our  chaplain  shared  in 
the  convivial  nature  of  his  clan,  as  commemorated  in  Dr. 
Sheridan's  couplet  : — 

"  The  time,  O  ye  Grattans,  was  happily  spent 
When  Bacchus  went  with  me  wherever  I  went." 

Yet  the  Total  Abstinence  Societies  could  scarce  have 
inflicted  more  terrible  penalties  for  this  unlicensed  sharing 
with  a  Grattan  cellar.  In  October,  1737,  we  read,  "  Wm 
Jones,  Sr.,  being  a  vicious,  incorrigible  boy,  he  be  sent  to  the 
Plantations  the  first  opportunity."  In  February,  1738, 
"  Whereas,  several  vicious,  incorrigible  boys  have  of  late 
been  detected  picking  locks,  thieving,  getting  drunk,  mitch- 
mg  and  running  away  :  Geo.  Runy  and  Peter  Lynch  now 
run  away,  and  guilty  of  the  above  facts,  to  be  expelled,  and 
never  more  admitted.  Arthur  Lockhart  and  Wm.  Harrison 
to  be  immediately  lashed  out  of  the  house  by  the  boys,  and, 
if  their  parents  agree,  to  be  sent  to  the  Plantations."  Six 
less  guilty  are  "to  be  publickly  lashed  in  such  manner  as 
the  steward  pleases,  and  the  governors,  will,  according  to 
their  behaviour,  consider  how  to  dispose  of  them."  It  is  to 
be  pleaded  for  these  delinquents  that  this  was  the  time  when 
"  The  Middle  Isle  "  was  in  danger  of  falling  on  them,  and 
when  they  would  have  been  safer  in  the  Stone  Gallery,  whither 
they  were  sent  by  the  Blue  Coat  Parliament,  and  the  poor 
runaways  might  also  have  pleaded  an  incident  worthy  of  a 
page  of  Dickens  in  Dotheboys  Hall.  In  1735  the  governors 
held  an  inquiry  over  Hugh  Smith,  the  butler,  on  a  complaint 
by  the  boys,  that  he  habitually  cut  off  from  the  share  of  bread 
allotted  to  each,  a  small  piece  which  he  put  into  his  own 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1727-1744  183 

pocket.  His  defence  before  the  Board  is  delightful  and 
ingenious,  his  assize  of  bread  was  that  he  might  have  a 
stock  with  which  to  reward  the  boys,  whom  he,  the  butler, 
considered  the  most  deserving.  The  Board  gravely  ordered 
"  that  it  was  none  of  his  business  to  distinguish  the  merits 
of  any  boy  by  depriving  others  of  the  due  the  governors  were 
pleased  to  allow  them,  and,  being  reprimanded,  he  remains 
in  the  service  on  his  good  behaviour  for  the  future." 

The  voluntary  building  fund  was  continued,  and  much 
money  was  collected,  but  it  never  was  enough  to  restore  on 
the  thorough  scale,  and  so  it  was  virtually  wasted  in  patch- 
work and  temporary  repairs,  for  the  defects  were  radical 
and  ever  decadent,  till  of  necessity  they  must  be  replaced 
by  the  new  Hospital.  Thus,  £500  left  us  by  John  Holroyd, 
Master  of  Trinity  Guild,  and  £400  left  by  the  Bishop 
of  Clogher,  in  1742  (both  were  governors)  were  spent  on 
buildings  doomed  soon  to  come  down.  Once  success 
was  in  sight.  In  July,  1742,  the  Right  Hon.  Luke 
Gardiner,  who  had  himself  subscribed  £50,  brought  a 
message  from  the  Primate  Boulter,  directing  the  governors 
when  they  had  fixed  on  a  complete  plan,  to  proceed  and  build. 
We  know  what  this  meant,  for,  if  Boulter  was  an  autocrat, 
he  was  munificent,  and  left  a  fortune  to  maintain 
poor  parishes,  but  this  message  was  one  of  the 
last  acts  of  his  life,  for  he  died  in  the  following  September, 
succeeded  in  the  Primacy  or  Government  of  Ireland  by  the 
equally  masterful  Archbishop,  George  Stone. 

Our  Chairman  and  Lord  Mayor  in  1739,  was  Daniel 
Falkiner,  of  Abbotstown,  Co.  Dublin.  He  was  a  governor 
for  thirty-three  years,  1726-1759.  A  partner  in  Burton  and 
Falkiner 's  banks,  he  was  for  many  years  a  chief  member  of 
the  Ballast  Office,  engaged  through  the  century  in  forming 
the  modern  port  of  Dublin.  As  member  for  Baltinglass,  he 
had  a  principal  share  in  supporting  our  petition  to  the 
Commons  in  1735  and  1737.  His  great  grandson,  Frederick 
Falkiner,  of  Abbotstown,  Colonel  of  the  looth  regiment, 
created  a  baronet  in  1812,  as  member  for  Co.  Dublin,  voted 
against  the  Union.       In  this  year,   1739,  Lord  Chancellor 

184       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Jocelyn  became  a  governor  ;  he  was  afterwards  Lord  New- 
port, and  father  of  the  first  Lord  Roden,  and  at  the  same 
period  we  have  boys  nominated  by  James,  twentieth  Earl 
of  Kildare. 

During  the  thirties  tliere  was  considerable  trouble  in 
collecting  the  £30  Consecration  Fees  from  several  of  the 
Bishops.  This  was,  perhaps,  because  the  chief  defaulter  was 
Dr.  Hoadley,  who  is  returned  in  arrear  in  all  the  ten  years 
from  1730,  he  having  succeeded  William  King  in  the  See  of 
Dublin  in  1729,  and  we  have  no  record  that  he  ever  paid.  In 
this  context  it  is  pleasant  to  see  on  our  printed  boards  of 
benefactors,  the  name  of  George  Berkeley,  the  great  Bishop 
of  Cloyne.  That  he  would  hold  back  would  be  inconceivable, 
for  his  heart  was  as  large  as  his  intellect.  "  He  is  an  absolute 
philosopher  with  regard  to  titles,  wealth  and  power,"  writes 
Swift  to  Lord  Carteret  as  early  as  1724,  and  our  annals  are 
enriched  even  by  this  slight  connection  of  our  School  with 
one  of  the  very  noblest  and  greatest  of  his  day. 

In  the  early  thirties  Swift  continued  to  attend  our  Board, 
but  only  occasionally,  for  his  health  was  on  an  increasing 
decline.  Our  archives  contain  two  original  letters  of  his, 
which,  having  never  been  hitherto  published,  we  feel  justified 
now  in  printing  in  extenso  ;  they  exemplify  his  passion  for 
patronage,  which  was  one  of  the  most  amiable  traits  of  his 
complex  character.  The  first  is  addressed  to  Nathaniel 
Kane,  then  Lord  Mayor  and  Chairman  of  our  Board.  It  runs, 
"  Sir,  I  have  so  ill  a  state  of  health  that  I  cannot  safely 
attend  at  the  Blue  Coat  Board  this  evening.  I  must,  there- 
fore, intreat  you  to  recommend  Isaac  Bullock,  a  hopeful 
honest  boy,  to  be  admitted  into  the  Hospital  at  my  request 
to  my  Lord  Mayor  and  the  Board,  wherein  you  will  much 
oblige,  your  most  obedient  servant,  Jonath.  Swift,  Deanery 
House,  February  7th,  1734.  The  boy  was  recomrriended  to 
me  by  the  Lady  Elizabeth  Brownlow  from  her  own  know- 
ledge." This  lady  was  the  wife  of  William  Brownlow,  M.P. 
for  County  Armagh,  and  thus  the  ancestress  of  the  Lords 
Lurgan.  She  had  been  Lady  Elizabeth  Hamilton,  sister  of 
Swift's  friend.  Lord  Abercorn.     W^e  find  her  ''hopeful  honest 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1727-1744  185 

boy,"  Isaac  Bullock,  was  admitted  at  the  meeting  of 
governors  on  the  4th  July  following,  the  Dean  being 
personally  present.  The  second  letter  is  addressed 
to  Sir  James  Somerville,  then  our  Lord  Mayor 
and  Chairman,  ancestor  of  the  Lords  Athlumney, 
and  is  as  follows  : — "  My  Lord,  my  ill  health  will 
not  permit  me  to  attend  your  Lordship  and  the  Board  at 
the  Blue  Coat  Hospital  to-morrow,  I,  therefore,  desire  your 
Lordship  to  recommend  to  the  Board  Edward  Riley.  His 
father  was  of  this  city,  and  dyed  in  the  service  of  the  present 
Earl  of  Orrery,  after  having  lived  fifteen  years  with  the 
late  and  present  Earl.  The  Earl  of  Orrery  has  a  great  deal 
•of  merit  with  this  kingdom,  having  lived  some  years  in  it, 
although  he  be  a  Peer  of  England,  and  born  there.  I  have 
not  for  several  years  recommended  one  boy  to  this  Hospital, 
nor  would  have  done  this  if  I  could  have  refused  any  command 
to  so  excellent  a  person  as  his  Lordship.  I  am,  with  great 
respect,  my  Lord,  your  Lordship's  most  obedient  and  most 
humble  servant,  Jonath.  Swift.  Deanery  House,  July  7th, 
^lyj-''''  ^^  fii^d  Edward  Riley  admitted  in  the  following 
October,  but  the  Dean  was  still  unable  to  attend.  His  last 
recorded  presence  as  a  governor  was  on  February  4th  in 
this  year,  1737.  Much  of  his  power  was  still  displayed  at 
intervals,  but  that  his  memory  was  then  partially  at  fault, 
is  shown  in  this  very  letter,  when  he  says  he  had  not  recom- 
mended a  boy  for  several  years,  for  an  entry  in  our  books 
•of  the  previous  December,  shows  the  admission  of  James 
Fulton,  at  the  request  of  the  Dean  of  St.  Patrick's.  Lord 
Orrery  had  been  flattering  him  for  several  years  when  the 
glamour  of  his  name  might  reflect  some  light  on  the  Earl's 
own  literary  pretensions,  but  who,  when  the  lion  was  dead, 
repaid  the  friendship  he  had  won  by  his  banal  "  Remarks," 
whose  offensive  sneers  the  living  lion  would  have  silenced 
with  a  growl.  Orrery  had  learned  from  Pope  how  to  "  damn 
with  faint  praise." 

But  even  in  these  years  the  Dean  did  not  confine  him- 
self as  a  governor  to  the  patronage  of  boys.  In  1734  he  is 
one  of  the  strong  committee  to  examine  the  proposals  of  Mr. 

i86       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

George  Vaughan  to  take  twenty  of  our  boys  as  apprentices 
to  the  linen  trade.  It  is  easy  to  conceive  the  interest  Swift 
would  take  in  a  subject  so  affecting  our  home  manufactures. 
In  1736  he  is  one  of  the  standing  committee  "  to  inspect  and 
direct  the  dyet  of  the  children  of  this  house."  Finally,  in 
1737,  he  was  placed  on  the  committee  to  prepare  the  petition 
to  Parliament  for  the  rebuilding  of  the  Hospital,  though  it 
is  probable  he  never  was  able  to  attend  it. 

In  1734,  Mr.  Vaughan 's  proposal  for  twenty-four  linen 
apprentices  was  referred  to  a  Committee  of  Governors, 
including,  with  Swift  and  many  of  our  Aldermen,  the  Primate, 
Dr.  Boulter,  Archbishop  Hoadley,  the  new  Bishop  of  Meath, 
Dr.  Arthur  Price,  whom  we  had  just  elected  a  governor^ 
Chief  Justice  Rogerson,  Dr.  Marmaduke  Coghill,  and  Arthur 
Hill,  on  whose  report  seven  boys  were  sent  to  Buncrana? 
in  the  north,  to  Mr.  Vaughan.  This  experiment,  which 
covered  ten  years  was  not  a  success,  the  master  and  the 
apprentices  continually  were  quarrelling.  The  truth  was 
that,  the  indentures  being  for  seven  years,  the  boys  could 
earn  good  wages  elsewhere  long  before  their  apprenticeship 
expired,  and  they  often  settled  the  question  by  running  away. 
They  complained,  too,  of  their  treatment,  and  that  they  were 
not  paid  the  wages  stipulated  in  their  indentures.  Several 
teams  of  our  boys  were  sent  up,  but  the  experience  as  to  all 
was  similar.  At  last,  Mr.  Vaughan,  in  1744,  called  on  our 
governors  to  settle  the  disputes,  sending  forward  this  list  : — 
Marm.  Matthews 
Thos.  Walsh 

Henry  Hoffman  t.  1    r         ^u   • 

r-       i,T  ]  K   away    before    their 

Theo!  WcSr  '  >'^^''  ^^P"'^^- 

Pat  Tyrrell 

Wni.  Atkinson 

Richard  Lenhouse  [    6th  April,  1 739,  desired  to    be 

Hen.  Allen  (  discharged  for  new  doaths. 

Jas.  Halpin  1     Discharged    by   consent    of  all 

Arthur  Maginiz  )  parties. 

..,",?  ^,  I  Desired   to    be   discharged   for 

Arthur  Motley  f  r  \ 

rp,        ,  .•         -'  \  ^3  each. 

1  hos.  JJixon  J  ^ 

Henry  Jackson  Still  with   Mr.  Vaughan. 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1727-1744  187 

The  dispute  ended  by  the  cancelhng  of  all  the  indentures, 
J\Ir.  Vaughan  paying  £19  to  the  boys  who  had  not  run  away, 
and  retaining  his  only  faithful  Henry  Jackson  in  the  capacity 
of  clerk. 

The  failure  of  our  treaty  with  Vaughan  was  deplorable, 
not  only  because  of  the  opening  it  offered  our  boys  in  the 
great  linen  trade  of  the  north,  which  was  even  then  of  imperial 
magnitude,  but,  in  it  Vaughan  made  a  fortune,  which,  in 
1753,  he  bequeathed  in  tiust  to  seven  of  the  then  Bishops 
of  the  northern  province,  the  Chief  Judges,  and  other 
magnates,  £2,000  a  year  to  be  applied  to  found  a  great 
Industrial  School  of  300  boys  and  200  girls,  to  be  called 
"  Vaughan's  Charity  "  for  instruction  in  the  several  branches 
of  the  linen  manufacture  and  other  cognate  industries. 
This  was  incorporated  by  statute  in  1775,  and  is  now  repre- 
sented by  the  Tubrid  School  in  County  Fermanagh,  still 
maintained  out  of  Vaughan's  estates.  It  is  more  than 
probable,  had  our  alliance  continued,  we,  too,  should  have 
had  some  share  in  "  Vaughan's  Charity." 



TEMP.    GEORGE  II.,    1743- 1760. 

Charles  Lucas  and  the  Blue  Coat. 

An  entry  in  our  Minute  Book,  13th  August,  1742,  tells  "  that 
Mr.  Charles  Lucas,  one  of  the  Members  of  the  Commons  of  the 
city  for  the  Corporation  of  Barber  Surgeons,  appeared  this  day 
at  the  Board,  and  informed  the  governors  that  in  perusing 
the  charter  of  this  Hospital  he  found  it  was  granted  by  King 
Charles  II.  to  the  Lord  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons,  and 
Citizens  of  Dublin,  and  as  one  of  these  he  apprehended  he 
was  a  governor  of  the  Hospital,  and  desired  to  know  why  he 
was  excluded.  He  was  answered  that  this  Board  always 
received  addresses  in  writing,  which,  when  presented,  they 
would  answer  properly,  meantime  he  was  ordered  to  with- 
draw." This  was  the  foreblast  of  a  storm  which  shook  civic 
Dublin  for  eighteen  years,  and  seriously  affected  our  school, 
as  its  government  depended  on  the  constitution  of  the  Muni- 
cipal body  ;  and  this  movement  was  itself  a  vibration  of  the 
great  Liberal  uprising  that  stirred  these  kingdoms  in  the 
middle  of  the  eighteenth  century — Lucas  was  its  stormy 
petrel  here.  He  was  an  Ishmaelite,  with  a  decided  dash  of 
Esau's  generosity,  even  when  his  hand  was  against  everyone. 
Called  by  Lord  Townsend  afterwards  the  Wilkes  of  Ireland, 
he  was  undoubtedly  a  precursor  of  Henry  Grattan  and  the  so- 
called  Free  Parliament  of  1782.  A  skilled  apothecary,  he 
began  his  agitations  in  1741  by  a  pamphlet,  "  Pharmaco- 
mastic,"  in  which  he  lashed  the  heads  of  his  craft,  to  their 
great  wrath,  but  thus  secured  the  representation  of  his  guild 
in  the  city  Commons.     There,  in  alliance  with  James  Digges 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1743-1760  189 

La  Touche,  of  the  great  banker  family,  he  organized  an 
opposition  Committee  of  the  Commons,  in  April,  1742, 
against  the  oligarchy  of  the  Lord  Mayor  and  the  Board  of 
Aldermen,  and  the  Commons  assembly  indorsed  his  proposed 
"  Regulations  for  the  better  management  of  the  business 
of  this  cit\^"  These  first  claimed  only  a  larger  control 
o\'er  the  city  finances  for  the  general  committees  on  which 
some  members  of  the  Commons  sat  ;  but  in  the  August 
Assembly  the  assault  was  enlarged  and  a  committee 
appointed  to  inspect  the  charters,  the  Acts  of  Assembly, 
and  such  papers  as  relate  to  the  government  of  the 
cit\'^  and  of  the  Blue  Coat  Hospital  ;  and  it  was  following  up 
this  that  Lucas  came  in  person  to  our  Board.  The  real  attack 
was  upon  the  city  magnates.  To  understand  this  we  must  bear 
in  mind  the  constitution  of  the  city  as  then  existing  under 
the  Essex  rules  of  1672.  The  Lord  Mayor,  the  Aldermen,  and 
the  Common  Council  were  the  corporate  body.  The  Lord 
Mayor  and  twenty-four  Aldermen  sat  apart  as  the  upper 
house.  The  Commons  were  the  two  sheriffs,  the  sheriffs' 
peers,  that  is,  those  who  had  served  or  been  nominated  as 
sheriffs,  of  whom  there  were  always  an  average  of  ten  to 
twenty,  and  ninety-six  members  elected  by  the  twenty-five 
city  guilds,  who  themselves  were  elected  by  the  freem.en. 
The  constitution  was  fancifully  compared  to  that  of  King, 
Lords,  and  Commons.  The  upper  house  exclusively 
appointed  the  Lord  Mayor,  the  Sheriffs,  and  Treasurer  ;  the 
Recorder,  tlie  city  Chaplain,  and  the  Town  Clerk,  and  all 
other  officers  were  chosen  by  the  Common  Council  in  the 
quarterly  assemblies.  The  Rules  did  not  prescribe  from 
what  area  of  the  citizens  the  upper  house  should  elect  either 
Lord  Mayor  or  Aldermen,  but  by  long  usage  they  always 
chose  the  former  from  amongst  the  Aldermen,  and  the  Alder- 
men by  co-opting  a  sheriff's  peer,  who  himself  had  been 
originally  chosen  by  themselves  ;  and  thus  it  was  said  :  "  Once 
a  sheriff,  sure  to  be  an  alderman  ;  once  an  alderman,  sure  to 
be  Lord  Mayor."  The  Aldermen  were  ex  officio  the  justices  of 
the  peace  of  the  city.  As  the  Lord  Mayor  was  chief  man  in  the 
citv  ;  was  clothed  in  scarlet  with  the  collar  of  SS.  ;  controlled 


the  city  militia  ;  was  called  My  Lord,  and  his  wife  My  Lad}^  ; 
and  lived  in  the  Mansion  House,  the  prerogatives  of  the 
upper  house  became  the  object  of  popular  attack,  of  which 
Lucas  now  made  himself  the  voice,  with  the  claim  that  all 
the  city  officers  should  be  chosen  by  the  whole  body  of  the 
citizens,  as  represented  by  the  whole  Corporation  in  the  city 

But  the  Blue  Coat  was  selected  for  frontal  attack.  As  our 
charter  was  then  only  seventy  years  old,  its  records  were 
modern,  and  it  was  more  difficult  for  the  upper  house  to  plead 
for  their  privileges  a  prescriptive  usage  which  might  presume 
a  legal  origin,  than  where  the  records  were  ancient  and 
obscure.  Throughout  this  year  and  1743  the  conflict  was  waged 
with  signal  ability  on  both  sides.  At  the  October  Assembly, 
T742,  the  Commons  sent  to  the  Lord  Mayor  the  report  of 
their  committee  setting  forth  their  whole  case.  This  was 
answered  by  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen  in  January,  1743, 
and  the  Commons  rejoined  in  the  following  July,  neither  side 
conceding  anything.  These  protocols  occupy  sixty  pages  of 
the  ninth  volume  of  Gilbert's  City  Records,  and  also  are  found 
in  the  Haliday  Pamphlets,  1749.  They  are  replete  with 
learning  and  research.  The  case  of  the  Commons,  condensed, 
was  that  the  great  City  Charter  of  Henry  HI.  confirms  to 
"  the  citizens  of  Dublin  and  their  heirs  that  they  may  for 
ever  elect  a  Mayor  annually  out  of  their  own  body,  a  discreet 
and  proper  person  for  the  government  of  our  City  of  Dublin, 
when  elected  to  be  presented  to  us  or  our  Lords  Justices  in 
Ireland  ;"  that  the  assembly  rolls  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  reign 
dealing  with  the  city  offices  are  expressly  made  "  by  the 
authority  of  the  assembly,  according  to  the  antient  and 
laudable  orders  of  this  cit}^"  Then  that  the  Charter  of 
Charles  I.  in  its  preamble  runs  : — "  Whereas  we  are  informed 
that  the  Mayor,  bailiffs,  commons,  and  citizens  from  time  to 
time,  and  time  immemorial,  by  long  and  ancient  usage,  have 
chosen  within  said  city  of  the  worthiest  and  discreetest  men 
twenty-four  citizens  to  be  aldermen  of  the  city."  And 
setting  forth  a  voluminous  list  of  precedents  showing  the 
election  and  removals  of  specific  officers  to  be  in  the  name  of 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1743-1760  191 

the  assembly,  they  rely  on  the  rolls  in  which  all  Mayors, 
aldermen,  and  sheriffs  are  entered  as  chosen  by  the  assembly 
at  large.  The  answer  relies  on  the  uninterrupted  usage  of 
modern  years  ;  it  sets  aside  the  apparent  evidence  of  the 
assembly  rolls  by  showing  these  prove  too  much,  as  the 
entries  run  in  the  same  form  during  all  the  years  in  which 
the  Commons  indubitably  took  no  part  in  the  elections,  the 
names  being  merely  sent  forward  from  the  upper  house  and 
always  adopted  by  the  assembly  as  mere  matter  of  form, 
The  strongest  fact  is  the  negative  one  that  the  records  show 
no  single  instance  of  a  joint  appointment,  nor  could  the 
Commons  suggest  the  mode  in  which  it  was  conducted  ; 
above  all,  in  the  face  of  the  fact  that  the  upper  house  had  sat 
apart  within  all  legal  memory.  They  meet  the  language  of 
the  charters  by  showing  the  elections  could  never  have  been 
by  the  citizens  at  large,  and  that  the  only  proveable 
immemorial  usage  is  that  now  existing,  which  must 
be  assumed  as  of  legal  origin.  They  rely  on  the  Essex 
Rules,  1672,  acquiesced  in  ever  since  as  concluding 
the  question  of  electing  Lord  Mayors,  and  though 
this  did  not  deal  with  the  election  of  aldermen,  which 
was  obscure  up  to  171 1,  the  usage  ever  since  always 
acquiesced  in  was  sufficient  evidence  of  the  usage  before; 
they  justified  the  existing  system  as  always  securing  for  the 
government  of  the  city  the  most  independent  and  wealthy 
men,  who  could  afford  their  time  to  public  service  ;  they  had 
only  a  pittance  of  £^  a  year  to  each  alderman,  and  the  Lord 
Mayor  only  a  few  hundreds,  far  below  the  expenses  of  his 
office,  which  engrossed  all  his  time  ;  whilst  on  the  other 
hand,  the  citizens  were  saved  the  turmoil  and  expense  of 
continuous  popular  elections. 

The  truth,  perhaps,  is  that  our  Corporation,  like  most 
other  bodies  long  exercising  power,  had  evolved  some  of  their 
functions  rather  than  usurped  them,  the  general  body  of 
citizens  being  quite  ready  to  leave  public  duties  to  the  few 
who  undertake  them,  till  all  practical  authority  would 
insensibly  become  centred  in  these. 

The  Lucas  Committee  then  limited  their  attack  to  what 


they  regarded  as  the  two  weakest  points  of  the  defence,  the 
constitution  of  the  Blue  Coat  and  co-option  of  aldermen  by 
themselves.  As  to  the  former,  their  case  was  that  whilst  the 
Charter  was  to  the  Lord  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  and  Commons  gene- 
rally, the  Act  of  Assembly,  1675,  did  indeed  give  power  to  the 
upper  house  to  manage  the  affairs  of  the  Hospital  and  carry 
on  the  work,  calling  to  their  assistance  such  other  sub-gover- 
nors nominated  in  the  assembly  of  1673  as  they  thought 
proper,  but  that  this  gave  no  power  to  elect  as  sub-governors 
persons  who  were  not  members  of  the  Corporation,  at  their 
own  discretion  and  irrespective  of  the  Commons.  To  this  the 
aldermen  replied  that  the  Blue  Coat  was  a  distinct  Corpora- 
tion, of  which  (the  Lord  Mayor  and  aldermen  only  were 
members,  together  with  the  Recorder,  the  Sheriffs,  and 
Sheriffs'  Peers,  and  a  great  number  of  gentlemen  of  most 
eminent  station  and  worth.  Whilst  the  contest  raged  in 
August,  1743,  the  Commons  sent  to  the  upper  house  a  pro- 
posal for  a  conference  between  tlie  Houses,  the  Recorder  to 
preside  as  Moderator.  The  Lord  Mayor  at  once  replied  that 
at  the  next  quarter  Assembly  the  proposals  would  be  con- 
sidered, but  the  Assembly  still  in  session  forthwith  attended 
at  the  upper  house,  and,  being  admitted,  demanded  a  con- 
ference without  further  delay.  Eaton  Stannard,  the  Recorder 
who  was  popular  with  both  sides,  counselled  peace 
and  unanimity  and  dispatch  of  public  business,  but  the 
Commons  insisted  on  instant  discussion,  one,  presumably 
Lucas,  claiming  the  right  of  all  members  to  offer  tlieir  senti- 
ments ;  whereupon  Lord  Mayor  Aldrich,  declaring  that  this 
was  no  conference,  ordered  the  Commons  to  withdraw. 
"  Gentlemen,  then  I  desire  that  you  will  go  out  of  the  room." 
The  Commons  witlidrew  in  a  rage  ;  and  in  September  a 
message  from  the  Lord  Mayor  categorically  denied  all  the 
rights  they  claimed. 

Then  it  was  agreed  by  both  sides  to  leave  all  matters  in 
dispute  to  Stannard,  the  Recorder,  who,  in  October,  gave  in 
writing  a  very  learned  and  judicial  opinion,  holding  as  to  the 
Blue  Coat  that  the  Acts  of  Assembly  of  1675  constituted  a 
lawful  B3'e-law  vesting  the  government  of  the  Hospital  in  the 

TEMP.  GEORGE  IL,  1743-1760  193 

persons  mentioned  therein,  and  that  the  general  words  of  the 
Charter  were  thereby  restrained  ;  and  as  to  the  election  of 
aldermen,  whilst  giving  due  weight  to  the  antient  city 
charters  and  the  entries  on  the  rolls,  yet  the  existing  usage, 
which  might  presumably  have  been  by  Bye-law,  or  still 
more  by  antient  prescription,  was  too  strong  to  be  overturned 
now,  and  that  the  election  of  aldermen  is  in  the  Lord  Mayor 
and  the  Board  of  Aldermen. 

But  the  Lucas  opposition  still  refused  to  yield.  They  took 
the  opinion  of  the  most  eminent  counsel  of  the  day.  The 
Attorney-General,  Sir  George  Caulfield,  was  in  effect  against 
them.  As  to  the  Blue  Coat,  his  opinion  coincided  with 
Stannard's  ;  as  to  the  aldermen,  he  advised  that  the  usage  at 
least  threw  the  burden  of  proof  on  the  Commons,  who  had  no 
evidence  to  offer  of  joint  election  of  the  Houses.  The  Prime 
Sergeant,  x\nthony  ^Malone,  now  leading  the  Bar,  and  rising 
to  the  highest  eminence  as  a  statesman,  would  offer  no  opinion 
as  to  the  Blue  Coat  in  the  absence  of  full  information. 
As  to  the  aldermen's  prerogative,  he  thought  the  Commons 
must  have  had  some  original  share  in  their  elections,  but  as 
they  had  so  long  neglected  to  assert  their  rights,  he  deprecated 
litigation  as  possibly  leading  to  a  withdrawal  by  the 
Crown  of  the  City  Charters  ;  if,  however,  they  were  bent  on 
judicial  decision,  their  course  was  by  an  information  in  the 
King's  Bench  on  a  Quo  Warranto  against  any  alderman 
chosen  by  co-option  only.  Mr.  Sergeant  Marshall  also  de- 
clined to  give  any  opinion  as  to  the  Blue  Coat  on  the  facts 
before  him  ;  as  to  the  aldermen,  he  thought  the  long  existing 
usage  would  be  sufficient  to  presume  a  Bye-law,  though 
whether  such  would  be  lawful  needed  further  consideration. 
Mr.  Vandeleur  and  Mr.  Bradstreet,  afterwards  our  Recorder, 
gave  opinions  favourable  to  the  Commons.  Reading  these 
opinions, we  recall  Oliver  Goldsmith's  Chinese  philosopher.who, 
visiting  Westminster  Hall  with  a  litigant  friend  then  expecting 
judgment  in  a  suit  which  had  lingered  for  years,  asked 
"  Why  do  you  hope  now,  after  such  long  delays  ?  "  "  My 
lawyer  tells  me  I  have  Salkeld  and  Ventris  strong  in  my 
favour,  and  that  there  are  no  less  than  fifteen  cases  in  point." 



"  O,"  said  the  Chinese,  "  are  these  two  of  your  judges  ?  " 
"  Pardon  me,  these  are  two  lawyers  who  gave  these  opinions 
some  hundred  years  ago  ;  those  which  make  for  me  are  for  my 
lawyer  to  cite,  those  which  look  another  way  are  to  be  cited 
by  the  lawyer  for  my  antagonist.  I  have  Salkeld  and  Vcntris 
for  me  ;  he  has  Coke  and  Hales  for  him  ;  and  he  that  has  most 
opinions  is  most  likely  to  carry  his  cause." 

In  1744  La  Touche  and  Lucas  filed  a  Quo  JWvrnjito 
information  in  the  King's  Bench  against  George  Ribton,  a 
co-opted  alderman,  challenging  the  right  of  the  aldermen  to 
elect  irrespective  of  the  Commons.  On  full  argument 
the  King's  Bench  dismissed  the  information,  "  there  not 
having  'appeared  any  grounds  for  the  same,"  and  in 
1746  the  Corporation  voted  ^200  to  cover  the  charges  of  the 

But  with  the  insuppressibility  of  a  true  agitator  Lucas 
warred  on.  Following  up  his  Divilina  Libera  with  his  Coni- 
flaints  of  Dithlin,  he  for  five  years  fulminated  pamphlets, 
broadsides,  letters  to  the  citizens,  to  the  Lord  Mayor,  to  the 
Government,  which  made  him  the  hero  of  the  populace  ;  but 
in  1748  he  became  candidate  for  the  city  in  Parliament, 
opposing  La  Touche,  his  old  colleague  in  agitation, 
wdiich  caused  an  angry  split,  and  he  was  thrown 
out  at  this  election.  He  was  now  flying  at  higher 
game  than  Lord  Mayors,  launching  violent  assaults 
on  the  Irish  Government  and  the  constitution  oi 
Parliament,  for  which  he  now  first  raised  the  claim  of 
national  independence.  Some  of  the  bitterest  of  his  broad- 
sheets ]ie  addressed  to  Lord  Harrington,  who  came  here  as 
Lord  Lieutenant  in  1747,  and  who  at  first  treated  him  civilly  ; 
but  calling  personally  to  enforce  his  "  great  Charter  of 
Dublin,"  Lord  Harrington  became  angry,  turned  him  out  of 
the  Castle,  and  sent  forward  his  vehement  addresses  to 
Parliament.  In  October,  1749,  he  was  summoned  before  the 
House  of  Commons,  who  thereupon  declared  him  an  enemy 
of  his  country,  and  ordered  him  to  Newgate.  Then  he  fled  as 
an  outlaw,  and  the  Corporation,  taking  their  cue  from  the 
Commons,  summoned  him  in  his  absence  to  answer  for  his 

TEMP.  GEORGE  IT.,  1743-1760  195 

addresses  to  the  citizens  of  Dublin  and  specially  his 
"  Dedication  to  the  King  as  scandalously  reflecting  on  the 
Viceroy,  tending  to  justify  the  several  horrid  and  bloody 
rebellions  which  have  been  raised  within  this  kingdom,  and  to 
traduce  and  vilify  the  magistracy  of  this  honourable  city ;" 
and  in  January,  1750,  failing  to  appear,  he  was  adjudged 
disfranchised  from  all  liberties  of  the  city,  and  to  be  hence- 
forth reputed  as  a  Foreigner. 

When  candidate  for  the  city  he  had  poured  forth  twenty- 
four  broadsides,  violent,  vehement ,  striking  ubiquitously,  styled 
"Addresses  to  the  Citizens,"  ^  and  numbered  like  the  Drapici-s 
Letters,  but  it  is  curious  that  his  tinal  onslaught  before  his 
outlawry  was  upon  the  Blue  Coat,  in  form  "  a  narrative  of 
the  Hospital  in  Oxmantown  Green."  Reciting  the  acts  of 
the  founders,  whose  piety  he  warmly  praises,  he  prints  in 
many  pages,  all  the  original  contributions,  and  calls  Lord 
Ossory's  letter  of  1678  which  led  to  these  "  the  laying  of  the 
first  stone  of  the  good  and  great  design."  He  then  indicts 
the  governors,  first  for  laying  aside  the  primary  intention  of 
an  Hospital  for  the  Dublin  poor  as  well  as  a  School.  He  then 
bitterly  renews  the  charge  of  illegally  excluding  the  Commons 
from  the  Government,  the  co-option  of  governors  not 
members  of  the  corporation  is  denounced  as  open  to  criminal 
prosecution  under  a  statute  of  Henry  VH.  which  forbade 
under  penalties  the  intrusion  of  strangers  in  city  affairs. 
But  the  gravamen  of  his  charge  is  that  the  nominations  of 
the  boys  are  not  given  exclusively  to  the  poor  lads  of  the 
city,  but  at  the  caprice  of  the  governors  to  the  sons  of  their 
followers  or  to  strangers.  This  was,  of  course,  an  appeal  to 
the  electors,  but  not  content  with  generic  indictment,  he 
founds  a  charge  of  specific  corruption  against  two  governors, 
Alderman  Nathaniel  Kane  and  Sir  Samuel  Cooke,  the  one 
for  taking  leases  of  the  Hospital  estate,  the  other  for  farming 
the  City  Toll  Corne  granted  to  the  Hospital.  He  further,  by 
innuendo,  suggests  that  Kane  had  bought,  in  trust,  the 
Island  Bridge  Mills  for  the  city  water  supply,  at  a  gross 
overvalue  from  Mr.  Darby,  the  owner,  so  as  to  secure  a  large 

'  Halliday's  Pamphlets,    1749. 

196        FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

debt  which  Darby  owed  him.  And  he  calls  on  the  citizens 
to  discharge  "  these  perfidious  trustees,  these  usurping 
governors,"  by  electing  him  as  the  only  means,  because, 
having  found  agitation  in  the  Assembly  and  appeals  to  the 
Law  Courts  without  avail,  the  sole  redress  must  be  in  the 

But  he  had  now  overshot  his  mark.  Kane,  who  was  then 
elderly  and  an  invalid,  in  a  temperate  letter  asked  Lucas  to 
state  distinctly  if  the  innuendo  of  corruption  in  the  purchase 
of  the  mills  meant  him,  that  he  might  disprove  it  in  a  Court 
of  Law.  Everyone  knew  that  Kane  was  aimed  at,  but  the 
then  practice  in  libel  cases  required  strict  proof  of  the 
innuendo.  Here  Lucas  acted  meanly  indeed.  In  a  scoffing 
letter  he  refused  to  answer  the  straight  question,  evasively 
suggesting  that  '  if  the  cap  fitted  "  and  so  forth,  and  with  serio 
comic  insolence  regretting  to  hear  of  the  Alderman's  illness, 
hf  gravely  offered  to  send  him  a  medical  cure.  Then  Kane 
publicly  addressed  the  city.  His  letter  is  dignified  and  even 
pathetic.  Through  the  long  years,  he  said,  in  which  he  had 
served  the  city,  he  had  hitherto  lived  without  stain  or 
reproach  ;  he  recounted  the  whole  affair  of  the  Island  Bridge 
Mills.  The  charge  that  he  was  a  creditor  of  the  vendor  is 
indignantly  disclaimed  as  entirely  baseless,  the  course  of  the 
treaty  is  disclosed  with  certifying  letters  from  Mr.  Darby  of 
Leap,  and  of  all  that  were  parties  to  the  treaty,  and  the  good 
faith  of  the  purchase  is  proved.  He  admits  he  had  taken  a 
lease  of  some  Hospital  houses  in  Oxmantown,  but  that  on 
learning  it  was  unlawful  to  hold  them,  he  had  long  since 
offered  to  surrender,  but  that  his  offer  was  declined,  as  the 
leases  were  unprofitable.  It  is  strange  that  seven  years  ex- 
haustive search  should  have  disclosed  so  little  to  warrant 
Lucas'  calumnies,  and  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  virulence 
and  failure  of  these  were  a  chief  cause  in  his  condemnation 
in  the  Castle  and  the  Tholsel. 

But  in  the  Parliamentary  biennial  session,  1752  and  1753, 
an  opposition,  headed  by  Speaker  Henry  Boyle,  Prime 
Sergeant  Malone,  and  Cartel,  Master  of  the  Rolls,  was,  for 
the  first  time  formed  against  the  Castle,  and  the  undertak- 

TEMP.  TxEORC^E  II.,  1743-1760  IQ7 

ing  Lords  Justices,  then  represented  by  the  Primate,  George 
Stone.  They  successfully  asserted  the  independence  of  the 
Irish  Commons  as  to  money  bills,  with  a  vehemence 
surpassing  that  of  Lucas  Iiimself,  for  which  they  had 
so  recently  outlawed  him,  and  they  were  now 
named  the  Patriots.  Their  spirit  electrified  the 
masses,  and  penetrated  even  to  the  court  of  aldermen, 
in  which  an  opposition  section  was  now  formed.  In  the 
Parliamentary  session,  1755-56,  Adderley,  an  independent 
member,  took  up  the  city  case,  and  two  bills  were 
brought  in  for  a  drastic  change  in  the  Corporation.  No 
longer  striking  at  Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen  only,  they 
asked  for  a  radical  reform  of  the  Common  Council.  Their 
grievance  was  that  in  the  election  of  the  ninety-six  members 
by  the  guilds,  the  merchants  or  Trinity  Guild  chose  thirty- 
one,  leaving  the  twenty-four  other  guilds  only  sixty-five 
between  them,  whilst  the  merchants  were  nearly  all  city 
magnates,  many  of  the  aldermen  belonging  to  it.  The  bills 
now  provided  to  divide  the  city  into  thirteen  wards,  each 
of  which  was  to  choose  its  own  aldermen  and  councillors, 
thus  opening  all  the  offices  directly  or  indirectly  to  popular 
vote.  The  promoters  fully  relied  on  the  support  of  the 
Patriots,  but  the  fire  of  their  patriotism  had  now  been 
drowned  in  the  sweet  baths  of  promotion  and  pension. 
Speaker  Boyle,  now  Lord  Shannon,  with  ;^2,ooo  a  year, 
Carter,  now  Secretary  of  State,  with  £*i,ooo  a  year  added  to 
his  salary  as  Master  of  the  Rolls,  and  Malone,  now  Chancellor 
of  the  Exchequer,  counselled  the  promoters  to  postpone  the 
bills.  The  Duke  of  Devonshire,  L.L.,  gave  the  same  advice, 
but  they  persevered,  and  then  ensued  a  high  comedy.  The 
bills  were  allowed  to  pass  without  opposition,  and  even  with 
acclaim,  but  the  postponers  and  opponents  were  laughing 
in  their  sleeves,  for  they  well  knew  that  the  Privy  Council 
would  decline  to  forward  the  Bills  to  London  under  Poyning's 
Act.  So  these  became  abortions,  and  the  people,  finding 
they  had  imagined  a  vain  thing,  raged  against  the  Patriots, 
and  took  their  revenge  in  riots,  which  alarmed  and  re-united 
the  Aldermen.    Thomas  Mead,  who  had  strongly  supported 


the  Bills,  was  chosen  Lord  IMayor,  and  in  the  next  session 
the  Bills  were  dropped. 

But  in  1756,  James  Grattan  had  become  Recorder  and  a 
governor  on  the  death  of  Thomas  Morgan,  who  had  succeeded 
Eaton  Stannard  six  years  before.  He  was  an  able  man, 
moderately  conservative,  and  never  adopted  the  tribunic 
rule  of  his  son,  the  patriot,  Henry.  Failing  at  the  city 
election  in  1758,  when  he  was  beaten  by  Dunn,  one  of  the 
dissentient  aldermen,  who  had  resigned  in  order  to  oppose 
him,  he  now  set  himself  to  bring  back  peace  to  the  city,  and 
drew  a  moderate  Bill  which  the  Corporation  by  a  majority 
sent  to  the  House  by  petition.  The  populace  opposed  it  with 
counter  blasts,  but  it  was  coached  through  the  House  by 
Sir  Charles  Burton,  then  city  member,  and  our  chairman  in 
1752,  and  it  passed  with  slight  modifications  as  33  Geo.  II., 
c.  16.  The  old  constitution  and  old  members  of  the  Corpora- 
tion were  retained,  but  the  Assembly  were  so  far  to  share  in 
the  choice  of  the  mayoralty,  that  of  three  aldermen's 
names  submitted  to  them,  they  should  select  one  ;  if  they 
vetoed  all  three,  new  names  were  to  be  submitted,  and  so 
till  they  selected  someone,  failing  which,  the  aldermen  could 
elect  the  Lord  Mayor,  lest  the  city  should  be  left  without  a 
head.  So  as  to  the  Sheriff,  the  Assembly,  and  not  the  alder- 
men, were  to  select  eight  names,  from  which  the  aldermen 
were  to  choose  the  two  sheriffs  of  the  year.  As  to  the  alder- 
men, the  Upper  House  were  to  send  to  the  Assembly  the 
names  of  four  sheriff's  peers,  from  which  the  Assembly  were  to 
select,  to  the  vacated  seat.  Further,  the  Guilds  were  to 
choose  their  representation  in  the  Commons  directl}'  with- 
out any  conge  d'elire  to  the  Upper  House.  The  Blue  Coat 
remained  untouched. 

Though  the  populace  without  still  raged  and  rioted,  this 
compromise  brought  peace  and  held  its  ground  till  the 
Corporation  Act  of  1840,  and  is  thus  a  standing  tribute  to 
the  constructive  ability  of  Recorder  Grattan. 

In  his  long  exile  Lucas  applied  his  talents  to  medical 
subjects  with  marked  ability,  though  he  occasionally 
launched  broadsides  from  across  Channel,  the  last  of  which 


From  the  Statue  by  Edward  Smyth, 

Executed  for  Royal  Exchange,  and  now 
in  the  City  Hall  of  Dublin. 

[To  fai-e  pap.'  190 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1743- 1760  199 

was  a  pungent  indictment  of  the  placated  patriots  in  1759. 
But  on  the  death  of  (ieorge  II.  next  year,  he  personally  went 
to  the  young  King  in  London,  was  kindly  received,  and 
returned  to  Dublin  with  the  royal  recommendations.  A 
nolle  prosequi  was  entered  by  the  Crown,  he  was  now  a 
general  favourite,  for  he  had  borne  misfortune  well,  and  was 
elected  for  Dublin  in  the  new  Parliament  of  1761.  He  had 
obtained  a  mandamus  from  the  King's  Bench  to  reverse  his 
disfranchisement  of  1750,  which  the  Corporation  did  not 
defend,  being  also  advised  that  their  action  had  been  of 
doubtful  legality.  He  held  his  seat  for  the  city  to  his  death 
in  1 77 1,  and  though  he  continued  his  campaigns  against  the 
constitution  of  Parliament,  he  did  not  actively  renew  his  war 
on  the  Corporation  or  the  Blue  Coat. 

The  last  echo  of  this  Lucas  feud  sounds  something  like  a 
joke.  In  1766,  the  Commons  sent  to  the  LTpper  House  a 
petition  to  grant  Charles  Lucas,  from  the  city  funds,  a  life 
annuity  of  £365,  as  a  reward  for  his  merit  and  public  services, 
but  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen,  judging  it  inexpedient 
to  give  any  countenance  to  the  petition,  "  as  the  circum- 
stances of  the  present  juncture  are  of  too  much  notoriety  to 
leave  room  to  doubt  the  motive  of  such  an  application," 
unanimously  and  indignantly  rejected  the  proposal. 

Yet,  on  the  whole,  we  must  deem  that  Lucas  merited 
the  posthumous  honour  by  which  his  statue,  one  of  the  best 
in  the  city,  now  stands  one  of  the  chief  ornaments  of  the 
City  Hall.  It  was  the  work  of  a  great  Irish  sculptor,  Edward 
Smyth,  whose  name  deserves  to  be  better  remembered, 
and  is  a  splendid  protrait  in  marble.  It  was  executed 
for  the  Royal  Exchange,  the  founding  of  whicli 
was  carried  through  Parliament  chiefly  by  Lucas's 
driving  force,  and  alone  would  give  him  a  claim 
to  public  gratitude.  This  statue,  with  the  Exchange 
itself,  passed  to  the  Corporation  when  they  made  their  head- 
quarters there.  Smyth,  who  was  the  sculptor  of  the  fine 
figures  on  the  Bank  of  Ireland,  the  Four  Courts,  and  the 
King's  Inns,  is  so  far  connected  with  the  Blue  Coat,  that  he 
was  the  pupil  of   Vierp\^l,    the   Italian   Statuary,   hereafter 

200       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

noticed  as  charged  with  the  ornamental  stone  work  of  the 
present  King's  Hospitah 

But  this  city  storm  was  not  an  ill  wind  that  blew  nobody 
good.  In  the  years  from  1743  to  I75i,when  it  was  blowing, 
no  less  than  eight  of  the  aldermen  nominated  as  Lord  Mayors, 
excused  themselves  from  accepting  office,  presumably  in 
terror  of  the  turmoil  and  the  costs  of  litigation.  Their 
excuses  were  accepted,  but  only  on  the  condition  in  each 
case  of  a  fine  of  twenty  guineas  to  be  given  to  the  Blue  Coat, 
and  a  hogshead  of  claret  each  to  the  existing  and  the 
incoming  Lord  Mayor.  Thus  one  hundred  and  sixty  guineas 
gilds  our  memory  of  Charles  Lucas. 

These  agitations  did  not  damp  the  exuberant  loyalty 
of  our  city  magnates.  In  December,  1744,  they  addressed 
the  King,  congratulating  him  on  his  return  from  his  great 
victory  at  Dettingen,  "  in  defence  of  the  liberties  of  Europe." 
Next  year,  upon  the  threat  of  Prince  Charles  Stuart's 
invasion  of  Scotland,  they  again  addressed  him  "  with  the 
resolution  of  hazarding  our  lives  and  fortunes  in  support  of 
your  Majesty's  undoubted  rights  against  this  horrid  enter- 
prize."  They  offered  a  reward  of  £6,000  for  the  capture  of 
the  Pretender,  though  it  is  hard  to  say  where  the  reward 
could  have  been  found  if  claimed,  for  when  the 
Lord  Lieutenant,  the  Duke  of  Devonshire,  issued  a 
commission  of  array,  requiring  the  city  to  raise 
three  regiments  of  militia  and  one  of  horse,  and 
in  response  the  city  voted  £1,100  towards  the 
expenses  of  accoutrements,  they  were  obliged  to  borrow  the 
money.  Twenty-four  of  our  Blue  boys  appear  to  have  been 
enrolled  in  these  forces.  We  have  some  accounts  submitted 
to  our  governors  in  1746,  headed  "  Expended  on  the  Boys 
Malitia  (s«c)  which  include  '  Wilkinson's  mounting  100  guns, 
pikes,  and  halberts,  embroidering  twenty-four  caps,  a  charge 
for  orange  colours,  gold  lace  for  hats,  and  four  drums.'  " 
Then,  after  Culloden,  they  felicitate  the  King  on  the  Duke 
of  Cumberland's  victory,  "  and  the  defeat  of  the  French 
designs  to  bring  in  the  Pretender  and  to  overthrow  the 
Protestant  Succession."       We  may  imagine  with  w^hat  joy 

TEMP.  GEORGE  II.,  1743-1760  201 

our  Blue  boys  beat  their  six  drums,  and  waved  their 
embroidered  caps  on  that  memorable  occasion.  In  this  year, 
1744,  is  the  last  entry  in  our  books  of  Swift's  name.  It  is 
pathetic,  though  merely  the  admission  of  a  boy  nominated 
by  him,  for  he  was  now  in  his  last  sad  stage  summed  in  Dr. 
Johnson's  line  : — "  And  Swift  expires  a  driveller  and  a  show." 

As  the  loyal  addresses  of  the  city  emanated  from  the 
Court  of  Aldermen,  and  were  composed  by  the  Recorder,  all 
concerned  being  governors  of  the  Blue  Coat,  we  may  mention 
that  no  less  than  eighteen  -  were  presented  to  George  II. 
On  his  accession  in  1727  ;  on  the  birth  of  the  Prince  of  Wales 
(George  III.)  in  1738  ;  on  the  taking  of  Porto  Bello  in  1740 ; 
then  the  three  already  specified,  in  connection  with  Charles 
Stuart  ;  on  the  Peace  of  Aix  la  Chapelle  in  1748,  and  on  the 
King's  return  to  England  in  1750  ;  in  1756  on  the  threat  of 
French  invasion  ;  on  the  taking  of  Cape  Breton  in  1758  ;  on 
Hawke's  victory  at  Ouiberon,  and  Wolfe's  at  Quebec  in 
1759,  and  on  the  majority  of  the  Prince  of  Wales,  George  III., 
in  the  same  year.  The  other  addresses  were  on  the  occasion 
of  the  births  or  marriages  of  the  royal  Princes  or  Princesses, 
the  King's  children  and  grandchildren,  who  were  often  the 
annual  gifts  to  the  nation.  But  besides  these  the  city  ad- 
dressed Pitt  at  the  close  of  the  annus  mirahilis,  1759,  with 
the  freedom  of  Dublin  in  a  gold  box  and  like  honours  were 
conferred  on  Hawke  "  for  his  great  service  in  defeating  the 
French  Fleet  at  Ouiberon,  under  ^Marshall  Conflans,  whose 
known  destination  was  a  descent  on  Ireland."  Like  honour, 
too,  was  given  to  Sir  John  Elliott  for  the  final  dispersion  of 
the  French  Armada,  under  Thurot,  after  his  descent  on 
Carrickfergus.  Thus  we  are  conscious  of  the  spirit  of 
Chatham  at  the  great  epoch  in  the  evolution  of  the  Empire 
animating  the  life  of  Dublin,  and  awake  even  in  the 
Boardroom  of  our  School. 

In  1753,  Sir  Charles  Burton  being  Lord  Mayor,  the  great 
sculptor,  Roubiliac,  was  invited  to  estimate  for  an  equestrian 
statue  of  George  II.,  but  his  charge  of  ;,^"2,ioo  being  thought 

■^  They  are   printed    at    length  in  the  7,  8,  9,  and   10  Vols,  of  Gilbert's 

202       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

too  high,  Van  Nost,  who  then  worked  in  Dubhn,  attended  a 
Committee  at  the  Tholsel,  and  undertook  the  statue  for 
£i,ooo,  exdusive  of  pedestal  and  quarterings.  At  the  end  of 
three  years  he  conveyed  it  by  deed  to  the  Corporation  for 
ever,  in  that  burning  year,  1756,  and  it  was  then  erected 
where  it  stands  in  the  centre  of  St.  Stephen's  Green.  The 
pedestal  and  quarterings,  of  Ardbraccan  stone,  cost  £730> 
making  a  total  expense  of  £1,730. 

George  II.  died  23  October,  1760.     Our  Chairmen  during 
the  reign  were  the  Lord  Mayors  following  : — 

1744-   5  John  Walker. 

45-  6   Daniel  Cooke. 

46-  7  William  Walker. 

47-  8  Sir  Geo.  Ribton,  Bart. 

48-  9  Sir  Robert  Ross. 
49-50  John  Adamson. 
50-   I   Thomas  Taylor. 
51-2  John  Cooke. 
52-3  Sir  Chas.  Burton,   Bart. 

53-  4  Andrew  Murray. 

54-  5   Hans  Bailie. 

55-  6   Percival  Hunt. 
56-7  John  Fookes 
57-8  Thomas  Mead. 
58-  9   Philip  Crampton. 
59-60  John  Tew. 



Sir  Nat.  Whitwell. 



Henry  Burrowes. 


Sir  Peter  Verdoen. 



Nat.  Pearson. 



Joseph  Nuttal. 



Humphrey  French. 



Thomas  How, 



Nat.  Kane. 



Sir  Richard  Grattan. 



Sir  John  Somerville. 



William  Walker. 



John  Macarell. 


Daniel  Falkiner. 



Sir  Samuel  Coote. 



William  Aldrich. 



Gilbert  King. 



David  Few. 

Sir  Samuel  Cooke  was  the  son  of  the  Sir  Samuel  of  Queen 
Anne's  time  ;  Sir  George  Ribton  was  ancestor  of  the  Wood- 
brook  family,  Co.  Dublin;  he  was  the  objective  of  Lucas's 
attack,  he  was  created  a  baronet  in  1759  ;  Sir  Robert  Rosse 
was  M.P.  for  Newry,  and  grandfather  of  the  hero  of  Bladens- 
burgh  ;  Philip  Crampton's  name  was  honourably  continued 
in  the  following  generation  in  the  persons  of  his  great 
nephews,  the  very  eminent  physician,  Sir  Philip,  and  by  the 
distingui-^hed  judge  of  the  Queen's  Bench. 

[       203       ] 


TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1 760-1 784,  TO   THE  OPENING  OF  THE 

In  the  earlier  years  of  George  III.  the  School  was  in  a 
transitional  state,  and  the  ordinary  records  are  obscure. 
The  governors  having  spent  many  thousands  on  a  new 
Infirmary,  and  in  partial  reparations,  now  found  that  the 
whole  building  was  threatening  to  fall  about  their  ears,  and 
that  a  thorough  reconstruction  on  a  new  site  was  essential. 
So  far  back  as  1753  the  Corporation  had  granted  them  the 
old  artillery  yaid  which  ran  westward  to  the  Royal  Barracks 
from  the  rere  of  the  old  site  in  an  askew  strip  to  the  south 
of  the  Bowling  Green,  but  this  was  practically  useless  in 
presence  of  the  adjoining  decay.  But  in  1769  Sir  Thomas 
Blackball,  whose  name  is  ever  to  be  held  in  honour  at  the 
Blue  Coat,  was  Lord  Mayor,  and  took  upon  him  the  burden 
which  now  had  fallen  on  the  Board.  The  members  for  the 
City  were  then  the  young  Marquis  of  Kildare  and  our  old 
friend  Charles  Lucas.  In  November,  Kildare  having  obtained 
a  Committee  on  the  petition  of  the  Lord  Mayor  and 
governors,  brought  up  their  report  recommending  the 
prayer  for  a  building  grant,  which  the  House  merely 
directed  to  lie  on  the  table  for  perusal  of  members,  but  in  the 
next  Session  1771,  he  vigorously  renewed  the  claim.  Kildare 
had  entered  the  House  whilst  a  minor,  and  had  now  only 
just  reached  twenty-one,  but  he  was  a  most  loyal  and  active 
representative  of  Dublin.  Son  of  the  first  Duke  of  Leinster, 
his  mother  was  the  beautiful  Lady  Emily  Lennox,  daughter 
of  the  Duke  of  Richmond,  and  Lord  Edward  Fitzgerald  was 
his  younger  brother.     He  was  a  prime  favourite  in  the  city. 

204       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

A  few  years  before  he  had  presented  the  Lord  Mayor  and 
City  with  a  State  Coach  or  berhn,  and  in  the  House  we  find 
him  moving  for  grants  to  improve  the  Harbour,  and  in  aid 
of  the  Grand  Canal,  in  which  the  City  was  then  deeply 

In  1 77 1  he  moved  the  further  report  of  the  Blue  Coat 
Committee.  It  sets  forth  that  the  Committee  had  examined 
in  the  most  solemn  manner  Mr.  James  Goddard — -he  was 
then  the  Registrar  of  the  Blue  Coat  and  Clerk  of  t-he  City 
Commons  ;  that  there  were  then  170  boys  in  the  school, 
that  it  was  only  now  kept  together  by  patchwork,  and  it  was 
absolutely  necessary  to  rebuild  it,  for  which  £12,789  would 
be  necessary.  Thereupon  the  matter  was  referred  by  the 
House  to  the  Committee  of  Supply,  which  was  then  regarded 
as  almost  an  equivalent  to  a  grant. 

Whilst  the  subject  was  thus  before  Parliament,  the 
City  Assembly  in  October,  1771,  in  anticipation  of  a  grant, 
conveyed  to  the  governors  the  whole  remaining  space  of  the 
Bowling  Green  in  Oxmantown,  for  the  purpose  of  building 
a  new  Hospital,  which,  they  afftrmed,  would  not  only  be 
necessary  and  useful  to  the  School,  but  would  tend  much 
to  the  improvement  of  that  part  of  the  old  City  Estate, 
for  they,  at  the  same  time,  ordered  that  all  the  residue 
of  the  Oxmantown  Green  should  be  laid  out  in  building  lots, 
so  as  to  be  no  longer  unserviceable  and  waste,  but  an 
ornament  "  to  your  honour's  estate."  ^  Thus  the  whole 
site  of  the  present  Blue  Coat  was  acquired,  comprising  the 
old  practising  grounds  of  the  City  Militia,  and  the  old 
Bowling  Green,  as  laid  out  a  century  before,  whilst  its 
bounds  on  the  west  are  the  Royal  Barracks,  the  gift  of  the  City 
to  the  great  Duke  of  Ormonde  just  after  the  Restoration. 
The  surveys  for  these  adjacent  lots  were  entrusted  to  Ivory, 
the  Architect  selected  for  the  new  building. 

The  Committee  of  Supplies,  in  1771,  having  many  other 
irons  in  the  fire,  made  no  present  grant,  but,  under  the  full 
hope  of  one,  the  governors  proceeded  with  their  plans,  and 
on  the  i6th  June,  1773,  the  first  stone  was  laid,  with  great 

1  Gilbert's  Calendar,   Vol.   XIT.,  p.    156. 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1760-1784  205 

ceremonial,  by  the  Lord  Lieutenant,  Lord  Harcourt.  He 
was  a  descendant  of  Sir  Simon,  Queen  Anne's  Attorney- 
General,  and  Swift's  friend,  and  ancestor  of  the  late  Sir 
William  Harcourt  the  brilliant  Knight  of  Malwood. 

The  following  notice  of  the  pageant  appears  in  Faiilkncrs 
louriial  of  the  day  : — 

Wednesday  last,  when  His  Excellency,  Lord  Harcourt, 
ariived  at  the  Blue  Coat  School,  he  was  received  by  all  the 
officers  of  that  house,  who  showed  His  Excellency  several 
of  the  apartments,  which  were  in  a  most  ruinous  condition, 
from  whence  his  lordship,  attended  by  the  Lord  Mayor 
and  other  governors,  went  through  one  of  the  Courts  which 
was  lined  with  two  rows  of  the  children,  very  clean  and  neatly 
dressed,  who  made  a  most  pleasing  appearance,  and  sang 
psalms  in  a  most  harmonious  manner.  His  Excellency  passed 
down  through  a  guard  of  the  army  into  Oxmantown  Green, 
and  laid  the  foundation  stone  with  a  silver  trowel,  with  the 
Lord  Lieutenants  arms  engraved  thereon,  with  the  following 
inscription  :— "  This  stone  was  laid  by  H.E.  Simon  Harcourt 
on  Wednesday,  i6th  June,  1773,  in  the  thirteenth  year  of 
the  reign  of  H.  M.  George  HL  Right  Hon.  Richard  French, 
Lord  Mayor;  James  Sheil,  James  Jones,  High  Sheriffs; 
Thomas  Ivory,  Architect." 

This  description  is  most  probably  by  George  Faulkner 
himself,  who  was  present  as  one  of  the  governors.  The 
Dublin  JournaVs  notice  of  the  pageant  tells  that  His 
Excellency,  attended  by  the  Lord  Mayor,  His  Grace  the 
Archbishop  of  Dublin  (Dr.  Craddock),  several  Privy 
Councillors,  and  many  aldermen,  went  in  grand  procession 
to  the  Hospital,  and  that  after  the  ceremony  all  proceeded 
to  the  Tholsel,  wliere  a  most  elegant  dinner  was  provided 
by  the  governors  for  His  Excellency,  which  was  served  up 
with  the  greatest  decency  and  propriety. 

A  notable  Governor  at  this  time  was  George  Faulkner, 
mentioned  above.  He  lives  to-day  in  the  reflected  glory  of 
a  satellite  of  the  great  Dean,  whose  Boswell  he  was  in 
Swift's  later  years,  since  when  in  1730  his  Journal  introduced 
him,  and  he  became  Swift's  printer.  But  he  did  the  Blue 
Coat  a  good  service,  and  thus  has  a  niche  in  these  annals. 
Swift  personally  bullied  him,  and  treated  him  with  hauteur. 


writing  to  him  as  "  Mr.  Faulkner,"  not  even  adding  "  Dear 
Sir,"  but,  like  many  great  men,  he  liked  toadies,  and  protected 
them  against  all  comers.  In  pleasant  letters- he  introduced 
him  to  Pope,  to  Lord  Bolingbroke,  Lord  Howth,  to  the 
Archbishop  of  Cashel,  Dr.  Bolton,  and  Barber,  Lord  Mayor 
of  London,  and,  though  sulkily,  allowed  him  even  to  purloin 
and  publish  his  manuscripts  in  Dublin,  where  there  was  no 
copyright,  though  he  could  himself  have  published  in  London, 
where  there  was.  Dr.  Josiah  Hort,  Bishop  of  Kilmore, 
afterwards  Archbishop  of  Cashel,  had  sent  Swift  a  satire 
on  the  game  of  Quadrille,  in  which  Sergeant  Bettesworth, 
the  Dean's  foe,  was  pilloried,  requesting  him  "  to  peruse  the 
loose  feathers,  and  send  the  kite  to  the  Faulconer  and  set  it 
a  flying  ?  "  all  which  the  Dean  did.  Bettesworth  moved  in 
the  House  that  this  was  a  breach  of  privilege  :  -^  Faulkner 
was  indicted,  imprisoned  in  Newgate,  and  as  Swift  tells  Dr. 
Hort,  confined  to  a  dungeon  with  common  thieves  and  others 
with  infectious  disease.  But  all  this  made  Faulkner's  fortune. 
Henceforth  he  was  a  Dublin  celebrity,  he  paid  the  gaoler's 
fees,  £25,  with  his  pirated  copies  of  Swift's  works,  and  the 
author  ended  by  calling  him  the  prince  of  printers.  He  was 
somewhat  fantastic,  a  little  one-legged  man,  very  vain,  but 
with  a  large  head,  and  a  great  deal  of  ability.  When  Swift 
was  gone  he  was  taken  up  by  Lord  Chesterfield,  when 
Lord  Lieutenant,  and  made  his  confidant  in  Dublin  affairs. 
Chesterfield  calls  himself  the  only  Lieutenant  Faulkner  ever 
absolutely  governed.  He  continued  for  life  the  great 
repository  of  Swiftiana,  telling  the  stories,  showing  the  bust 
by  Roubiliac,  now  in  Trinity  College,  to  all  the  many  who 
visited  him  in  his  shop  in  Parliament  Street.  His  edition, 
in  twenty  volumes,  1759-1770,  is  the  first  great  collection 
of  Swift's  Works,  and  the  basis  of  all  that  have  followed,  and 
thus  "  Peter  Paragraph,"  by  which  name  he  was  laughed  at 
in  Dublin,  has  been  a  substantial  benefactor  to  literature. 

In  1767  he  was  elected  High  Sheriff,  but  his  health  was 
now  failing,  and  in  a  grateful  letter  to  the  Lord  Mayor  he 

-Swift's  Epistolary  Correspondence,   1735. 

•'Letter,    Sv/ift  to  Bishop  of  Kilmore,  !2tb  Mav,   17.^*^. 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1760-1784  207 

asked  to  be  excused.  The  lines  on  refusals,  by  usage,  were 
given  to  the  Blue  Coat  ;  these  at  this  time  were  fixed  at  ten 
guineas  only,  but  Faulkner  now  particularly  requested  that 
it  should  in  his  case  be  one  hundred,  as  had  been  paid  161 
years  before,  and  this  was  graciously  accepted.  The 
liberality  proved  most  valuable,  not  only  did  it  create  a 
precedent,  but  encouraged  the  cit}^  to  raise  the  fine,  a  few 
years  later  to  £200."*  In  1772  five  sheriffs  successively 
declined,  Luke  Stock,  Joseph  Lynam,  Harcourt  Lightburne, 
Benjamin  Ball,  and  Robert  Rickey,  and  their  five  hundred 
guineas  were  assigned  "towards  rebuilding  the  Blue  Coat 
Hospital."  Thereupon  the  Assembly  in  July  raised  the  fine 
to  ;£200,  and  two  more  sheriffs  declining,  George  Sutton  and 
Thomas  Green,  raised  the  fund  from  this  source  that  year 
to  £925.  In  1774  there  were  again  four  refusals,  David 
La  Touche,  Alderman  Kirkpatrick,  James  Lane,  and  George 
Maquay,  thus  bringing  in  £800  more.  These  gentlemen  were 
all  governors,  and  found  this  a  convenient  form  of  con- 
tributing to  the  building  fund,  which  then  so  sorely  needed 
such  aid.  Faulkner  remained  on  the  Board  to  the  last  ;  he 
died  in  1775. 

Inspired  by  the  prestige  of  the  Harcourt  Ceremonial,  the 
Lord  Mayor  and  Corporation  renewed  their  petition  to 
Parliament  in  the  new  Session  of  1773  ;  they  now  stated  the 
new  grant  from  the  city  of  the  site,  and  that  the  plans  would 
cost  ;^i6,ooo,  whilst  the  failure  to  rebuild  would  be  a  fatal 
loss  "  to  the  public  in  general,  and  to  the  Protestant  Religion 
in  particular."  Unfortunately,  just  as  the  subject  was  to 
come  before  the  House,  it  lost  the  powerful  support  of  Lord 
Kildare  ;  his  father  died  in  November,  and  he  succeeded  to 
the  Upper  House  as  second  Duke  of  Leinster.  Tlie  city 
addressed  him  then  in  an  affectionate  farewell  entrusted  to 
Sir  Thomas  Blackball  and  three  others  and  the  Recorder. 
After  condolence  in  the  loss  of  his  father,  they  return  to  His 
Grace  their  most  sincere  and  grateful  acknowledgments 
"  for  your  very  faithful  and  vigilant  discharge  of  the 
important  duty  of  one  of  our  representatives  in  Parliament, 

"Gilbert's  Calendar,  Vol,   12. 

2o8       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

assuring  Your  Grace  that  the  very  affectionate  concern  you 
have  manifested,  not  only  in  that  capacity,  but  on  every 
other  occasion,  for  the  true  interest  and  advantage  of  this 
Metropohs  have  made  an  impression  on  our  minds  which 
time  can  never  efface." 

Lucas  was  now  dead.  Dr.  Clement,  who  succeeded  him  in 
the  city,  took  up  the  cause  in  the  House  ;  but  there  was 
merely  a  lepetition  of  the  tale  of  the  previous  session.  The 
case  of  the  petitioners  was  declared  proved  and  deserving  of 
the  aid  of  Parliament,  and  it  was  again  referred  to  the 
Committee  of  Supplies  ;  yet  no  supply  was  granted,  and  the 
subject  once  more  fell  through. 

But  the  governors  still  persevered  in  hope,  and  raised 
several  thousands  in  private  subscriptions.  Thomas  Ivory 
was  one  of  the  constellation  of  famous  architects  in  that 
Augustan  age  of  Dublin  building.  He  was  Mastei  of  Drawing 
to  the  Royal  Dublin  Society  for  many  years,  where  Sir 
Martin  Archer  Shee,  afterwards  President  of  the  Royal 
Academy  in  London  and  friend  of  Reynolds  and  Romney, 
was  one  of  his  pupils.  Another  fine  work  of  Ivory's  is 
Newcomen  House,  opposite  the  Castle  gates,  now  the 
Municipal  Building  of  the  Corporation,  erected  on  the  site  of 
the  mansion  of  the  Earls  of  Cork,  and  still  known  as  Cork 

Ivory's  designs  for  the  new  Blue  Coat  are  splendid,  their 
fault  being  that  they  were  too  "ambitious  and  costly.  So 
much  of  them  as  have  been  carried  out  have  cost  more  than 
£20,000.  To  finish  them  as  planned  would  have  entailed  at 
least  £10,000  more.  In  1776  the  governors  presented  the 
original  plans  to  George  III.  in  a  handsome  morocco  volume- 
inscribed — "  with  all  humility,  by  Your  Majesty's  dutiful 
and  loyal  subjects  and  servants  the  governors."  These 
remained  in  the  King's  Library,  until  George  IV.  made  a  gift 
of  the  Library  to  the  British  Museum.  There  they  were 
lately  found  b}^  our  present  governor,  Mi.  F.  E.  Ball.  They 
are  a  very  fine  specimen  of  the  Dublin  art  of  that  day,  and 
are  still  regarded  by  experts  in  London  as  of  exceptional 
excellence,  both  artistic  and  technical.      There  are  twelve 

in    pag 
^  IB  5En4V 

^  .53  =C 

















TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1760-1784  209 

drawings, that  of  the  front  elc\'ation  and  facade  being  more  than 
three  feet  by  nearly  two.  This  has  been  substantially  carried 
out  as  the  building  now  stands,  save  that  the  centre  rises, 
not  to  a  dome,  but  to  a  lofty  spire,  highly  enriched,  in  which 
I\'ory  took  as  his  model  that  of  St.  Martin-in-the-Field,  which 
though  very  ornamental,  yet,  being  Gothic,  is  hardly  in 
harmony  with  the  general  Italian  conception.  But  in  the 
re  re  the  plans  show  a  great  quadi^angle,  whose  sides  run  north 
and  south  from  the  Chapel  and  the  Schoolroom  respectively 
in  arched  stone  cloisters,  over  which,  in  a  single  storey,  is  a 
great  range  of  sleeping  rooms  for  the  boys,  and  this  arrange- 
ment is  partly  continued  on  the  western  side,  opposite  the 
main  building,  to  a  very  fine  dining  hall  in  the  centre,  from 
which  branch  some  fourteen  offices  on  each  side — dairy, 
laundry,  storerooms.  All  this  intended  quadrangle  was 
abandoned.  Then  the  interior  of  the  Chapel  as  designed  is 
gracefully  ornate  ;  there  are  double  Corinthian  pilasters 
between  each  of  the  windows  on  the  south  wall,  and  over 
these  a  classic  cornice  beneath  an  arabesque  frieze  all  round 
the  church  ;  nearly  all  the  above  that  was  decorative  had, 
alas,  to  be  given  up  for  lack  of  funds. 

Associated  with  Ivory  in  the  artistic  work  as  executed  was 
Simon  Vierpyl,  an  Italian  statuary,  to  whom  we  may  fairly 
attribute  much  of  the  elegance  seen  in  the  finished  facade. 
He  had  been  imported  by  Lord  Charlemont  for  the  purposes 
of  the  beautiful  mansions  in  Rutland  Square  and  at  Marino, 
which  he  was  then  constructing,  and  especially  for  the  Italian 
casino  in  the  grounds  at  Clontarf.  Charlemont  and  his 
travelling  companion,  Edward  Murphy,  had  found  Vierpyl 
in  Rome,  where  he  executed  for  Murphy  a  commission  for 
which  he  should  be  better  remembered  in  Dublin  to-day. 
This  was  to  copy  in  terra  cotta  some  seventy  busts  of  the 
Roman  emperors  and  empresses  in  the  museums  of  the 
Capitol  and  Vatican.  Some  of  these  as  executed  are  of  very 
high  excellence,  for  Vierpyl  spent  several  laborious  years  over 
the  work.  Murphy,  having  no  adequate  show  place  for  them, 
left   them  by  will  to   Lord  Charlemont,  whose  library  in 

Charlemont  House,  Palace  Row,  they  decorated  for  many 



years.  His  grandson,  the  late  Earl,  in  1868  presented  them 
to  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  where  some  sixty  of  them,  still 
complete,  may  be  seen.  Asked  by  Murphy  in  Dublin  to  say 
what  he  considered  their  real  value,  Vierpyl  writes  at  length, 
shewing  they  are  unique,  as  the  first  and  only  collection  ever 
made  by  a  single  artist,  and,  having  regard  to  the  time  and 
toil  spent,  he  says  that  if  a  monarch  engaged  him  to  model 
the  series  again,  he  would  not  take  less  than  £500  a  year  for 
ever.^  Vierpyl  was  naturalized  in  Dublin,  and  became  a 
member  of  the  City  Commons  ;  he  received  the  special 
thanks  of  the  Ballast  or  Harbour  Board  for  his  services  in 
connection  with  the  Poolbeg  Lighthouse.  The  front  of  St. 
Thomas's  Church  in  Marlborough  Street  was  executed  by  him 
from  a  design  of  Palladio  in  Venice.  He  lived  and  died  in 
Bachelor's  Walk.*^  Edward  Smyth,  the  sculptor,  as  already 
mentioned,  was  a  pupil  of  his,  who,  as  an  original  artist, 
surpassed  his  master. 

Our  new  building  progressed  intermittently  ;  means  did  not 

permit  of  a  contract  with  a  single  contractor  at  an  estimated 

cost,  so  a  Building  Committee,  with  Sir  Thomas  Blackball 

chairman,  employed  the  tradesmen  directly,  paying  them 

when  and  as  best  they  could.     The  stone  work  was  assigned 

to  Vierpyl  ;   the  others  were  chiefly  members  of  old  and  long 

known  Dublin  freemen  families.      Semple  was  bricklayer  ; 

Thorpe,     plasterer ;      Cranfield,     carver ;      the     extensive 

woodwork  was  done  by  Chambers.      Blackball  personally 

superintended  everything  in  all  the  long  years,  collecting 

subscriptions  and  expending  them.      The  Assembly  at  the 

same  time  undertook  the  surrounding  building  lots  as  planned 

by  Ivory  ;  these  showed  the  broad  thoroughfare  through  the 

Green  from  Queen  Street  to  the  front  of  the  New  School, 

three-fourths  of  which  included  the  north  side  of  the  Old 

School  site.     It  appears  that  what  is  called  a  great  "  gulph 

hole  "   existed    here    then.       Was   this   the   ancient   Scald 

Brother    Hole    of    Stanihurst  ?       The    city    entrusted    the 

execution  of  these  improvements  to  Blackball,  and  when, 

''  15th  August,  1774,   Charlemont  Papers,  Histoiical  Manusciipts,  p.  323. 
8  Whitelaw's  History  of  Dublin,  Vol.  II.,  p.  11 86. 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1760-1784  211 

shortly  after,  the  street  was  named,  it  deservedly  became 
Blackhall  Street.  So,  too,  when  the  road  from  Stoney 
Batter  to  the  Liffey  was  completed  in  front  of  the  new  Blue 
Coat  gates,  it  was  called  Blackhall  Place,  and  thus  our 
worthy's  name  is  still  written  on  the  site  to  record  his  devotion 
of  more  than  thirty  years.  He  became  a  governor  in 
1761,  when  sheriff,  and  was  made  an  alderman  in  1763. 

On  the  Building  Committee  Blackhall  was  well  assisted  by 
Mr.  Benjamin  Ball,  who,  on  declining  the  shrievalty  in  1772, 
paid  his  hundred  guineas  fine,  and  thus,  being  a  sheriff's  peer, 
became  a  governor  ;  he  was  kinsman  of  the  founders  of  the 
eminent  banking  firm,  and  was  ancestor  of  the  late  Lord 
Chancellor  Bali,  through  whose  son,  Mr.  F.  Elrington  Ball, 
his  name  is  worthily  represented  on  the  Board  of  the  Blue 
Coat  still.  But  funds  were  still  lacking,  and  relief  was  again 
sought  in  Parliament  in  the  Session  of  1777.  Sir  Samuel 
Bradstreet,  who  had  succeeded  James  Grattan  as  Recorder 
in  1766,  and  also  as  Member  for  the  city,  now  urged  our 
petition,  but  v/ith  no  happier  result  than  that  it  was  again 
ordered  to  lie  on  the  table  for  perusal. 

There  was  now  nothing  for  it  but  to  cut  down  the  plans, 
and  Blackhall  and  his  committee  were  in  1779  directed  to 
confer  with  the  architect  for  a  reduction  of  the  offices,  which 
meant  a  surrender  of  the  fine  cloistered  quadrangle  on  which 
Ivory  was  then  engaged  ;  but  the  direction  to  Ivory  "  to 
contract  rather  than  increase  the  expense  of  these  "  seems 
to  have  mortified  him  sorely,  for  next  year  he  resigned  when 
the  work  was  only  half  finished,  though  fortunately  not  till 
after  his  fine  conception  of  the  main  building  had  been 
secured.  The  governors  appointed  in  his  place  one  of  their 
own  number,  Mr.  John  Wilson,  who  was  contractor  of  the 
city  works,  and  whom  they  had  also  made  registrar  and 
agent  ;  he  will  be  mentioned  hereafter.  Over  tlie  mantel- 
piece in  the  Boardroom  now  hangs  an  oil  painting  presented 
to  the  governors  some  fifty  years  after,  in  1835,  by  Mr.  Ball, 
the  son  of  the  Benjamin  Ball  just  noticed,  but  the  execution 
of  which  we  can  fix  as  in  this  year,  1779,  for  it  evidently 
represents  this  conference  with  Ivory  for  the  reduction  of 

212       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

his  plans.  It  is  an  excellent  picture  b}^  Jonathan  Trottei\ 
who  attained  some  eminence  as  a  portrait  painter  ;  he  had 
studied  in  Rome.  There  are  nine  figures,  all  having  the 
character  of  good  likenesses  ;  nearly  all  of  them  can  be 
identitied.  x\t  the  extreme  right  stands  Trotter  himself, 
palette  in  hand,  talking  to  Benjamin  Ball,  a  handsome 
gentleman  clothed  in  black  like  a  bishop  ;  at  the  farthest  left 
stands  Wilson,  just  appointed  registrar,  but  not  yet  architect, 
for  in  the  centre  is  an  oval  table  ;  at  its  head  is  seated,  green- 
coated,  well-looking,  a  gentleman  who  points  to  the  open 
plans,  and  is  anxiously  questioning  Vierpyl,  who  sits  opposite 
in  his  working  white  jacket,  and  who  seems  nonplussed  and 
not  quite  pleased  with  the  examination.  Between  them,  in 
the  centre,  is  Ivory,  in  maroon  coat,  attentively  listening  to 
Vierpyl  and  the  chairman  ;  beside  the  latter  is  seated  a 
gentleman  in  scarlet  doublet,  half  turning  his  face  as  if  to 
speak  to  Wilson  ;  either  he  or  the  man  in  green  we  assume  to 
be  Blackball,  but  as  both  are  at  the  head  of  the  table  we 
cannot  decide.  Two  other  figures  standing  between  these 
and  W^ilson  are  said  to  represent  Aldermxan  Trulock  and 
Alderman  Tucker,  who  were  both  on  the  Building  Com- 

The  Boardroom  where  this  picture  hangs  is  the  only  part 
of  the  house  completely  finished  as  Ivory  planned  it.  save, 
perhaps,  the  front  facade  and  the  two  Italian  corridors,  with 
their  arched  niches  on  the  ground  and  first  stories.  It  is  a 
very  fine  example  of  the  best  work  of  the  period,  thirty-four 
feet  long  by  twenty-one  and  fourteen  feet  high,  with  a  rich 
Corinthian  cornice  and  a  coved  ceiling  laced  with  graceful 
traceries.  The  three  windows  face  the  west  and  the  square 
of  the  Royal  Barracks,  known  as  the  Palatine,  with  the 
bright  green  playground  between.  This  room  has  been  long 
the  subject  of  recurrent  architectural  praise  in  Dublin. 
Beneath  Trotter's  painting  is  the  fine  chimney-piece 
presented  for  the  room  by  Mr.  George  Ensor  in  1780 ;  it  is  of 
white  Carrara  marble,  of  which  much  had  been  imported 
at  this  time  by  Vierpyl,  and  of  which  there  are  Ionic  pillars 
at  each  side  ;  the  panels  below  the  sill  are  of  ruddy  Sienna 

TEMP.  GEORGE  TIL,  i>6o-i784  213 

marble.  It  seems  to  have  incurred  some  damage  in  carriage, 
for  a  contemporaneous  entry  directs  Merpyl  to  repair  it,  and 
iix  it  up  in  the  Boardroom  as  soon  as  possible. 

The  great  school  room  and  the  dining  hall  were  finished  ; 
in  the  latter  the  quaint  and  somewhat  imposing  Royal  Arms 
of  Charles  II.,  gilt  and  emblazoned,  and  now  taken  from  the 
old  building,  were  erected  over  the  central  lireplace  as  they 
are  to  be  seen  to-day. 

But  the  Chapel  was  still  unfinished  ;  the  dormitories,  the 
ofifices,  the  kitchen,  were  only  half  complete ;  and  in  the  old 
crumbling  building  the  old  chapel  was  of  necessity  used  as  a 
schoolroom,  so  far  a  sanctuary  from  the  menacing  walls  ;  so, 
in  the  Session  1781,  a  linal  and  vehement  effort  was  made 
for  a  grant  from  Parliament.  At  the  same  time  the  Lord 
Lieutenant,  Lord  Carlisle,  Mr.  Secretary  Eden,  and  Lord 
Harcourt  were  ui gently  besought,  but  without  much  result. 
The  new  petition  was  committed  to  Sir  Samuel  Bradstreet 
and  Dr.  Clement,  the  city  members.  It  was  the  most 
persuasive  appeal  yet  made."  It  detailed  how  in  1689  the 
ancient  edifice  had  been  turned  into  a  ban-ack,  and  having 
been  restored  at  great  expense  to  the  citizens,  had  had  the 
honour  to  be  the  Parliament  House  during  the  erection  of 
the  present  one,  but  from  age  and  these  changes  and 
alterations  it  was  now  necessarily  taken  down  ;  that 
the  governors  had  begun  their  new  Hospital  on 
a  plan  for  300  boys,  relying  on  the  beneficence 
of  the  legislature  "  who  had  given  bountifully  to 
everything  that  can  promote  the  prosperity  of  the 
kingdom,"  and  flattered  themselves  with  the  modest  pre- 
sumption that  the  Parliament  whose  generous  grants  had 
reached  the  remotest  parts  of  the  land  would  not  now 
overlook  this  useful  charity  at  home,  which  had  flourished 
so  many  years  and  now  needed  the  fostering  care  of  the 
legislature  to  complete  it. 

And  yet  this  ad  captandum  appeal  was  doomed  like  its 
predecessors  only  to  lie  on  the  table.  It  is  not  easy  now  to 
guess  the  true  causes  of  this  ill  success,  for,  as  hinted  in  this 

"  Com.  Journal,    17S1,   218. 

214       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

petition,  the  House  was  then  lavishing  money  on  all  sorts  of 
projects,  not  only  through  the  island,  but  in  Dublin,  con- 
tinuing the  policy  by  which,  when  defeated  in  the  claims 
to  pass  money  bills  without  even  the  formal  consent  of  the 
Crown,  they  revenged  themselves  by  voting  as  they  pleased 
all  the  surplus  of  the  Hereditary  Revenue  of  Ireland,  the 
balance  of  which  only,  after  providing  for  the  annual  votes, 
was  pa^^able  into  the  Exchequer.  The  Commons  Jonrjial 
shows,  for  instance,  that  in  the  three  years  1779-81  £10,000 
was  voted  to  the  Dublin  Society,  -{19,000  to  the  Foundling 
Hospital,  /i4,ooo  to  the  Incorporated  Society,  £6,000  to  the 
House  of  Industry,  £3,500  to  the  Hibernian  School,  and 
£3,000  to  Swift's  Hospital.  But  new  favourites  make  old 
ones  unfashionable. 

The  work  after  Ivory's  resignation,  which  was  absolutely 
necessary  to  permit  of  transferring  the  boys  to  their  new- 
quarters,  cost  £6,000.  This  was  executed  under  Wilson  over 
a  period  of  three  years,  and  for  almost  the  whole  the  Hospital 
remained  indebted  to  the  tradesmen.  At  long  last,  at 
Christmas,  1783,  the  Committee  reported  to  the  Board  that 
the  accommodations  were  so  far  completed  for  the  reception 
of  the  boys  and  servants  that  these  were  now  received  into 
the  new  Hospital,  "  and  most  comfortably  provided  for." 
We  may  hope  that  the  inmates  themselves  concurred  in  this 
comfortable  judgment.  j\Iany  subsequent  entries  make  this 
somewhat  doubtful. 

[      215      ] 


TEMP.  GEORGE  III.   1 784-1 800. 

The  School  resumed  in  the  new  buildings  in  the  opening  of 
1784.  It  might  have  been  thought  that  the  fine  Renaissance 
palace  which  it  exteriorly  seemed  to  be,  would  now  have 
attracted  the  public  support  necessary  to  complete  it  and 
extend  its  operations.  Such  hopes  failed,  owing  to  the  very 
events  which  might  hav^e  seemed  likely  to  secure  them  :  the 
new  Independent  Parliament,  with  the  consequent  vast 
increase  in  the  notables  and  nobles  resident  in  Dublin.  For 
the  expanded  arena  into  which  the  public  life  of  Ireland  had 
now  entered  diverted  men's  gaze  from  things  so  local  as  a 
city  school.  In  the  first  half  of  its  stormy  career,  this 
legislature  was  engaged  with  questions  of  imperial  moment, 
which  were  closely  involved  with  those  of  Great  Britain, 
such  as  John  Foster's  great  Act  for  the  Protection  of  Corn 
in  1784,  with  his  refusal  to  protect  Irish  manufactures,  which 
latter  raised  vehement  riots  in  the  city  ;  the  discussion  of 
William  Pitt's  offers  of  a  commercial  union  with 
Ireland,  and  its  final  ill-starred  rejection  because 
Ireland  refused  to  adhere  to  the  British  colonial 
tariff ;  then  the  Irish  demand  to  vote  for  the 
Regency,  when  George  III.  was  ill,  in  complete  independ- 
ence of  the  Parliament  or  Ministry  in  London;  and  many 
other  assertions  of  Ireland's  unrestricted  autonomy.  The 
last  decade  was  passed  in  the  fever  of  the  scarcel}^  veiled 
rebellion,  which  overtly  broke  out  in  1798,  fomented  all 
through  by  the  United  Irishmen,  ever  since,  assuming  control 
of  the  Volunteer  movement,  they  leagued  with  France  for 
the  establishment  of  a  Republic  on  the  principles  and  lines 
of  the  regicide  revolution. 

2i6       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

All  through  these  conflicts,  from  first  to  last,  rose  the 
voice  of  Grattan,  now  in  superlative  eloquence,  oftener,  still, 
in  rhapsodic  rhetoric,  and  this,  with  the  clash  of  parliamentary- 
debate,  so  filled  the  public  ear,  as  to  leave  small  entry  for  the 
appeal  or  the  claims  of  a  Municipal  School  Board.  Our 
Minutes,  which,  in  the  previous  hundred  years,  are  studded 
with  the  names  of  distinguished  statesmen  and  courtiers, 
show,  in  the  last  sixteen  years  of  the  centur}^,  the  attendance 
of  only  three  Privy  Councillors,  the  Archbishop  of  Dublin, 
Dr.  Fowler,  who  was  present  only  once,  the  Archbishop  of 
Cashel,  Dr.  Agar  Ellis,  who  was  present  once  in  1786,  and 
twice  in  the  next  year,  when  he  was  Viscount  Somerton,  and 
the  Right  Hon.  David  La  Touche,  who  appears  once  in  1786, 
and  only  twice  the  year  after.  There  are  no  other  governors 
at  the  meetings  outside  the  Corporation  members,  except 
the  Bishop  of  Cloyne,  Dr.  Bennett,  the  Bishop  of  Kildare, 
Dr.  George  Lewis  Jones,  elected  in  1790,  and  Archdeacon 
Fowler  of  Dublin,  all  whose  visits  are  few  and  far  between, 
and  Baron  George,  who, however,  atoned  for  many  absentees; 
the  Primate,  Lord  Rokeby,  was  elected,  indeed,  but  we 
cannot  find  that  he  ever  attended. 

The  City  Hall  itself  was  drawn  into  the  current  of  public 
events.  The  enthusiasm,  kindled  by  the  Volunteer  movement 
was  everywhere  contagious  for  a  time ;  in  those  stirring  years 
riots  in  Dublin  were  rife  and  continuous,  and  the  agitations 
outside,  doubtless,  penetrated  the  Tholsel,  and  tended  to 
disintegrate  the  solid  Williamite  phalanx  with  whom  the 
Blue  Coat  had  been  so  long  a  primary  concern.  We  have  an 
ominous  entry,  20  October,  1789,  when  James  Napper  Tandy 
appears  as  a  governor,  a  stormy  petrel  on  an  inland  lake. 
What  he  came  for  then  we  do  not  know,  but  the  routine 
details  of  that  day  had  little  to  engage  his  troublous  spirit, 
and  this  was  his  first  and  only  apparition.  It  was  just  at  the 
close  of  his  earlier  period  as  a  tribune  of  the  people,  when, 
treading  in  the  steps  of  Charles  Lucas,  he  made  war  on  the 
civic  authorities;  he  was  now  about  to  embark  on  the  seas 
of  conspiracy  and  high  treason,  whereon  he  tossed  to  the 
end,  seeking  with  Wolfe  Tone  to  overthrow  the  British  empire 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1784-18CO  217 

by  a  French  invasion,  even  though  this  might  have  made 
Ireland  an  appanage  of  France. 

We  now  find  the  attendances,  even  of  our  aldermen,  are 
meagre.  Save  when  an  appointment  was  in  the  wind,  often 
there  was  not  a  quorum.  Boons  to  the  Blue  Coat  had 
hitherto  often  originated  in  the  City  Assembly  ;  now  its 
appeals  are  coldly  received  or  rejected,  and  even  the  old 
grants  are  reluctantly  maintained,  and  this  was  not  for  want 
of  funds,  for  the  city  was  freely  spending  in  other  directions. 
The  weakening  of  sympathy  at  the  centre  tended  to  weaken 
the  old  attraction  to  our  Board  of  great  personages  outside, 
whose  presence  had  always  attracted  in  turn  that  of  the 
citizen  governors,  who  were  glad  to  sit  in  conference  with 
them,  and  their  abstention  now  increased  the  disposition 
of  many  of  the  Corporators  to  stay  away.  • 

Whatever  the  combination  of  causes  may  have  been,  we  are 
forced  to  conclude  that  in  these  years  of  the  Grattan 
Parliament,  the  public  iuterest  in  the  Blue  Coat  had  reached 
its  nadir  with  a  corresponding  decline  within. 

Just  before  the  re-opening  in  1784,  the  Rev.  Hamilton 
Morgan  resigned.  He  had  succeeded  Ralph  Grattan  as 
chaplain  and  headmaster  in  the  sixties,  and  the  first  act  of 
the  governors  now  was  to  appoint  his  son,  Mr.  Allen  Morgan, 
in  his  stead.  They  were  both  University  gentlemen,  but 
both  lacked  the  qualities  that  go  to  make  a  great  head  of  a 
public  school;  yet  their  successive  tenure  of  office  covers 
nearly  seventy  years.  The  father  had  never  taken  his  duties 
very  seriously;  he  was  an  easy-going  gentleman,  who  had 
married  young,  and  came  to  the  Blue  Coat  as  a  mere  means 
of  living,  but  he  had  interest  outside  ;  he  had  been  a  school 
fellow  of  Foster,  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  and, 
through  the  Duke  of  Leinster,  was  now  appointed  in  the 
rectory  of  Dunlavin.  As  his  son,  Allen,  in  after  years, 
devolved  his  teaching  duties  on  others,  and  assumed  to  be 
chaplain  only,  with  much  ill  consequences,  as  hereafter  seen, 
we  note  here  that  when  elected  in  January,  1784,  he  was 
called  before  the  Board,  Lord  Mayor  Thomas  Green  in  the 
chair,  and  the  duties  of  chaplain  and  headmaster,  as  defined 


by  Swift,  were  read  to  him.  He  promised,  if  elected,  to  comply 
with  them,  and  on  this  basis  was  approved  by  the  Archbishop 
of  Dublin,  Dr.  Fowler,  as  provided  by  the  charter. 

Then  followed  the  consecration  of  the  chapel  by  the 
Archbishop  ;  it  w^as  opened  for  Divine  Service  on  Trinity 
Sunday,  1784,  in  the  presence  of  a  large  assemblage,  con- 
vened by  public  notice  in  Faulkner's  Journal.  The  painting 
of  "  The  Resurrection  "  by  Waldron,  just  then  executed, 
was  placed  where  it  hangs  now  behind  the  Communion 

Seekmg  extraneous  aid,  the  governors,  in  1785,  elected 
the  Primate,  Lord  Rokeby,  and  sent  a  deputation  of  the 
Lord  Mayor,  Sir  Thomas  Blackball,  and  others,  to  wait  on 
his  Grace.  He  was  a  man  of  great  administrative  power,  of 
large  fortune,  and  of  noble  munificence.  Created  Lord 
Rokeby  in  1777,  from  his  romantic  estate  on  the  Greta  in 
Yorkshire,  the  scene  of  Sir  Walter  Scott's  Rokeby,  he  is, 
perhaps,  better  remembered  in  our  day  as  Primate  Robinson, 
and  by  the  splendid  charities  which  long  bore  his  name. 
Though  we  count  him  upon  our  roll  of  worthies,  he  would 
seem  to  have  been  unable  to  take  an  active  interest  in  the 
Hospital,  engrossed  by  the  great  institutions  he  founded  in 
Armagh,  and  the  building  of  churches  all  over  the  province.^ 
Of  him,  Grattan  said,  "  he  has  the  first  episcopal  dignity 
in  this  realm;  it  is  his  right,  he  takes  it  by  virtue  of  the 
commanding  benevolence  of  his  mind,  in  right  of  a  superior 
and  exalted  nature." 

In  1785,  Denis  George  became  Recorder  and  a  Governor. 
On  the  death,  in  1784,  of  Sir  Samuel  Bradstreet,  who  had 
been  with  us  for  eighteen  years,  Dudley  Hussey  succeeded 
him.  George  continued  an  able  and  faithful  friend  of  the 
Blue  Coat  till  far  into  the  new  century.  In  1795  he  w^as 
promoted  to  be  a  baron  of  the  Exchequer,  but  was  then 
re-elected  on  the  Board,  as  the  Recorders  were  upon  it,  only 
ex-officio.  It  was  he,  who,  with  our  Lord  Ma^'or  Chairman, 
Henry  Gore  Sankey,  inaugm'ated  the  building  of  the  new 
Recorder's  and  City  Court  in  Green  Street.      On  14  June, 

1  Right  Hon.  J.  T.  Ball's  Reformed  Chuych  of  Ireland,  p.  221. 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1784-1800  219 

1792,  they  went  in  State  together  from  the  Tholsel.  Sankey 
who  is  styled  in  the  newspaper  account,  "  a  bright  freemason," 
then  practically  exercised  the  craft  of  the  order.  Clothed 
in  its  apron  and  insignia,  he  laid  the  first  stone  with  his  silver 
trowel,  and,  of  course,  the  ceremony  ended  in  a  banquet. 
Whitmore  Davis  was  the  architect.  On  his  promotion 
George  was  succeeded  as  Recorder  by  William  Walker,  who 
held  the  office  and  sat  on  the  Board  for  twenty-seven  years 
to  1822,  when  he  was  followed  by  Sir  Jonas  Greene. 

There  has  been  little  change  since  in  the  original  aspect 
of  the  chapel.  In  1787  the  organ  gallery,  with  seats  for  the 
choir  boys,  was  erected  by  Sir  Thomas  Blackhall's  com- 
mittee. The  other  boys'  seats  ran  in  rows  below,  as  now,  but 
these,  instead  of  facing  the  Communion  Table  and  Pulpit 
ran  parallel  to  the  side  walls  and  central  aisle,  with  high 
partitions  between  each  tier,  thus  fairly  screening  the  sitters 
from  the  chaplain's  ken,  and  enabling  them  to  while  away 
sermon  time  with  elaborate  carvings  on  the  panels  in  fiont 
of  them.  This  alluring  arrangement  continued  to  some 
twenty  years  ago,  when  a  special  fund  was  raised  for  repair- 
ing the  chapel,  mainly  aided  by  an  inaugurating  ceremonial, 
when  Archbishop  Lord  Plunket  preached  an  eloquent 
sermon  based  on  Nehemiah's  restoration  of  the  Temple. 
The  old  partitions  were  then  found  inscribed  with  the  initials 
of  generations  of  Blue  boys  and  hieroglyphics,  many  and 
enigmatic  as  the  inscriptions  on  an  Egyptian  column.  But 
high  plain  panels  were  hideous,  and  the  boys  might  have 
pleaded  the  expediency  of  some  wood  carving  upon  them. 
The  walls  now  bear  some  tablets  in  memory  of  some  of  our 
worthies  of  the  past.  The  latest  of  these  is  a  handsome 
brass,  by  Mayer  of  Munich,  in  memory  of  John  Hatchell, 
one  of  our  best  governors  for  forty  years;  it  records  his 
bequest  of  /500  to  the  Hospital,  appropriated  by  his 
executor,  Mr.  Louis  Perrin  Hatchell,  also  a  governor,  to  the 
completion  at  long  last  of  the  Cupola.  This  was  dedicated 
last  year  by  Archbishop  Peacocke  of  Dublin. 

The  governors  now  found  themselves  exposed  to  the 
proverb  of  the  men  who  began  to  build  but  were  not  able 

220       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

to  finish.  Not  only  were  the  buildings  not  finished,  but  the 
builders  were  unpaid  for  those  that  were  to  the  amount  of 
some  £4,000,  and  there  were  no  funds  in  hand  to  meet  this. 
To  Chambers,  the  carpenter  and  joiner,  alone,  £1,600  was 
due,  for  which  the  Board  could  only  give  him  debentures 
on  the  Hospital  itself  at  six  per  cent,  and  several  hundreds 
each  were  owing  to  the  quarries,  the  masons,  bricklayers, 
iron  masters,  carvers,  and  painters.  These  they  could  only 
keep  at  bay  by  paying  heavy  interest.  Even  in  1787  they  were 
forced  to  give  live  per  cent  debentures  to  all,  until  in  1790 
we  read  that  the  builders  are  now  very  importunate,  and  the 
governors  resolved  to  pay  the  most  pressing  out  of  their 
capital  lent  to  the  citv  at  four  per  cent,  and  thus  to  save 
something  by  reduction  of  interest.  Even  Ricky's  bill  for 
the  boys'  clothing  in  1783,  could  only  be  met  by  half  yearly 
interest  extending  over  ^-ears. 

In  this  distress  which  lasted  more  or  less  to  the  end  of 
the  century  and  after,  the  governors  resorted  to  many 
devices  which  were  not  attended  with  much  success.  They 
drew  up  a  petition  to  the  king,  with  one  to  the  Duke  of 
Rutland,  the  Lord  Lieutenant,  earnestly  seeking  the  royal 
bounty.  Nothing  appears  to  have  come  of  this.  The  Duke 
was  indeed  most  popular,  and  took  a  generous  interest  in 
the  Dublm  charities,  but  for  the  reason  above  mentioned, 
the  tide  of  favour  at  this  epoch  had  passed  to  other  objects 
of  government  bounty.  Bartholomew  Mosse's  Rotunda 
Hospital  seems  now  to  have  absorbed  the  sympathy  of  the 
wealth}^  and  the  great.  The  Duke  visited  it  in  state,  and 
in  his  honour,  the  gardens  lately  laid  out  behind  it  were 
now  named  Rutland  Square,  with  Granby  Row,  from  the 
Duke's  second  title,  for  its  western  side.  Palatial  houses 
were  now  being  erected  all  round  ;  the  place  became  the 
centre  of  fashionable  Dublin,  and  the  Rotunda  the  spoiled 
child  of  ladies  of  high  degree  ;  large  grants  were  voted  to  it 
by  Parliament,  and  a  tax  on  carriages  and  sedans,  once 
granted  to  our  Blue  Coat,  but  taken  from  it, 
was  now  transferred  to  the  Lying-in  Hospital. 
Had    he    lived,     the    Duke    would    probably  have    helped 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1784- 1800  221 

us,  but  he  died  in  Dublin  whilst  Lord  Lieutenant 
in  1787,  at  the  early  age  of  thirty-three,  to  the 
universal  sorrow,  for  he  was  beloved  and  beneficent,  as  his 
noble  grandson,  who  so  long  represented  the  House  of 
Manners,  has  been  in  our  day. 

Then  the  Board  attacked  the  governors  of  Erasmus 
Smith,  their  old  objective,  claiming  as  a  right  a  large  con- 
tribution to  the  new  building  in  view  of  their  twenty 
nominations  to  the  School.'-  The  E.  Smith  governors  on  our 
Board  are  directed  to  "  to  support  our  claim  with  firmness," 
and  again  to  attend  at  their  own  next  meeting,  and  "  make 
a  demand  of  a  sum  of  money  due  to  this  charity  towards  the 
rebuilding  of  this  Hospital,"  but  we  had  not  then  on  our  side 
the  treasurer  of  E.  Smith's,  who,  so  often  before  and  after, 
has  helped  the  Blue  Coat  in  emergencies,  and  for  the  then 
present  we  asked  in  vain.  We  might  have  yearned  for  the 
days  of  Archbishop  King.  Nothing  could  be  hoped  for  from 
the  Corporation  now;  they  were,  themselves,  obliged  to 
retrench,  and  by  an  Act  of  Econom}^  resolved  on  withdraw- 
mg  from  the  Hospital  the  Toll  Corn  annuity  of  ^250,  granted 
in  Queen  Anne's  time,  of  which  £750  was  in  arrear  in  1784, 
and  it  was  only  by  strong  pressure  they  were  persuaded  to 
suspend  this  order  from  time  to  time. 

All  that  the  Blue  Coat  could  ever  extract  from  the 
G rattan  Parliament  were  some  lines  imposed  on  market 
jurors  for  non-attendance,  by  27  Geo.  HL,  c.  46  (1787),  and 
penalties  inflicted  by  the  Dublin  Presentment  Act  of  1793. 
The  fines  were  heavy,  but  the  magistrates  were  slow  to  inflict 
them,  and  they  did  not  add  much  to  the  Hospital  revenue* 

A  project  for  Charity  Sermons  in  aid  now  adopted,  had 
a  fair  success.  Dr.  Craddock,  the  Dean  of  St.  Patrick's, 
complying  with  the  request  of  the  governors,  preached  in 
our  new  chapel  on  Sunday,  29  May,  1785,  to  a  large  congre- 
gation. He  had  a  good  name  in  Dublin,  for  a  few  years 
before,  when  his  Deanery  House,  which  had  been  Swift's, 
went  on  fire,  regardless  of  all  other  possessions,  his  only 
thought  was  for  the  portrait  of  his  great  predecessor,  by 

-8th  December,  17S4,  3nl  Decembei,  1789. 

222       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Bindon,  presented  by  the  Chapter  in  1738,  and,  perhaps, 
the  best  of  his  extant  likenesses.  Dean  Craddock  himself 
carried  it  from  the  flames  into  the  street,  and  saved  it,  to  be 
still  a  chief  treasure  in  the  home  of  the  Dean  of  St.  Patiick's. 

Shortly  after,  the  governors  approached  Kirwan,  the 
greatest  pulpit  orator  of  the  day — some  have  said  that  he  has 
never  been  equalled.  His  Charity  Sermons  were  irresistible ; 
thrilled  with  emotion,  ladies  would  tear  off  their  bracelets 
and  jewels  and  fling  them  on  the  plate,  and  men's  gold 
watches  liave  been  placed  there  too.  One  of  these  sermons 
alone  resulted  in  a  collection  of  /i,400.  Though  his  oratory 
did  not  stand  the  test  of  printing  and  time  as  those  of  some 
great  pulpit  orators  have  done,  it  is  doubtful  if  any  surpassed 
him  in  living  power.  Educated  for  the  priesthood  by  the 
Jesuits  at  St.  Omer,  he  conformed  to  the  Established  Church 
in  Ireland,  but  was  never  promoted  beyond  the  Deanery  of 
Killala.-^  Yet,  his  eloquence  was  the  theme  of  wonder 
outside  church-going  people.  Grattan,  in  the  acme  of  his 
own  fame,  exclaimed  of  him  : — "  He  came  to  interrupt  the 
repose  of  the  pulpit.  The  curse  of  Swift  was  upon  him,  to 
have  been  an  Irishman,  and  a  man  of  genius,  and  to  have 
used  it  for  the  good  of  his  country." 

Kirwan  cordially  accepted  the  invitation  of  our  governors, 
and  promised  to  preach  on  the  first  Sunday  in  May,  1785, 
for  the  benefit  of  the  chaiity.  All  the  due  arrangements 
were  made,  and  the  Rev.  Dr.  Law  is  thanked  for  giving  his 
parish  church  for  the  purpose.  We  have  no  direct  record 
of  the  result,  but  the  accounts  for  this  year  show  an  entry  : — 
"  Collection,  Charity  Sermon,  £145,''  from  which  great 
contribution  to  a  single  offertory,  in  those  days,  we  may 
fairly  assume  that  Kirwan's  sermon  still  lives  in  the  stones 
of  the  edifice  it  aided  to  raise. 

Another  entry  near  these  suggests  the  activity  of  the 
Dublin  coiners  then  : — "  Bad  silver  in  chapel,  £5  13s.  gd." 

Such  precarious  help,  however,  could  never  have  enabled 
the  Hospital  to  stem  this  period  of  depression  and  public 
apathy.      But  if  public  authorities  withheld  direct  aid,  the 

^  Ball's  Reformed  Church  iu  Ireland,  p.  226. 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1784-1800  223 

legislation  of  the  Grattan  Parliament  in  the  early  eighties, 
indirectly  almost  supplied  an  equivalent.  Of  John  Foster's 
measure,  giving  a  protection  duty  against  foreign  corn,  with 
a  large  bounty  on  Irish  grain  exported  to  England,  Mr. 
Lecky  says  : — "  It  is  one  of  the  capital  facts  of  Irish  history. 
In  a  few  years  it  changed  the  face  of  the  land,  and  made 
Ireland  to  a  great  extent  an  arable  instead  of  a  pastoral 

If  re-enacted  it  might  have  that  result  again. 

This,  coupled  with  the  bounties  lavishl}^  though  strangely 
voted  for  the  inland  carriage  of  corn  from  the  rural  districts 
to  the  Irish  towns  and  ports,  enhanced  the  rental  of  the 
Hospital  estates  amazingly.  Our  Nodstown,  yielding  £182 
rent  in  the  twenty-one  preceding  years,  was,  in  1785,  re-let 
at  £527.  So  the  tithes  of  IMullingar,  previously  leased  at 
£135  yearly,  were,  in  1791,  re-let  at  a  rent  of  £210,  and  188 
acres  of  Kilcotty,  in  Wexford,  were,  in  1795,  let  for  twenty- 
one  years  at  £1  8s.  per  acre.  This  had  been  devised  to  the 
Hospital  by  the  will  of  Mr.  George  Kavanagh  many  years 
before,  but  only  this  year  came  into  its  possession.  This 
good  estate  has  since  been  lost,  apparently  through 
negligence  and  the  Statute  of  Limitations.  And  in  1793  the 
site  of  the  old  Hospital,  extending  along  the  entire  south  of 
Blackball  Street,  was  leased  to  Thos.  Wildridge  for  ninety- 
nine  years,  at  a  rent  of  £100,  with  a  covenant  to  build 
dwelling-houses  from  end  to  end.  When  twelve  of  these  had 
been  erected  he  failed,  and  was  allowed  to  let  the  western  end 
for  stores.  At  the  end  of  the  term,  in  1893,  the  street  fell, 
with  the  Hospital,  into  a  sad  state  of  dilapidation,  but  has 
now  been  very  profitably  restored  by  the  present  governors. 

Thus  strengthened,  the  governors  undertook  some  of  the 
sadly  unfinished  work.  In  1792,  the  infirmary,  so  essential 
for  the  School  then,  was  built  as  it  now  stands.  But  instead 
of  husbanding  their  revenue  to  pay  off  their  discreditable 
debts,  and  to  complete  the  sad  omissions  of  original  plans, 
they  spent  their  money  in  repeatedly  raising  the  salaries  of 
indifferent  or  worthless  officers,  and  giving  them  pensions. 

■*  Ireland  in  the  iSth  Century,  Vol.  II,,  386. 

224       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Sir  Thomas  Blackliall,  who  had  been  the  chief  corner-stone 
of  the  new  building,  and  had  attended  every  meeting  for  five 
years  after  its  opening,  guarding  all  its  interests,  was  unable 
to  be  present  after  1789,  though  he  lived  to  1796,  and  others 
of  the  original  projectors  were  dropping  off ;  and  so  we  find 
some,  even  of  the  new  work,  already  falling  into  ruin,  for  it 
could  not  be  expected  that  unpaid  tradesmen  would  not 
have  scamped  much  of  their  work. 5  The  laundry  and  wash- 
houses  are  found  in  1795  being  "  very  ruinous,"  and  are 
allowed  to  remain  so  for  more  than  two  years,  and  so  we 
read  of  the  porter's  lodge  and  entrances  to  the  chapel,  whilst 
the  bowling  green  and  all  the  curtilage  round,  and  in  front,  are 
left  with  half  finished  walls,  and  without  gates,  at  the  mercy 
of  trespassers  from  without  and  truants  from  within.  And  yet 
we  note  £37  yearly  added  to  Mr.  Allen  Morgan's  salary  in 
1795,  following  an  entry  in  1794,  of  Doyle,  a  tradesman's 
bond  for  /350  with  three  and  a  half  years  interest  due  ;  in 
1795  the  bond  is  taken  up  and  a  new  one  issued  at  6  per  cent., 
and  in  1796  two  new  debentures  of  £100  each,  at  the  same 
interest,  are  handed  to  Dixon,  the  shoemaker,  for  the  boys 

And  at  this  time  the  poor  boys  seem  to  have  fared  but 
poorly;  unable  freely  to  use  the  playground,  which  was  used 
for  grazing,  because  the  low  walls  were  tempting,  they 
petitioned  the  governors  for  leave  to  go  to  the  Phoenix  Park 
in  1790.  This  fair  requset  was  flatly  refused,  so  an  entry  two 
years  after  causes  no  surprise  ;  it  orders  "  that  the  worst  of 
the  boys  that  quit  the  house  without  leave,  be  punished  by 
confinement  for  some  hours  in  the  coal  vault,  and  deprived 

■'  But  the  main  building  is  sound  and  solid.  A  short  time  since  a  trades- 
man engaged  at  some  repairs,  turned  to  Rev.  Mr.  Richards,  our  head 
mastei,who  was  regarding  his  work — "  Look  at  those,"  said  he,  pointing 
to  the  fine  cut  stone  in  the  facade,  "  the  men  that  raised  those  knew  what 
they  were  at,  tJiey  knew  how  to  build.  Look  here,  I  have  a  new  house  that 
I  pay  /29  a  year  for,  and  when  I'm  at  my  dinner,  I  can  hear  the  meat 
fryin'  on  the  fryin'-pan  in  the  kitchen  next  door,  and  the  doors  shut. 
That's  what  they're  buildin' now."  "But,"  said  iSIr.  Richards,  "was  it 
not  a  pity  the  old  Governors  had  not  enough  money  to  complete  the  original 
design  ?"  "Original  design  ?  Sure  when  the  King  came  and  looked  at 
the  place — 'Why.'  says  his  Majesty,  'that's  more  like  a  Palace  than  a 
House  of  Pai)i.'  "  He  did  not  specify  the  monarch  who  had  this  notion  of 
a  school 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1784-1800  225 

of  shoes  and  stockings  for  three  days,  and  go  to  bed  supper- 
less  for  three  nights."  This  rather  savage  minute  is  some- 
what softened  by  another  of  the  same  day,  instructing  a 
committee  to  take  steps  "  to  give  the  bowhng  green  to  the 
Bhie  Boys,"  and  yet  this  was  only  effected  in  two  years 
more,  when  the  walls  were  partially  raised,  and  the  windows 
were  latticed,  and  at  last  on  20  May,  1794,  the  old  bowhng 
green  of  Oxmantown  was  opened  for  the  boys  to  play  at  all 
hours,  and  so  it  remains  to  this  day. 

And  yet  in  these  years  the  Hospital  enjoyed  some  valuable 
private  gifts;  one  deserves  special  mention.  A  boy,  named 
Hemming,  had  been  trained  in  the  Hospital  in  the  fifties. 
He  entered  the  army  or  navy  and  saved  money.  In  1795, 
the  governors  are  informed  that  Captain  Hemming  had  left, 
by  his  will,  +^300  to  his  old  school,  with  ;^2,ooo  more  subject 
to  a  life  estate.  The  immediate  gift  was  applied  to  the 
infirmary,  the  reversionary^  £2,000  only  fell  in  1838,  and  this 
was  the  subject  of  heated  discussion  with  the  governors  some 
years  afterwards,  for  having  been  invested  as  capital  in  the 
name  of  ^Ir.  Mallet  and  two  other  governors,  when  it  was 
needed  for  current  expenses  by  the  Board,  Mallet  angrily 
refused  to  sign  tlie  transfers,  and  was  only  forced  to  do  so  by 
an  mi  unction  bill  in  Chancery,  as  to  which  he  gave  indignant 
evidence  before  the  Endowed  Schools  Commission  in  1858. 
Hemming's  sister  was  housekeeper  to  the  Hospital  when  the 
first  legacy  fell  in,  and  the  governors  gratefully  super- 
annuated her  at  full  salary  shortly  afterwards.  No  one 
should  challenge  that  act  of  grace. 

Of  the  governors  who  loyally  wrought  for  the  School  like 
Blackball  to  the  end.  Alderman  Sutton  should  be  named. 
For  the  immediate  needs  at  the  opening  he  advanced  £750, 
and  in  1794  he  presented  the  Board  with  £200,  for  which 
their  thanks  were  ordered  to  be  printed  in  the  Dublin 
Journal,  and  the  nomination  of  two  boys  so  long  as  he  was 
a  member  was  conferred  upon  him ;  a  course  which  was  often 
pursued  from  the  beginning  towards  our  benefactors  ;  it  has 
long  fallen  into  disuse,  but  the  usage  might  well  be  restored 
at  the  present  day.      Sutton  had  proposed,  when  the  new 


226       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

tuilding  opened,  that  all  the  charities  of  Dublin  should  be 
asked  for  aid,  on  the  plea  that  the  new  palace,  if  filled,  would 
indirectl}^  lighten  the  burden  of  them  all,  but  this  appeal  did 
not  prove  fruitful.  Towards  the  close  of  the  century,  the 
governors,  of  whom  he  still  was  one,  became  more  earnest. 
Archbishop  Fowler  came  there  in  1797.  Some  twelve 
hundred  pounds  came  in  for  six  sheriffs'  fines.  The  old 
Dublin  Rope  Walk  was  now  w^alled  off  and  sold,  the  ruined 
laundry  was  restored,  and  the  building  debts  were  largely 
reduced,  and  in  the  very  last  days  of  the  old  centuiy  we  have 
an  order  to  remove  the  cattle  from  the  bowling  green. 

In  1791,  on  Alderman  Sutton's  proposal,  the  Board 
directed  that  "  a  large  Northumberland  Mahogany  Table  to 
accommodate  24  persons,  and  covered  with  green  cloth, 
be  provided  for  the  Boardroom,  also  24  chairs  covered  with 
fine  black  leather,  and  a  two  armed  chair,  of  the  same 
material,  for  the  Lord  Mayor,"  This  was  done  ^^dth  a 
direction  to  give  "  The  Old  Armchair,"  to  our  Surgeon 
Whiteway,  Swift's  pupil.  The  table,  armchair,  and  22  of  the 
chairs  are  still  in  our  boardroom.  They  are  good  specimens 
of  the  sound  Dublin  work  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and 
this  incident  is  noted  here  as  these  ladder  chairs  have  reached 
in  our  time  a  high  value  in  the  luxury  market  of  London. 

In  the  period  comprised  in  this  chapter  there  were  many 
changes  in  the  Blue  Coat  staff.  John  Whiteway,  who  had 
been  surgeon  in  the  old  school,  carried  down  the  connection 
with  Swift ;  he  was  the  son  of  Martha  Whiteway,  the  Dean's 
cousin,  and  his  amanuensis  and  guarding  companion  m  his 
failing  years,  and  to  the  Dean's  gratitude  he  owed  his 
profession.  He  fills  a  long  paragraph  in  Swift's  will,  which 
directs  that  he  is  to  be  brought  up  as  a  surgeon,  and  places 
£100  in  his  mother's  hands  towards  this  end,  to  be  paid  out 
of  the  arrear  of  his  church  livings."  £5  is  added  for  buying 
"  such  physical  and  chirurgical  books  as  Dr.  Grattan  shaU 
think  fit  for  him."  He  was  a  very  effective  member  of 
our  staff,  and  took  a  leading  part  in  the  building  and  manage- 
ment of  the  infirmary.  Dying  in  1797,  he  was  succeeded  for 
two  years  by  Surgeon  Philip  Woodroofe,  on  whose  death  in 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.    17S4-1800  227 

1799,  Surgeon  William  Leake  was  appointed,  also  a  valuable 
officer,  who  served  the  school  for  the  more  than  thirty  years 
that  followed.  Dr.  Archer  was  replaced  as  ph3^sician  by  Dr. 
Harvey,  in  the  first  year  of  the  new  school  in  1784,  and  on 
his  resignation,  ten  years  after,  Dr.  Bryan  was  elected,  and 
continued  to  be  ph3^sician  into  the  new  century.  All  these 
medical  officers  were  members  of  our  Board.  Harcourt 
I>ightbume,  who  had  succeeded  Thomas  White  as  steward, 
on  the  opening  of  the  new  building,  died  in  1792,  and  in  his 
place  Alderman  Edmund  Beasley  was  appointed,  one  of  the 
worst  appointments  the  governors  ever  made  ;  it  might  have 
fairlv  been  called  a  flagrant  job.  Sheriff  and  alderman  in 
1775.  he  had  been  himself  a  governor  some  seventeen  years. 
He  was  elected  steward  at  fust  on  strict  conditions  that  it 
was  to  be  only  for  a  year,  and  during  pleasure,  and  that  he 
was  to  resign  his  seat  on  the  Board  whenever  asked,  but 
not  only  was  he  retained  as  steward,  with  his  maintenance 
and  much-needed  room  in  the  Hospital,  but  his  salary  was 
increased.  This  would  have  been  well  if  he  had  not  been 
useless,  but  though  his  duties  were  confined  to  the  steward- 
ship or  household  management,  he  was  unable  to  perform 
them  ;  for  when,  two  years  after,  Mr.  Hart  became  registrar 
and  agent,  he  was  obliged  to  take  Beasley's  work  in  addition 
to  his  own,  gratuitously,  with  the  assistance  of  the  butler, 
still  leaving  Beasley  his  salary  and  maintenance  and  rooms. 
Meanwhile  the  Board  voted  him  an  increase,  first  of  £15,  and 
then  £25  a  year.  This  abuse  is  severely  exposed  by  the 
Educational  Commissioners  in  1808  ;  they  condemn  the 
appointment  of  a  governor  as  an  official,  and  further  find 
that  when  Mr.  Beasley  at  length  formally  resigned,  he  was  still 
retained  in  his  apartments,  with  his  full  salary-  of  £135  as 
pension.  This  final  job  is  not  noticed  in  our  ^linute  book  ; 
perhaps  the  governors  were  ashamed  of  it. 

Then  John  Wilson,  who  had  been  registrar  and  agent 
since  1779,  died  in  1794.  His  position  in  the  city  as  once  a 
sheriff's  peer  and  town  surveyor,  and  his  succession  to  Ivory, 
as  architect  of  the  Hospital,  gave  him  an  authority  v\'ith  the 
Board,  of  which  he  was  himself  a  member.    Som.e  /6,ooo  of 

228       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

the  new  building  cost  were  expended  under  him,  and  withal 
he  undertook  the  duty  of  lecturing  the  Board  in  this  period 
of  depression.  They  probably  deserved  his  strictures,  for 
the  letter  which  he  had  printed  and  circulated,  was  itself  an 
act  of  insubordination,  which  governors,  if  efficient,  should 
never  have  tolerated,  or  placed,  as  they  did,  in  their  archives. 
But  we  give  it  here  in  full,  not  merely  as  an  internal  evidence 
of  the  low  estate  of  the  Hospital  at  this  time,  but  for  the  irony 
which  this  gentleman's  own  sequel  imparts  to  it. 

To  the   Goveiniors  of  tJic  Blue- Coat  Hofpital. 

My  Lords  and  Gentlemen, 

Bound  ?.s  I  am  by  the  ties  of  duty,  and  Affection  for  the  Welfare 
of  this  Hofpital,  I  cannot  but  lament  the  Decreafe  of  Benefactions 
and  Legacies  to  the  Charity  ;  I  have  been  told,  to  my  great 
Mortification,  that,  different  Charitable  Perfons,  who  had 
bequeathed  Sums  of  Money,  have  of  late  altered  their  Wills, 
and  given  the  Preference  to  other  Charities,  thinking  ours 

Reflection  ftaggcied  me  ;  I  blufhed,  confcious  of  the  Public's 
difcerning  eye  !  T  looked  into  myfeli,  and  inftantly,  every  other 
Perfon  concerned  in  the  Government  of  this  Charity  came  into 
my  View.  1  could  not  (even  with  a  Partiality  in  their  favom), 
pronounce  their  acquittal ;  nor  fhall  I  condemn  any  one^  but  fhall 
remind  the  Governors,  that  better  and  wifer  Rules  and  Orders 
were  never  framed,  than  were  fupported  in  this  Hofpital  for 
many  years  ;  if  they  had  been  adhered  to  to  this  Day,  I  fhould  not 
have  this  unpleafant  Story  to  relate. 

We  had  nearly  f truck  on  this  Rock  ,  but  I  hope  a  revival  of 
our  good  old  Laws,  will  recover  the  Veffel  and  bring  her  fafe  into 
Port  again.  I  have  often  admired  and  read  over  and  over  again 
the  old  Books,  and  as  often  regretted  our  departing  from  the 
strict  Obferv^ance  of  the  Laws  that  made  us  admired,  and  under 
which  we  profpered. 

I  have  not  the  leaft  enmity  to  Mortal,  nor  do  I  wifh  for 
Innovation,  but  that  every  Perfon  in  Office  fhould  keep  his  own 
particular  Station  ;  becaufe,  I  am  fully  convinced  he  will  find 
enough  to  do  in  his  own  Department. 

I  am  encouraged  to  thefe  few  Remarks,  by  the  gleam  of 
favourable  Attention  fhewn  last  Affembly,  to  the  Hofpital ;  and 
I  harbour  the  ftrongest  hopes,  that  the  Gentlemen  have  giv^en  an 
earneft,  that  they  mean  to  be  the  Protectors  of  fo  great  and  fo 
laudable  a  Charity. 

It  is  hoped  the  Governors  \\'ill  accept  of  this  as  it  is  meant — 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1784-1800  229 

merely  to  do  good.  Tt  is  the  overflcwing  of  a  Heart  that  can  have 
no  other  meaning,- -but  to  act  the  part  Piovidence  has  affigned 
to  him,  who  is,  and  always  was,  my  Lords  and  Gentlemen, 

Your  faithful  humble  Servant, 
April  4th,  1792. 

When,  two  years  after,  the  writer  died,  his  own  accounts 
showed  no  less  than  £1,300  due  to  the  Hospital  which  were 
lost  for  ever,  for  when  the  governors  appealed  to  his  sureties, 
and  proceeded  to  put  their  bonds  in  suit,  the  demand  was 
boldly  repudiated.  The  governors  were  dared  to  go  to  trial, 
and  on  the  advice  of  eminent  counsel  abandoned  the  claim. 
Their  own  remissness  in  allowing  their  officer  to  do  as  he 
pleased,  would  probably  have  proved  an  unanswerable  plea 
on  the  equitable  principles  of  suretj^ship. 

There  is  an  entry  of  Wilson's  in  his  own  hand,  as  registrar, 
which  gives  another  touch  of  his  quality  :  "  August,  1791. 
The  assistant  housekeeper  was  admonished  for  not  treating 
Mr.  Wilson  with  the  respect  due  to  him  as  a  governor  and 
agent,  by  telling  him  she  did  not  care  a  pin  for  him."  He 
was  succeeded  in  1794  by  Mr.  Robert  Hart,  who  held  office 
for  thirty-five  years,  and  of  whom  we  shall  have  more  to 

Yet  Wilson  had  been  elected  at  a  great  meeting  in  1779 
by  fifty-one  governors,  including  twenty-one  aldermen,  with 
the  Earl  of  Roden,  Sir  Lucius  O'Brien,  and  Provost  John 
Hely  Hutchinson,  none  of  whom  ever  attended  before  or 
after.  He  then  succeeded  Thos.  Hawkshaw,  whose  accounts 
had  been  found  by  Wilson  also  defective  to  the  amount  of 
£800  :  he  followed  the  precedent  effectively. 

[Chairmen  and  Lord  Mayors. 

230       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Our  Chairmen  and  Lord  Mayors  from  First  George  III. 
to  the  Union  were : — 

Sir  Patrick  Hamilton. 
Sir  Timothy  Allen. 
Charles  Russell. 
William  Forbes. 
Benjamin  Geale. 
Sir  James  Taylor. 
Edward  Sankey. 
Francis  Fetherston. 
Beniamin  Barton. 
Sir  Thomas  Blackhall. 
George  Reynolds. 
F.  Booker,  VV.  Forbes. 
Richard  French. 
Willoughby  Lightburne. 
Henry  Hart. 
Thomas  Emerson. 
Henry  Beadan. 
William  Dunne. 
Sir  Anthony  King. 
James  Hamilton. 












































Kilner  Swettenham. 



John  Darragh. 



Nathaniel  Warren. 



Thomas  Green. 



James  Horan. 



James  Shiel. 



George  Alcock. 



William  Alexander. 



John  Rose. 



John  Exshaw. 



Henry  Howison. 



Henry  S.  Sankey. 



John  Carleton. 



William  James. 



Richard  Moncrieff. 



Sir  Wm.  Worthington. 



Samuel  Reed. 



Thomas  Fleming. 



Thomas  Andrews. 



J.  Sutton  &  J.  Exshaw. 

[      231      ] 


THE     EVOLUTION     OF     DUBLIN     IN     THE 

The  decline  of  King's  Hospital  as  the  exclusive  favourite  it 
had  been  in  its  first  hundred  years  was  doubtless  due  to  the 
growth  of  the  city  through  the  eighteenth  century,  in  the 
last  three-quarters  of  which  the  erection  of  great  public 
buildings  and  stately  mansions  was  phenomenal.  Side  by 
side  with  these  the  city  was  expanding  into  new  quarters, 
streets,  squares,  always  creating  new  interests  in  which  the 
Blue  Coat  governors  as  the  municipal  authority  were  deeply 
concerned,  both  as  public  and  as  private  persons  ;  and,  as 
each  advance  suggested  another,  grants  from  Parliament 
and  the  city  estate  were  constantly  sought  at  the  expense  of 
the  monopoly  which  the  Blue  Coat  had  once  almost  enjoyed. 
The  development  may  be  seen  in  a  general  way  by  com- 
paring Brooking's  Map,  1728,  when  it  began,  with  Roque's, 
1765,  when  it  was  in  full  operation  ;  good  copies  of  these 
appear  in  the  seventh  and  eleventh  volumes  of  Gilbert's 
Calendar.  But  to  conceive  this  evolution  duly,  one  must  follow 
each  great  step  in  the  order  of  dates,  thus  seeing  to  what 
each  led  on  ;  and  as  such  a  review  has  not,  perhaps,  hitherto 
been  made  in  any  of  the  Dublin  histories,  it  is  attempted 
here,  so  that  we  may  thus  compare  the  city  at  the  time  of 
the  Union  with  the  Dublin  of  the  Restoration,  as  sketched 
above  in  Chapter  I. 

We  begin  with  the  noble  library  of  Trinity  College,  which, 
though  commenced  when  Anne  was  Queen,  was  only 
completed  in  1732.  This  changed  the  whole  aspect  of  the 
quarter  ;     facing   Nassau   Street,   still   called   by   Brooking 


St.  Patrick's  Well  Lane,  where  all  to  the  west  of  unfinished 
Dawson  vStreet  were  still  the  Minchen  Fields ;  it  may  be  styled 
the  Renaissance  in  Dublin,  for  few  Renaissance  works 
surpass  it  anywhere.  Its  forgotten  designer  was  found  by 
Dr.  Stubbs  to  be  Mr.  De  Burgh,  of  Old  Court,  Kildare.i  It 
gave  the  keynote  to  all  that  followed.  Next  comes  the 
Parliament  Palaces  ;  begun  in  1729,  when  Lord  Carteret 
probably  laid  the  fiist  stone,  it  received  the  Houses  in  173 1, 
but  was  only  completed  eight  years  after,  still,  leaving  both 
the  wings  for  another  generation.  The  original  conception 
has  been  credited  by  many  as  due  to  Cassels,  but  the 
practical  architects  were,  undubitably.  first  Sir  E.  Lovett 
Pearce,  and  then  Arthur  Dobbs.  This  great  work, 
of  course,  revolutionized  old  College  Green.  Then, 
in  1741,  rose  Tyrone  House,  the  mansion  ol  the 
Beresfords,  built  for  the  first  Earl  of  Tyrone  on  the 
space  behind  Marlborough  Street,  then  known  as  Marl- 
borough Green,  where  the  eastward  city  had  ended,  save  for 
a  group  of  houses  on  the  strand  at  ^Mabbot's  Corner.  This 
led  to  the  making  of  streets  adjacent.  Tyrone,  Mecklen- 
burgh,  Cumberland  Streets  were  built  in  the  great  era  of 
George  II.,  though  modern  decadence  has  fallen  on  these, 
scarce  arrested  by  the  conversion  of  the  mansion  into  the 
Schools  of  the  Commissioners  of  National  Education.  Tlie 
designer  was  probably  Cassels,  for  he  was  the  architect  of 
Leinster  House,  which  was  finished  in  1745  for  James,  the 
twentieth  Eail  of  Kildare,  just  then  created  Viscount 
Leinster  in  England,  and  some  years  after  Duke,  and 
Marquess  of  Kildare.  In  the  same  year,  1745,  Trinity 
College,  whose  library  had  probably  led  to  the  selection  of 
the  site  of  Leinster  House,  erected  the  present  Dining  Hall  ; 
whilst  round  Leinster  House  began  to  rise  Leinster  Street, 
Kildare  Street,  Molesworth  Street,  though  Merrion  Square 
behind  was  still  open  and  swampy.  These  extensions  gave 
an  impulse  to  building  round  St.  Stephen's  Green,  where  few 
good  houses  had  hitherto  existed.  Van  Nost's  statue  of 
George  II.  was  erected  in  the  centre  in  1759.     In  the  north, 

^Stubbs,  Trinity  College,  p.  176. 


Dublin  ended  at  Great  Britani  Street  in  the  middle  of  the 
century,  but,  in  1751,  Dr.  Bartholomew  Mosse  obtained  for 
the  Corporation  the  site  of  his  Lying-in  Hospital,  which  he 
transferred  from  South  George's  Street,  and  this  induced 
very  striking  sequels.  It  was  finished,  with  its  beautiful 
Rotunda,  in  1757.  Cassels  was  the  architect.  Behind  lay 
the  gardens,  and  beyond  open  fields  to  Phibsborough  village, 
with  the  Barley  fields,  on  the  space  now  filled  by  Frederick 
Street,  Hardwicke  Street,  and  Gardiner's  Row.  The  new 
gardens,  as  they  were  called,  were  enclosed  by  stone  walls, 
and  it  was  only  in  1784,  when  the  Duke  of  Rutland  visited  the 
Hospital,  that  these  were  taken  down  and  replaced  by 
railings  and  the  place  named  Rutland  Square,  with  Granby 
Row  to  the  west  in  honour  of  the  Lord  Lieutenant.  But 
the  Hospital  fronted  to  Drogheda  Street,  running  then  as 
far  as  the  Abbey  Streets,  where  it  was  stopped  by  the  back 
houses  of  the  Bachelor's  Walk,  which  then  extended  far  down 
the  present  Eden  Quay.  But  when  Lionel,  Duke  of  Dorsetr 
was  secondly  Lord  Lieutenant,  1750-1753,  the  northern  end 
facing  the  Rotunda,  as  far  as  Henry  and  Earl  Streets,  known 
as  the  j\Iall,  was  widened  out  and  planted  at  the  sides,  and 
was  now  named  Sackville  Street  in  honour  of  the  Viceroy,  as 
the  road  from  Bolton  Street  northward  was  named  Dorset 
Street  ;  the  residue  from  the  site  of  Nelson's  Pillar  to  Abbey 
Street  was  still  Drogheda  Street.  All  this  led  to  the  forming 
of  St.  Thomas'  Parish,  including  the  new  district  of  Tyrone 
House  and  St.  Thomas'  Church,  with  its  handsome  Greek 
front  by  Ivory  in  the  centre. 

Next  year,  1759,  Trinity  College,  inspired  no  doubt  by  the 
grand  vicinity  of  the  Houses  of  Parliament,  erected  the 
present  fine  front  facing  College  Green,  and  at  the  same  time 
the  Provost's  House  close  by.  The  designer  of  this  was  the 
Earl  of  Burlington  and  Ross,  who  adapted  it  from  the 
mansion  in  Piccadilly,  then  built  for  General  Wade.  It  is  in 
all  respects  worthy  of  its  position  as  the  home  of  the 
Presidents  of  the  University,  who  in  brilliant  succession  have 
owned  it,  having  as  a  private  residence  few  ri\'als  anywhere. 

But  a  new  and  potent  impulse  to  the  development  was  given 


by  the  Wide  Streets  Commissioners,  whose  functions  under 
repeated  statutes  continued  well  into  the  nineteenth  century. 
Their  first  Act  was  passed  in  1757  to  improve  the  connection 
of  north  and  south  by  a  straight  street  from  Essex  Bridge  to 
the  Castle.  For,  at  foot  of  Cork  Hill,  on  the  site  of  Old  Dame 
Gate,  two  carriages  could  not  drive  abreast.  In  widening 
Dame  Street  here,  the  Commissioners,  unfortunatel}^  were 
content  to  give  it  the  breadth  as  it  now  appears  from  Cork 
Hill  to  the  Lower  Castle  Yard.  They  found  their  mistake 
when,  in  1780,  they  were  empowered  to  enlarge  Dame  Street 
from  thence  to  College  Green.  Essex  Bridge  had  been 
rebuilt  at  a  great  cost  in  1753,  but  at  the  southern  end  a 
narrow  causeway  only  reached  to  Essex  Street,  and  the 
entrances  to  the  old  Custom  House  there,  meeting 
a  network  of  ancient  lanes  and  houses  by  Isoult 
Tower,  blocking  the  access  to  Cork  Hill.  The  titles 
and  tenures  of  these  were  ancient  and  complex, 
and  it  was  not  till  1769  that  Parliament  Street  was  fully 
opened.  This  at  once  led  on  to  the  conception  of  the  Royal 
Exchange,  promoted  by  the  merchants  to  thwart  the 
exactions  of  unfair  tonnage  tolls  imposed  on  the  up-river 
craft.  Thomas  Cooley  was  the  architect  of  this  splendid 
building,  now  the  City  Hall,  but  the  city,  as  already 
mentioned,  owes  it  to  Charles  Lucas,  who  forced  it  through 
Parliament  when  he  was  city  member,  obtaining  a  grant  of 
£13,000  ;  and  his  fine  statue  by  Edward  Smyth  is  still 
justly  a  chief  ornament  in  the  great  central  hall,  standing 
not  far  from  that  of  his  friend  George  HI.  by  Van  Nost. 
The  first  stone  of  the  Exchange  was  laid  by  Lord 
Townshend,  when  Lord  Lieutenant,  in  1769  ;  it 
was  finished  in  1779,  and  it  ought  to  stand  for 
ever,  for  it  is  founded  upon  the  rock  which  stretches  thence 
and  under  the  Liffe}^  long  known  as  Stand  Fast  Dick.  And 
now  Parliament  Street  and  the  Exchange  at  the  one  end, 
with  the  Parliament  Houses  and  the  new  College  front  at 
the  other,  necessitated  the  widening  throughout  of  Dame 

-  .4  ;;/£■  Chapter  IX. 


This  was  commenced  in  1780,  and  went  on  for  nearly 
twenty  years.  The  Rotunda  Gardens  were  now  being  girdled 
with  costly  mansions.  In  the  sixties  Lord  Charlemont 
erected  that  fiom  which  the  north  side  of  the  squaie  was 
called  Palace  Row.  He  was  himself  a  great  connoisseur,  and 
is  said  to  have  designed  this  mansion  himself  ;  but  we  know 
about  the  same  time  he  was  engaged  in  beautifying  his 
country  house  at  Clontarf.  For  the  Casino  in  the  grounds 
his  architect  was  the  famous  Sir  Richard  Chambers,  the 
designer  of  Somerset  House  on  the  Thames,  who  had  been 
his  intimate  friend  and  correspondent  for  many  years,^ 
consulting  him  on  all  his  elaborate  ornamentations,  and  to 
whom  we  may  attribute  much  at  least  of  Charlemont  House. 
No  expense  was  spared  upon  it,  and  it  was  marked  first 
amongst  the  noble  houses  of  the  city.  Nearly  at  the  same 
time  Powerscourt  House  was  built,  1771-74,  for  Richard 
Wingiield,  third  Viscount  Powerscourt  ;  its  architect  was 
Robert  Mack,  and  it  was  once  accounted  third  in  beauty  of 
these  homes.  For  many  late  years  it  has  been  occupied  by 
the  mercantile  house  of  Messrs.  Ferrier  and  Pollock. 

Next  comes  the  Hibernian  Marine  School,  far  to  the  south- 
east, at  the  further  end  of  Sir  John  Rogerson's  Quay,  which 
was  opened  in  1773,  under  very  high  auspices,  for 
the  training  of  the  children  of  seamen  of  the  navy 
and  the  merchant  service.  It  had  large  grants 
from  Parliament,  the  edifice  costing  /6,6oo,  and 
was  a  formidable  rival  to  the  Blue  Coat  Hospital, 
as  the  navigation  school  there  gave  one  of  its  chief  claims  to 
the  favour  of  the  mercantile  classes.  Our  Thomas  Ivory  was 
architect.  But  it  was  built  far  to  the  east  to  connect  it  with 
the  deep  seaport  then  still  at  Ringsend,  and  thus  could  not 
take  class  as  a  city  ornament.  It  has  long  been  occupied  by 
the  timber  stores  of  Sir  Richard  Martin  &  Company. 

Immediately  after  Ivory  was  engaged  upon  our  new  Blue 
Coat  Hospital,  which  took  ten  years  to  complete,  1773-83, 
as  detailed  above  in  Chapter  X. 

In    1777   Trinity   College   began   their  great   Theatre   or 

•'  See  C/iarlemont  Papers,  Historical  Manuscripts. 

236       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Examination  Hall  between  the  library  and  their  west 
quadrangle,  known  as  Parliament  Square.  It  was  built  by 
a  Mr.  Meyers,  who  Dr.  Stubbs  probably  thought  was  the 
designer,  for  he  does  not  name  the  architect  ;  but.  in  1779, 
Sir  Richard  Chambers ■* writes  Lord  Charlemont  that,  two 
years  before,  he  was  requested  to  make  designs  for  con- 
siderable additions  to  the  buildings  in  Trinity  College,  but 
that  the  vast  work  with  which  he  was  engaged  on  Somerset 
House,  which,  he  says,  was  then  on  the  anvil,  prevented  his 
coming  over  to  Ireland  to  complete  them  ;  and  he  was  thus 
only  able  to  give  a  general  disposition  of  what  he  intended, 
from  which,  however,  he  adds,  "  the  buildings  are  now  being 
executed,"  and  he  may  therefore  claim  the  chief  share  of  any 
merit  there  may  be  in  the  general  mtention.  There  is  very 
high  merit  in  the  general  design,  and  Sir  Richard's  claim 
should  be  the  more  gratefully  recognised  because  the  facade 
of  the  College  chapel,  erected  some  years  after  at  the  opposite 
side  of  the  quadrangle,  is  a  replica  of  the  theatre  front. 
Leinster  House  naturally  led  to  the  enclosure  of  Merrion 
Square.  The  fine  mansions  around  were  begun  in  1780  by 
our  benefactor  William  Robert,  the  second  Duke,  and 
occupied  some  twenty-two  years  in  building.  The  need  for 
these,  both  here  and  in  Rutland  Square  and  St.  Stephen's 
Green,  was  vastly  enhanced  by  the  reconstitution  of 
Parliament  in  1782,  and  artists  from  England  and  the 
Continent  came  to  co-operate  with  our  native  talent,  which 
was  then  rich.  The  graceful  work  of  Angelica  Kaufman  and 
of  several  Italians  is  still  beautiful  on  the  ceilings  and  walls 
of  many  of  the  houses  of  our  gentry,  and  even  of  some  that 
have  since  degenerated  into  tenements,  as  in  Henrietta 
Street.  Meanwhile  Essex  Bridge  had  remained,  as  it  had 
been  for  more  than  a  hundred  years,  the  only  link  between 
north  and  south  to  seaward.  But  the  spread  of  the  city 
on  both  sides  eastward  now  made  a  new  connexion  inevitable. 
The  restoration  of  Essex  Bridge  in  1752  was  followed  by 
projects  in  Parliament  in  that  and  the  next  year  for  a  new 
bridge  and  a  new  Custom  House.    Thereupon  the  old  conflict 

"■  Charlemont  Papers,  Historical  Manuscripts,  p.  349,  20th  May,  1779. 


with  vested  interests,  the  foes  of  reform,  which  had  raged 
round  Essex  Bridge  itself  in  1676,  was  now  renewed  ;  the 
city  was  in  arms  ;  both  Houses  in  the  City  Assembly  called 
on  Parliament  to  reject  the  proposal  as  disastrous.  We  ma}' 
smile  at  this  opposition  now  ;  but,  when  we  remember  the 
vast  interests  of  mercantile  and  even  of  working  men  that 
had  gathered  round  the  old  Custom  House,  and  see  m  the  old 
pictures  the  vessels  that  thronged  the  river  up  to  the  bridge, 
and  recall  how  even  the  new  expansions  had  increased  the 
value  of  the  old  Ferry  franchises,  we  can  see  how  revo- 
lutionary the  project  was,  and  feel  no  surprise  that  the  bills 
then  fell  through. 

But  in  1760  Aston's  Quay  was  restored.  The  city  lease 
of  the  Restoration  times  to  Lord  Anglesea.  of  the  slobs  then 
fronting  Fleet  Street,  had  been  assigned  to  Major  Henrj^ 
Aston  generations  before  ;  he  had  reclaimed  them,  and 
formed  a  rough  quay  with  poor  buildings  behind  that  had 
fallen  to  ruin,  and  the  city  this  year  renewed  the  grant  to  his 
grandson  on  the  terms  of  his  rebuilding  and  restoring  the 
quay.  Encouraged  by  this,  the  project  for  the  new  bridge 
close  by  came  again  before  Parliament,  but,  vehemently 
opposed  by  the  city,  was  again  thrown  out.  The  need, 
notwithstanding,  grew  yeaily  more  imperative  ;  docks  had 
been  constructed  far  down  the  river  by  the  Harbour  Board, 
the  space  at  the  old  Custom  House  was  now  quite  inadequate, 
and  at  last,  in  1780,  the  first  stone  of  the  nev/  Custom  House, 
which  is  the  glor}'  of  Dublin,  was  laid.  This  masterpiece  of 
James  Gandon's  took  many  years  to  complete,  but  the 
foundation  ston  e  had  sealed  the  fate  of  opposition  to  the  bridge ; 
for,  though  this  was  only  linished  in  1794,  it  then  took  the 
name  of  the  Earl  of  Carlisle,  Lord  Lieutenant  1780-82.  It 
was  to  change  our  centre  of  gravity  for  ever. 

The  very  prospect  of  it  imparted  new  impetus.  In  179 1 
£100,000  was  assigned  by  statute  to  the  Wide  Street 
Commissioners.  A  fourth  of  this  was  devoted  towards 
forming  the  pride  of  our  causeways  by  erasing  the  east  of 
Bachelor's  Walk  and  Drogheda  Street  to  Henry  Street,  so 
that  Sackville  Street  should  open  as  now  from  the  river  to  the 


Rotunda  ;  £25,000  was  allocated  to  connect  this  line  by 
Cavendish  Row  with  the  Great  Northern  Road,  which  the 
Act  recites  had  been  then  completed  by  broadening  Dorset 
vStreet  towards  Drumcondra.  Then  Frederick  Street  was 
cut  through  the  Barley  Fields,  purchased  for  the  purpose 
fiom  Lord  Mountjoy,  whose  estate  thus  began  to  form  an 
important  part  of  the  city— Gardiner's  Row  leading  to  the 
line  of  the  Gardiner  Streets  ;  and  so  a  new  parish  became 
essential.  In  1796  St.  George's  Parish  was  created  by 
statute,  within  limits  which  even  then  comprised  parts  of  the 
ancient  St.  Michan's,  which  had  reached  from  the  Park  to 
the  sea.  Lord  Mountjoy  gave  the  site  for  the  church  and 
church\^ard,  which  originally  occupied  the  slope  over  Great 
Britain  Street,  but  Mountjoy  Square,  designed  just  as  the 
new  century  began,  when  finished,  with  its  offshoot  streets, 
compelled  the  transfer  of  the  parish  church  to  its  present 
site  in  Temple  Street.  With  the  balance  of  the  £100,000, 
under  the  Act  of  1791,  the  Commissioners  are  directed  to 
complete  Dame  Street.  The  xAct  recites  that  the  Com- 
missioners had  already  taken  down  and  rebuilt  the  southern 
side  of  new  Dame  Street,  from  the  Lower  Castle  Yard  to 
Trinity  Street,  and  that  they  were  then  about  to  take  down 
and  rebuild  the  north  side  from  Anglesea  to  Eustace  Streets  ; 
and  then  provides  that  all  future  houses  from  Trinity  Street 
to  Church  Lane,  and  from  Eustace  to  Parliament  Streets, 
sliall  be  built  by  their  owners  to  range  in  uniformi  style  with 
the  rest,  to  form  a  grand  passage  fiom  His  Majesty's  Castle 
to  the  Parliament  House  and  College  Green.  To  connect 
these  with  the  new  bridge  was  now  essential,  and  Westmore- 
land Street,  so  called  from  the  Viceroy  of  1790-95,  was  now 
laid  out.  The  beautiful  eastern  wing  of  the  Parliament 
House  had  lately  been  completed  by  Gandon;  and,  before  the 
centurv  ended,  the  continuous  line  was  now  compleie,  south 
to  north,  from  St.  Stephen's  Green  to  the  Great  Northern 

In  all  this  while  the  Law  Courts  in  Christ  Church  Place  had 
become  wholly  inadequate,  both  in  site  and  size,  but  their 
replacement  needed  many  years,  and  it  was  only  in  1796  tbe 


new  Courts  were  opened  on  Inns  Quay.  The  original 
splendid  design  was  by  Cooley,  who,  beginning  so  far  back 
as  1776,  only  lived  to  complete  the  western  wing,  and  the 
great  work  passed  into  the  hands  of  James  Gandon.  The 
new  Recorder's  Court,  transferred  from  the  Tholsel,  was 
opened  in  1797. 

So  stood  the  evolution  of  our  capital  at  the  time  of  the 
Union.  It  had  to  force  its  way  not  only  through  financial 
difficulties  and  structural  obstructions,  but  in  the  face  of 
keen  oppositions  at  many  stages.''  Even  Parliament  Street 
was  fiercely  resented  ;  and,  when  the  Commissioners,  having 
purchased  the  houses,  proceeded  to  remove  them,  the 
inhabitants  refused  to  stir,  and  were  only  expelled  when  in 
a  single  night  the  roofs  were  removed,  and  the  terrified 
inmates  rushed  elsewhere.  But  Dublin  had  now  won  a  place 
amongst  the  beautiful  cities  of  Europe,  though 

Tantae  molis  erat  Dublinam  condere  gentcm. 

6  Whitelaw's  Vol.  II.,  p.   1078. 



TEMP.   GEORGE  III.    1 800.1820. 

It  might  have  been  hoped  that  the  Act  of  Union  would  have 
restored  to  the  Blue  Coat  its  relative  status  in  the  city  at 
least,  and  attracted  to  the  Board,  as  of  old,  many  of  the  best 
men  in  the  country,  but  this  was  not  so,  for  a  time  at  least. 

When  the  new  century  opened  the  number  in  the  school 
was  no,  but  now,  once  more  our  story  reflected  the  current 
of  public  events,  and  darkened  for  a  while.  For  the  Corpora- 
tion, alarmed  at  the  loss  to  the  city  sure  to  follow  the  cessation 
of  Parliament,  and  the  flight  of  notables  to  London,  began 
to  shrink  from  maintaining  their  usual  subsidies  to  the  City 
School.  In  sending  at  the  end  of  1801  the  Toll  Corn  annuity 
of  £2^0,  regularly  paid  for  eighty  years,  they  voted  it 
expressly  for  a  single  year  only,  and,  with  deep  regret,  the 
Governors  resolved  to  limit  the  number  to  100.  Richard 
Manders,  grandsire  of  the  family  so  long  afterwards  esteemed 
members  of  Dublin  society,  was  then  our  Chairman  and 
Lord  Ma3^or ;  with  him  sat  the  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  Lord 
Somerton,  he  was  the  Hon.  Charles  Agar,  grandson  of  our 
old  friend,  Welbore  Ellis,  Bishop  of  Meath,  whose  daughter 
had  married  the  first  Lord  Clifden  ;  he  was  raised,  in  1806, 
to  the  Earldom  of  Normanton,  and  is  another  of  our  many 
governors  who  have  recruited  the  House  of  Lords.  Manders 
did  his  best  to  stem  the  decline.  In  1802  an  appeal  to  the 
Board  of  Erasmus  Smuth  was  met  by  a  gift  of  £1,000,  and 
the  Right  Hon.  David  Latouche,  ancestor  of  the  families  of 
Marlay  and  Belleview,  joined  our  Board.  A  strong 
Committee  was  directed  to  collect  subscriptions,  and  two 
proposals  were  made  to  elect  the  city  members  ex-officio 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1800-1820  241 

gov'ernors,  and  that  all  future  governors  should  pay  £300 
on  his  appointment  ;  both  projects  proved  abortive,  for  the 
members  were  off  to  London,  and  the  number  of  those  able 
and  willing  to  pay  so  much  for  such  an  honour,  were 
shrivelling  too. 

Next  year,  when  Jacob  Poole  was  Loid  Mayor  and 
Chairman,  the  Corporation  were  again  petitioned  to  require 
all  High  Sheriffs  on  appointment  to  contribute  a  fixed  fine 
m  support  of  the  School,  and  though  this  was  favourably 
answered,  it  brought  no  immediate  revenue.  So,  again,  in 
1805,  the  governors  felt  bound  to  reduce  the  number  to  100 
boys  as  vacancies  arose,  but  they  forwarded  at  the  same 
time  a  petition  to  the  Imperial  Parliament,  urging  "  the 
great  advantage  that  must  result  to  the  State  from  educating 
a  number  of  youths  in  the  pure  and  loyal  principles  of  the 
Protestant  religion,  thereby  attaching  them,  by  every 
prmciple  of  gratitude,  to  the  city  and  to  the  Government." 
This  they  sent  to  the  Right  Hon.  John  Foster,  "  that  friend 
of  the  city,  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,"  asking  his 
advice  as  to  the  best  manner  of  presenting  the  petition. 
Foster  replies  in  his  courteous  style  from  London  in  June, 
most  willing  to  help,  but  advising  that  the  session  is  now 
too  far  advanced  for  money  applications,  and  that  the 
recommendation  of  the  Lord  Lieutenant  would  be  essential. 
We  now  know  how  the  then  Lord  Lieutenant,  Lord  Hardwick, 
was  bowed  down  by  the  draughts,  many  blameless,  some 
baseless,  some  base,  made  on  the  Government  in  connection 
with  the  passing  of  the  Act  of  Union,  and  how  little  hope 
there  was  of  his  recommending  money  for  a  simple  charity. 
We  had  this  year  on  our  Board  the  Archbishop  of  Cashel, 
the  Hon.  Charles  Brodrick,  a  great  grandson  of  our  friend, 
Queen  Anne's  Chancellor,  first  Lord  Middleton,  and  direct 
ancestor  of  the  late  distinguished  Secretary  for  Wai.  The 
Archbishop  was  an  active  governor,  and  proved  very  useful 
shortly  after,  when  our  estate  of  Nodstown,  which  was  in  the 
vicinity  of  his  palace  at  Cashel,  became  a  subject  of  anxious 

A  short  entry  in  1805  gives  another  slight  echo  of  the 


242       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

histor}'  of  the  time  ;  it  is  that  of  the  admission  of  Charles 
Vaughan,  son  of  Charles,  "  elected  by  the  Board  at  large 
in  consideration  of  his  father  having  been  murdered  in  the 
rebellion  (Robert  Emmet's  in  1803),  and  the  inability  of  his 
mother  to  support  him." 

In  1807  three  events  happened  of  moment  to  us  : — 
(i).  The  Napoleon  wars,  now  at  their  height,  had  immensely 
stimulated  the  growing  of  home  wheat,  and  the  value  of  land 
went  up  by  bounds.  Our  Tipperary  estate  of  Nodstown 
had  been  let  in  1785,  at  a  rent  of  iS'^Jy  foi"  a-  term  of  twenty- 
one  years  now  expiring",  and  the  advertisements  of  the 
governors  for  new  lettings  were  met  by  no  less  than  fifteen 
tenders,  offering  from  £2  to  £2  los.  per  acre.  New  surveys 
were  ordered,  which  disclosed  that  many  acres  had  been 
filched  by  encroachments,  but  more  than  600  good  arable 
acres  remained ;  and,  in  1810,  a  new  lease  was  executed  to 
Francis  O'Kearney  at  £1,459  a  year,  or  a  net  increase  of 
£930  on  the  old  rental.  This  should  have  set  us  up,  so  long,  at 
least,  as  war  rents  lasted ;  but,  on  hearing  of  the  tenders,  the 
City  Assembly,  by  a  majority,  resolved  to  withdraw  their 
casual  contributions :  the  Toll  Corn  annuity  of  £250,  the 
sheriffs'  and  other  fines,  averaging  in  all  more  than  £800  a 
year,  and  thus  almost  to  neutralize  the  Nodstown 
increment.  (2j.  But  at  this  time  the  Educational 
Commission,  under  the  Act  of  1806,  was  sitting 
in  Dublin  ;  they  had  extensive  powers,  not  only 
of  enquir}^,  but  of  making  recommendations  to  the 
Lord  Lieutenant.  Their  report  on  our  Hospital,  already 
mentioned,  contains  a  very  able  and  exhaustive  survey  of 
its  history  for  the  twelve  years  to  the  end  of  1808.  The 
commissioners  highly  commend  the  School  and  its  public 
utility;  they  find  the  average  income  in  the  twelve  years 
to  have  been  upwards  of  £3,000  yearly,  and  suggest  that  the 
withdrawal  of  the  Corporation  grants  must  seriously  affect 
the  number  of  pupils  maintained,  even  in  view  of  the 
prospective  increment  from  Nodstown,  the  number  then 
having,  as  presently  explained,  again  risen  to  130.  They 
acknowledge  the  artistic  beaut}^  of  the  building,  but  deplore 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  180C-1820  243 

the  ambition  of  the  plans,  by  which,  after  an  expenditure 
of  /2i,ooo,  the  Hospital  was  not  only  left  incomplete,  but 
with  a  debt  of  £4,000,  loading  the  revenue  with  iTy^o  a  year, 
which  they  strongly  recommend  should  be  paid  off  with  all 
speed,  as  the  dormitories,  though  designed  for  300  boys,  now 
scarce  sufficed  for  120.  The  report  has  minute  tables  of  the 
sources  of  revenue,  and  of  the  dietary  then  in  use.  This  to 
us  very  serviceable  report  is  signed  by  six  commissioners, 
the  Primate,  Dr.  William  Newcomen,  Provost  Hall,  of 
Dublin  University,  Dean  Verschoyle  of  St.  Patrick's,  Rev. 
James  Whitelaw,  the  very  worthy  historian  of  Dublin, 
William  Disney,  and  Richard  Lovell  Edgeworth,  the  eminent 
father  of  a  more  eminent  daughter.  He  was  a  great  practical 
educationist,  and  one  of  the  most  accomplished  Irish 
gentlemen  of  his  time. 

In  commenting  on  the  Beasley  case,  the  Commissioners 
commend  the  governors  for  consolidating  again  the  offices 
of  steward  and  registrar,  on  Beasley's  resignation,  in  Mr. 
Robert  Hart.  Whitelaw,  in  his  History  of  Dublin,^  says  of 
Hart :  "  that  from  the  period  of  Mr.  Beasley's  superannuation 
to  his  death,  he  had  performed  the  important  duties  of 
steward  gratuitously,  and  with  that  integrity,  ability,  and 
solicitude  for  the  interest  of  the  institution  with  which  he 
has  uniformly  discharged  every  trust  reposed  in  him  by  the 
governors,"  and  he  congratulates  him  "  on  the  increase  of 
his  salary,  on  the  union  of  offices,  to  ;£250."  This  eulogy  was 
well  deserved  at  the  time,  and  for  some  years  after.  Yet,  it 
was,  perhaps,  unfortunate,  as  it  may  have  induced  the 
governors  to  leave  Mr.  Hart,  as  they  did,  an  almost  uncon- 
trolled management  of  all  the  business  affairs  of  the  Hospital, 
and  now  offers  a  painful  contrast  to  the  serious  reflections 
upon  that  management  in  later  years,  made  in  the  reports 
of  the  Education  Commissioners  of  1858. 

Whitelaw  attributes  the  abuses,  which  had  been  permitted, 
to  what  he  calls  the  never  failing  consequences  of  govern- 
ment by  great  numbers  of  unaccountable  governors.  There 
were  then  seventy-iive  governors  in  all,  and,  no  doubt,  there 

'  Vol.  I..  575- 


IS  a  tendenc}^  when  a  Board  is  large,  to  leave  to  officials  routine 
administration,  on  which,  however,  results  chiefly  depend, 
and    themselves    to    attend    only  in   full  array  when  an 
appointment  is  to  be  made.      This,  our  annals  prove,  thev 
alwa^'s  did  ;  the  system  leads  to  canvassing,  and  the  choice 
of  officials  by  favour.       All  through  we    find  a    not  very 
edifying   relationship    of    the     person     selected,     to     some 
influential  member  of  the  Board,  not  always  those  most 
zealous  for  the  welfare  of  the  institutions.    But  on  the  whole 
Whitelaw's  judgment  on  our  governors  is  favourable.     The 
interior  economy,  he  says,  is  excellent  ;  the  officers  discharge 
their  duties  from  the  purest  motives,  and  the  general  conduct 
of  the  boys  is  good,  and  he  concludes  with  the  anxious  wish 
that  funds  should  be  found,  not  only  to  restore  the  former 
numbers,  but  to  enlarge  them  so  far  as  the  plan    of    the 
buildings  will  admiit.      (3).  And  in  1807  the  Board  had  an 
accession,  the  most  effective  and   beneficent  since   that   of 
y\rchbishop  King.    Lord  Chief  Justice  Downes  had  succeeded 
to  the  King's  Bench,  on  tlie  murder,  in  Thomas  Street,  of 
Lord  Kilwarden  in  Emmiet's  rebellion.      He  was  now,  like 
Dr.    King,    treasurer   of   the    Erasmus    Smith    Board,    and 
followed  his  steps  in  the  wise  policy  of  making  the  cognate 
charities  work  in  unison.     In  February,  1807,  he  personally 
informed  our  governors  that,  as  treasurer  of  the  Erasmus 
Smith  Board,  he  was  entitled,  as  a  personal  perquisite,  to  a 
poundage  of  one  fortieth  on  its  revenues,  which  he  now 
contemplated  applying  to  the  support  of  such  additional 
pupils  in  the  Hospital  as    this    would  meet,  these  to  be 
nominated  as  the  Erasmus   Smith   Board  should  appoint. 
The  governors  thereon  sent  a  Committee  to  wait  on  the 
Chief  Justice,  gratefully  accepting  his  public-spirited  proposal, 
and  adding  the  single  condition  that  the  boys  on  this  new 
foundation  should  be  ''the  offspring  of  Protestants." 

In  April  the  Chief  Justice  sent  a  final  resolution  to  the 
effect  that  his  poundage  fees  would  then  support  seven  new 
boys,  and  afford  a  reserve  for  their  apprenticeships,  in 
addition  to  the  twent}^  already  on  the  Erasmus  Smith 
foundation,  under  Archbishop  King's  statute  of  George  I., 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1800-1820  245 

and  he  further  proposed  to  add  ten  new  boys  on  that 
foundation,  making  thirty-seven  in  all,  the  sons  of  Protestants, 
all  to  be  maintained  in  like  manner  as  the  rest  of  the  pupils. 
They  stipulated  only  that  all  the  new  nominations  should 
be  made  by  the  treasurer  for  the  time  being  "  until  further 
order,"  and  that  all  their  own  future  treasurers  should  be 
chosen,  subject  to  this  application  of  the  poundage  fees, 
this  order  to  be  read  at  all  future  elections  to  that  office. 
This  treaty,  of  course,  was  gratefully  ratified,  and  seventeen 
boys  were  forthwith  added  to  our  rolls. 

Thus  encouraged,  the  governors  suspended  the  order  to 
reduce,  wliich  had  not  yet  taken  effect,  and  so  the  number 
stood,  m  1808,  at  130.  Under  these  influences  the  Corpora- 
tion suspended  their  withdrawal  of  the  casual  grants,  and 
made  130  the  nominal  limit. 

But  the  Chief  Justice  did  not  stop  here.  In  the  end  of 
1808  he  told  our  governors  that  on  personally  visiting  the 
Hospital  he  saw  many  things  in  many  places  wliich  needed 
amendment,  and  obtained  a  Committee  of  Inspection,  he 
himself  being  first  on  the  list,  the  Lord  Mayor,  Frederick 
Darley,  being  chairman.  Their  visits  revealed  the  many 
bald  defects,  for  the  building,  as  we  know,  had  never  been 
finished,  and  premature  decay  had  already  set  in.  The 
pillarr,  half  erected,  meant  to  sustain  Ivory's  great  steeple 
or  cupola,  stood  gaunt  against  the  sky  as  if  they  had  been 
shattered  in  a  hurricane.  Many  of  the  necessary  rere  offices 
had  never  been  even  begun,  and  most  of  them  were 
incomplete,  so  the  whole  matter  was  committed  tor  report 
to  Mr.  Francis  Johnston,  the  architect  of  the  Board  of 
Works,  and  the  most  eminent  Irish  Architect  of  his  day. 
His  duty  was  prolonged,  for  he  was  to  estimate  the  cost  of 
everything  necessary  to  put  the  whole  building  and  offices 
in  thorough  repair,  "  and  fit  and  commodious  for  the 
purposes  for  which  they  were  designed,"  and  it  was  not  till 
March,  1810,  that  the  Chief  Justice  was  enabled  to  lay 
before  the  governors  the  resolution  of  his  own  Board,  based 
on  Mr.  Johnston's  estimates.  It  was  found  that  the 
completion  of  the  cupola  would  alone  cost  £4,000,  and  that 


other  subjects  of  the  original  plans,  now  recommended  by 
Johnston,  were  beyond  any  presently  procurable  means, 
but  that  the  actually  necessary  works  could  be  effected  for 
about  £3, 000.  These  comprised  the  reparation  of  the  chapel, 
the  adaptation  of  the  chaplain's  room  into  a  dormitory  for 
forty  bo3^s,  a  laundry,  and  sanitary  arrangements  not 
usually  thought  of  so  early  in  the  century,  for  these  included 
a  great  arched  sewer  to  the  Liffey,  and  ventilation  in  all  the 
dormitory  windows,  the  enclosure  of  the  Hospital  front 
within  railings  as  they  now  exist,  and  the  taking  down  of  the 
cupola  shafts,  and  removal  of  the  turrets  on  the  wings,  which 
Johnston  reported  even  then  were  tottering.  This  £3,000 
the  Chief  Justice,  as  treasurer,  now  offered  on  behalf  of  his 
Board,  on  the  sole  condition  that  it  should  be  spent  by  a 
Committee  of  our  governors,  and  confined  to  the  above 
utilitarian  objects.  This  committee  he  nominated  himself. 
There  were  the  Lord  'Ma.yoT,ex-officio,the  Lord  Chief  Justice, 
the  Dean  of  St.  Patrick's,  Dr.  Verschoyle,  Dr.  Hall,  Provost 
of  Trinity  College,  Right  Hon.  Sackville  Hamilton,  Mr. 
Walker,  the  Recorder,  and  the  Hon.  John  Pomeroy.  This 
most  handsome  offer  was  accepted  by  our  governors  with 
effusive  gratitude,  and  ratified  in  the  Spring  of  1810,  Sir 
Wm.  Stamer,  Bart.,  being  then  Lord  Mayor  and  Chairman. 
All  these  improvements  were  carried  out,  save  that  the  poor 
cupola,  ruled  out  of  court  as  non-essential,  was  not  taken 
down,  nor  were  the  turrets ;  their  completion  had  been 
anxiously  considered  in  three  successive  years  since  the 
beginning  of  the  century,  but  always  deferred  for  want  of 
means,  and  even  now  the  hope  survived  that  some  benefactor 
might  still  arise ;  and  so  the  stark  shafts  were  left  to  stand 
up  against  the  the  sky  in  Palmyrean  desolation,  chronic 
ruins,  which,  though  pronounced  by  Johnston  to  be  even 
then  in  danger  of  falling,  lived  through  the  storms  of  1839 
and  1903,  till  replaced  by  the  new  cupola  inaugurated  by 
Lord  Dudley  in  June,  1904.  But  though  Ivory's  great  steeple 
never  pierced  the  sky,  it  has  affected  architectural  Dublin, 
for  when  Francis  Johnston,  a  few  j^ears  after,  was  building  St. 
George's  church,  he  modelled  his  handsome  spire  on  this  ideal. 

TEMP.  GEORGE  ITL,  1800-1820  247 

In  the  two  following  years  the  energ}'  of  the  Chief  Justice 
was  felt  everywhere.  The  Beasleys,  husband  and  wife,  were 
dispossessed  and  pensioned  off,  and  Mr.  Dalton,  the  second 
schoolmaster,  given  their  rooms,  with  a  large  increase  of 
his  salary,  to  £200  a  year,  in  view  of  the  increased  number 
of  the  boys,  but  on  the  terms  of  the  entire  devotion  of  his 
time,  and  of  his  giving  up  private  tuitions.  Mr.  Hart  had 
justice  done  him  in  regard  of  his  having  discharged  Beasley's 
duties  gratis  for  several  years,  and  of  his  now  permanently 
taking  the  double  duty.  All  the  rooms  were  overhauled,  a 
drying  yard  added  behind  the  infirmary,  and  the  master's 
garden,  as  existing  now  ;  the  dormitories  were  refurnished 
with  proper  bedsteads,  and  arrangements  made  for  sending 
invalid  boys  to  country  or  seaside  ;  the  handsome  Board 
room  was  re-decorated  and  carpeted.  Fifteen  and  then 
twenty  guineas  a  year  were  voted  for  premiums  and 
medals  to  deserving  pupils,  these  to  be  conferred  by  the 
governors  in  person,  and  nearly  all  these  things  are  noticed 
as  done  at  the  instance  of  the  Chief  Justice,  whom  we  find 
usualh'  accompanied  by  Baron  George.  In  181 1  he  added 
thirteen  more  boys,  thus  raising  those  on  the  Erasmus  Smith 
foundation  to  a  total  of  fifty,  and  under  this  impulse  the 
governors  added  seven  on  that  of  the  city.  Our  chairmen 
in  these  years,  18 11  and  1812,  were  Nathaniel  Hone  and 
W.  H.  Archer,  who  worthily  supported  the  Lord  Chief  Justice. 
In  1809,  Dr.  Bryan,  who  had  been  our  physician  for  fifteen 
years,  resigned,  and  Dr.  Lestrange  replaced  him,  and 
on  his  resignation  in  181 1,  Dr.  William  Harty,  an 
admirable  appointment,  undertook  the  duty. 

Heie  sounds  another  echo  from  the  great  world  outside. 
In  18 1 2  Great  Britain  had,  with  the  Peninsular  war,  a  war 
with  America  on  her  hands.  The  recruiting  sergeant  was 
everywhere,  and  found  access  to  our  boys,  of  whom 
he  captured  several.  The  governors  met  in  wrath 
in  October,  the  new  Lord  Mayor,  Bradley  King, 
in  the  chair,  and  resolved  that  recruiting  parties 
had  no  right  to  enlist  their  boys,  and  would 
never    be    permitted     to    do    so  on  any    account.       They 

248       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

demanded  back  those  who  had  joined  the  ranks,  directing 
the  registrar  to  pay  the  expenses  incurred,  and  posted 
notices  that  any  boys  enhsting  would  be  expelled  in  "  the 
most  public  and  ignominious  manner,"  and  that  none 
should  leave  the  Hospital  save  by  written  permits.  And 
yet  some  of  them  might  have  fared  as  well  in  the  army  as 
at  the  trades  to  which  most  of  them  were  destined,  for  the 
weakness  of  our  School  for  nearly  two  hundred  years  was 
in  the  rule  which  admitted  children  of  eight  and  nine  years, 
and  compelled  them  inexorably  to  leave  at  the  end  of  five 

Our  prestige  however  had  now  been  restored.  In  181 0 
the  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  John  Foster,  became  a 
governor.  But  in  1813  our  Board  achieved  what  we  may 
call  its  Blue  Ribbon  in  the  accession  of  Charles  Lennox, 
K.G.,  fourth  Duke  of  Richmond,  who  came  here  in  1807  as 
Lord  Lieutenant,  with  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley  as  his  Chief 
Secretary.  He  came  with  a  nmndane  aureole  about  him 
from  two  famous  duels,  which  were  once  the  topic  of  the 
London  world.  When  a  young  Colonel  in  the  Coldstreams, 
in  1789,  the  gossip  of  the  Daubigne  Military  Club  rumoured 
that  he  had  not  acted  with  sufficient  spirit  when  affronted 
by  somebody.  Lennox  demanded  explanations  as  to  the 
when,  where,  and  who,  of  this  calumny,  and  receiving  no 
reply,  wrote  to  Frederick,  Duke  of  York,  Commander  in 
Chief,  and  head  of  the  Club,  with  the  alternative  of  a 
challenge  in  case  redress  was  declined.  Frederick  was  the 
King's  favourite  son,  but  waiving  his  right  as  Prince  of  the 
Blood,  and  his  quasi  ecclesiastical  dignity  of  Bishop  of 
Osnaburgh,  he  accepted  the  challenge.  He  was  then  living 
with  his  brother  George,  Prince  of  Wales,  who  suspected  what 
was  afoot;  but  Frederick,  leaving  his  own  hat  in  the  hall  to 
avert  suspicion,  and  taking  that  of  one  of  the  household, 
met  Lennox  on  Wimbledon  Common.  When  the  signal  was 
given,  Frederick  fired  in  the  air,  but  Lennox  shot  point  blank, 
and  his  ball  grazed  the  Prince's  ear^  singed  the  love  lock 
over  it,  and  stirred  his  hat.-     The  shot  would  have  surely 

-Dublin  Chronicle,  C'th  May,   18S9. 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1800-1820  249 

been  fatal,  but  that  immediately  before  it  was  fired,  and 
when  the  Prince  was  facing  the  foe,  front  to  front,  his  second 
had  peremptorily  ordered  him  to  stand  sideways.  Lennox 
called  out  to  the  Prince,  "  Your  Highness  has  not  fired." 
"  I  only  came  here,"  was  the  reply,  "  to  give  you  satisfaction, 
and  if  you  are  not  satisfied  you  can  fire  again."  On  Lennox 
then  demanding  a  withdrawal  of  the  charge  of  want  of 
gallantry,  Frederick  said,  "  Yes,  you  have  behaved  well, 
better  than  on  the  occasion  which  led  to  this."  The  verdict, 
military  and  social,  in  London,  was,  that  Lenno.x  had  acted 
with  courage,  but  not  with  judgment,  and  all  applauded  the 
calm  valour  of  the  Prince.  But  it  didn't  end  here  ;  for 
amongst  the  public  comments  was  a  letter  of  Theophilus 
Swift,  son  of  Deane  Swift,  the  great  Dean's  cousin,  which, 
m  eulogizing  Frederick,  said  that  Lennox  had  acted  in  a 
cowardly  way,  and,  challenged  accordingly,  they  met  in  a 
field  by  the  Uxbridge  Road  in  July.-^  Lennox  had  chosen 
pistols,  they  stood  ten  paces  apart,  and  Lennox  being 
allotted  to  fire  first,  the  ball  smote  Swift  in  the  abdomen 
and  sent  him  sprawling  just  as  his  hand  was  on  the  trigger 
of  his  own  pistol,  which  went  off  in  vain  ;  the  ball  was  easily 
extracted.  The  name  of  Swift  brought  the  event  nearer  to 
Dublin,  where  the  newspaper's  judgment  was  that  the 
relative  "of  our  immortal  Dean  "  was  known  for  his  great 
eccentricities.  But,  if  a  swashbuckler,  Lennox  was  the  best 
of  good  fellows.  When  commanding  the  35th  foot,  he  played 
cricket  with  the  rank  and  file,  and  made  his  officers  do 
likewise,  a  rare  mark  of  condescension  then,  and  the  echoes 
of  his  social  revelries  whilst  here  are  still  awake  in  Dublin. 
In  18 13  our  governors  had  resolved  to  dine  together  in  the 
Board  room  on  the  King's  birthday,  and  the  Lord  Mayor, 
Bradley  King,  of  his  own  impulse,  invited  the  Duke  to  honour 
them  with  his  presence.  He  accepted  at  once.  We  have  no 
record  of  the  banquet,  but  they  seem  to  have  had  a  good 
night  of  it,  for  the  governors  afterwards  specially  thanked 
the  Lord  Mayor  for  inviting  his  Grace,  and  followed  this 
up  by  a  deputation,  asking  the  Duke  to  become  a  governor 

•^  Dublin  Chronicle  47,  July  1889,  in  p.  229,  245. 


for  life,  which  his  Grace  also  graciously  consented  to  do, 
with  an  expression  of  his  wish  to  render  any  service  in  his 
power  to  the  institution  ;  and  he  showed  his  goodwill  by 
promising  to  provide  a  place  for  a  boy  named  Robert  Ellward 
in  one  of  the  public  offices,  when  informed  by  the  governors 
that  he  was  fitted  to  hold  it.^  But,  though  elected  for  life,  the 
Duke  was  now  called  away  to  the  great  war.  He  was  on  the 
staff  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington,  his  former  Chief  Secretary, 
at  Waterloo,  and  it  was  his  Duchess  who  gave  the  memorable 
ball  in  Brussells  on  the  15th  of  June,  immortalized  in  "  Childe 
Harold  "  when  "  there  was  a  sound  of  revelry  by  night," 
broken  by  the  cannon  roar,  and  the  partners,  fair  women 
and  brave  men,  parted,  many  for  ever,  for  many  were  going 
to  the  dance  of  death  next^^day  at  Quatre  Bras,  and  three 
days  after  at  Waterloo,  j  i  Two  of  our  greatest  institutions, 
the  Richmond  Hospital  and  the  Richmond  Lunatic  Asylum, 
commemorate  the  lieutenancy  of  our  gallant  life  governor, 
which,  in  the  interests  of  our  Hospital,  was  all  too  short. 
Whilst  here,  his  aunt.  Lady  Sarah  Napier,  the  mother  of  the 
three  great  Napiers,  lived  at  Celbridge ;  she  had  been  the 
lovely  Sarah  Lennox,  the  first  love  of  young  George  III., 
and  narrowly  escaped  being  Queen  of  England. 

About  this  time  the  Hospital  obtained  a  windfall  under 
circumstances  romantic  in  the  history  of  charities.  It  may 
be  remembered  that  Alderman  John  Preston,  one  of  our 
founders,  had  granted  the  Hospital,  with  other  gifts,  £20  a 
year,  and  this  had  been  paid  for  more  than  one  hundred 
years  ;  it  was  tabled  in  the  Commissioners'  report  of  1808  as 
a  simple  annuity,  but  during  their  inquiry,  it  transpired 
that  Preston,  by  deed,  had  charged  this  annuity  on  his 
estate  of  Cappoloughlin,  in  Queen's  County,  then  only 
yielding  £80  a  year,  with  two  other  charitable  devises,  to 
schools  in  Meath  and  Queen's  County  of  £35  and  £25,  thus 
exhausting  exactly  the  then  rental  of  ;£8o,  our  annuity  of 
/20  being  just  one-fourth.  Preston  had  thriven,  his 
descendants  owned  one  of  the  best  estates  in  Royal  Meath, 
and  successively  represented  Navan  or  Meath  in  the  Irish 

*  Minute  Book,  35th  November.  1S13. 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1S00-1820  251 

Parliament,  and  in  1800,  Mr.  John  Preston,  of  Bellinter, 
was  raised  to  the  peerage  as  Lord  Tara,  for  his  rich  lands 
stretched  from  the  Boyne  to  beneath  the  Dome  of  Tara  Hill, 
stronghold  of  the  Irish  Kings.  It  was  now  found  that 
Preston's  deed  provided  that,  if  the  rents  increased,  the  sur- 
plus should  go  to  the  three  schools  as  his  heirs  should  direct 
The  Education  Commissioners  now  reported  that  great 
abuses  had  taken  place,  in  the  application  of  the  rents  of 
the  lands,  and  that  a  large  proportion  remained  still 
unappropriated.  We  defer  the  sequel  to  the  time,  when,  at 
last,  the  rights  of  the  Hospital  were  fully  established,  noting 
merely  here  that  in  1812  and  1813  some  ;;^400  was  paid  to 
our  governors,  in  respect  of  their  claims  on  the  Cappoloughlin 

Animated  by  this,  some  of  our  governors  now  proposed 
to  establish  a  classical  school  in  the  Hospital,  with  exhibitions 
in  Trinity  College.^  At  the  same  time,  our  physician.  Dr. 
Harty,  who  had  hitherto  gratuitously  served  with  high 
efficiency,  sent  in  a  strong  memorial  for  a  salar}'-  now, 
grounded  on  the  late  great  increase  both  in  the  number  of 
boys  in  his  charge  and  in  that  of  the  annual  revenue,  and 
those  projects  might  have  been  carried  out,  but,  that  while 
under  consideration,  the  roseate  prospects  began  to  darken. 
The  sinister  shadows  of  the  Court  of  Chancery  gathered 
round  them,  and  the  Preston  rents,  as  after  told,  were 
dissolving  in  costs,  and  unpaid  to  the  Hospital. 

Now,  too,  Chief  Justice  Downes  became  unable  to  attend 
the  Board.  He  was  raised  to  the  peerage  in  1822,  and  dying 
soon  after,  his  title  became  extinct,  but  he  has  left  us  a  noble 
memory  so  long  as  the  Hospital  lives.  His  loss  to  us  may  be 
seen  in  the  fact  that  in  the  last  five  years  of  George  III.'s 
reign,  there  were  only  eighteen  board  meetings,  at  three  of 
which  no  work  was  done,  as  against  twenty-eight  in  the 
five  previous  years.  In  18 16  there  were  only  two  meetings, 
and  in  1817  there  appears  to  have  been  none.  Tord  Downes 
was  succeeded  in  the  King's  Bench  by  the  graceful  Charles 
Kendal  Bushe. 

''  17th  February,   18 14. 


For  the  peace  restored  after  Waterloo  did  not  biing 
blessings  to  the  Blue  Coat.  The  war  rents,  as  might  have 
been  foreseen,  fell  as  swiftly  as  they  had  risen.  In  1815  the 
Nodstown  £1,400  was  unpaid,  and  the  governors  were  forced 
to  evict  poor  O'Ksarney,  and  let  the  lands  for  six  months, 
pending  redemption,  for  £100,  and  when,  two  years  alter, 
they  succeeded  in  re-lelting,  it  was  at  a  loss  of  £400  a  year. 
Similarly  our  impropriate  tithes  of  Mullingar  and  Kilcotty, 
which,  of  course,  depended  on  the  value  of  farm  produce, 
fell  perpetually  in  like  proportion,  so  that,  in  18 16,  the 
governors  sorrowfully  resolved,  in  view  of  these  losses,  that 
no  more  boys  should  be  admitted  until  the  debts,  "  due  to 
the  several  persons  who  supply  this  house  with  provisions," 
shall  be  paid  off.  But  for  the  strong  contingent  maintained 
by  the  Erasmus  Smith  Board,  the  numbers  must  have  fallen 

As  the  governors  may,  at  times,  have  seemed  bigoted, 
we  may  mention  in  connection  with  Nodstown,  that  at  the 
re-letting  in  1810,  Rev.  James  Slattery,  the  parish  priest  of 
Ardmayle,  in  which  the  lands  lay,  petitioned  the  Board  for 
the  site  of  his  chapel,  offering  any  rent  they  might  require, 
and  this  request,  at  a  full  meeting,  was  at  once  granted.  It 
was  ordered  that  this  site  should  be  reserved  from  all 
projected  lettings,  and  held  in  trust  for  the  chapel  and  yard, 
at  a  shilling  a  year.  At  this  meeting,  Dr.  Brodrick,  Arch- 
bishop of  Cashel,  was  in  the  chair.  The  re-letting  in  18 16, 
to  Mills,  was  on  the  terms  asked  by  the  x\rchbishop,  of  his 
giving  to  the  Protestant  perpetual  curate  of  Ardmayle  ten 
acres  and  a  house  for  a  glebe,  but  it  was  made  subject  to  a 
rent  of  four  guineas  an  acre. 

The  old  King  died  29  January,  1820.  Our  last  entry  in 
his  reign  in  March,  1819,  again  reflects  history  outside. 
O'Connell  was  now  thundering  for  Catholic  Emancipation, 
and  William  Conyngham  Plunket,  in  Parliament,  was  urging 
that  cause  with  Ciceronian  eloquence.  In  the  Dublin  Evening 
Post,  their  organ  just  then,  appeared  a  series  of  paragraphs, 
asserting  that  the  Protestant  petition  to  Parliament  against 
the  proposed  concession  had  been  brought  to  the  Hospital, 

TEMP.  GEORGE  III.,  1800-1820  253 

and  pressure  put  on  the  boys  to  sign  it.  A  special  meeting 
of  governors  was  thereupon  summoned,  and  a  committee  of 
enquiry  directed,  who  duly  reported  that  tliere  was  not  the 
slightest  foundation  for  the  statements  thus  made,  and  the 
Board  resolved  unanimously  that  the  publications  were 
false  and  scandalous,  and  tending  to  bring  into  disrepute 
this  most  valuable  institution,  and  to  mislead  Parliament 
upon  this  momentous  question,  and  they  ordered  this 
resolution  to  be  published  in  the  Correspondent,  The  Patriot, 
Saunder's  Newsletter,  and  The  Hibernian  Journal. 

Our  Lord  Mayor  Chairmen  from   180  r    to  the    end  of 
George  III.'s  reign,  were  : — 


I  Charles  Thorpe. 

1810-11  Nathaniel  Hone. 


2  Richard  Manders. 

11-12  Wm.  H.  Archer. 


3  Jacob  Poole 

12-13  Abraham  B.  King 


4  Henry  Hutton 

13-14  John  Cash. 


5  Meredith  Jenkin. 

14-15  John  Claudius  Beres- 


6  James  Vance. 

15-16  Robert  Shaw,      [ford 


7  Joseph  Pemberton. 

16-17  Mark  Bloxham. 


8  Hugh  Trevor. 

17-18  John  Allen. 


9  Fredeiick  Darley. 

18-IQ  Sir  Thos.  McKenny. 


10  Sir  William  Stamer^ 

iq-20  Sir   William    Stamer 



254       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 


TEMP.   GEORGE  THE  FOURTH.      1820-1830. 

New  hopes  and  energies  awoke  with  the  advent  of  a  new  reign, 

and  our  governors  now  resumed  activity.     At  their  first  and 

full  meeting  in  February  twenty-eight  boys  were  elected, 

though  the  Board  had  to  deal  and  continue  to  deal  with  the 

depressing  tale  of  claims  for  abatements  in  all  their  rents 

dependant  on  the  price  of  agricultural  produce  ;  but  it  was 

soon  understood  that  the  new  King  would  visit  Ireland  next 

year,   the  first  royal  advent  since  William  III.'s,   and  as 

Dublin  would  take  chief  place  in  the  welcome,  the  position 

of  our  civic  dignitaries  became  enhanced,  and  even  a  seat  on 

the  Blue  Coat  Board  an  object  of  ambition.     Wlien,  in  May, 

1821,  Francis  Hamilton  was  sworn  as  an  alderman,  he  at 

once  politely  wrote  enclosing  £100  for  the  Hospital,  but  his 

gift  horse  was  looked  at  in  the  mouth,  and  he  was  curtly 

reminded    that    the    fine    was    guineas,    not    pounds,  and 

requested   to   send   the   balance    forthwith.         Lawyers   or 

doctors  similarly  treated  as  to  fees  could  not  have  done  more. 

Sir  William  Stamer,  Bart.,  again  Lord  Mayor,  our  chairman 

in   the   first   year  of   George   IV.,   was   now  succeeded  by 

Abraham  Bradley  King,  also  in  his  second  mayoralt}'.     On 

him  devolved  the  civic  reception  of  His  Majesty.    He  landed 

in  August,  1821,  at  Old  Dunleary,  on  the  sickle-shaped  pier 

which  then  formed  the  port,  now  only  the  coal  harbour, 

thenceforth  to    change    the  place    name  from  the  Fort  of 

Leary,  old  King  of  Erin,  to  the  Town  of  George,  Kmg  of 

Great  Britain  and  Ireland.     On  the  17th  he  entered  the  city 

in  state.     The  Lord  Mayor,  who  received  him  with  all  the 

honours,  was  already  a  notable,  for,  when  previously  Lord 

TEMP.  GEORGE  IV.  1820-1830 


Mayor  in  1813,- he  had  fought  for  and  won  for  Dubhn  the 
privilege,  till  then  enjoyed  only  by  London,  of  presenting 
petitions  to  the  House  of  Commons  by  the  Lord  Mayor  in 
person  ;  and  in  this  year,  1821,  he  had  similarly  obtained  for 
the  city  the  right  of  addressing  the  Sovereign  on  the  Throne 
through  the  mouth  of  its  Chief  Magistrate.  Thus  he  now 
presented  the  city  address  to  King  George  at  the  Castle,  and 
received  the  then  unprecedented  distinction  of  being  named 
a  baronet  by  His  Majesty  himself.  With  him  was  Robert 
Shaw,  who  had  been  our  Chairman  and  Lord  Mayor  in  18 15. 
He,  too,  was  a  notable,  Colonel  of  the  Dublin  MiUtia,  Member 
for  Dublin  in  the  Imperial  Parliament  from  1804,  a  position 
he  held  to  1826  ;  and  he,  too,  received  a  baronetcy  on  this 
memorable  day,  in  which  honour  he  was  followed  by  his  two 
sons  successively,  Sir  Robert  and  Sii  Frederick  Shaw,  the 
brilliant  member  for  the  University,  and  Recorder  of  Dublin 
for  eight  and  forty  years.  On  the  23rd  the  King  was  enter- 
tained at  a  splendid  banquet  in  the  Mansion  House,  for 
which  the  great  Rotunda  had  been  specially  and  rapidly 
constructed  in  the  gardens  of  the  House,  and  which  is  still  a 
striking  feature  in  the  city  as  a  centre  of  the  civic  hospitality. 
To  complete  this  tale  of  honours,  Kingston  James,  our 
chairman  and  Lord  Maj^or  in  the  following  year,  was  knighted 
by  the  Marquess  Wellesley,  and  two  years  after  received  a 
baronetcy,  gi\^ng  us  four  of  that  dignity  on  the  Blue  Coat 

But,  though  keen  to  take  part  in  symposia  themselves, 
our  governors  showed  little  sympathy  with  the  festivities  of 
our  boys.  In  April  Alderman  Trevor  informed  the  Board  he 
had  been  told,  as  if  of  a  scandal,  that  plays  had  been  per- 
formed in  the  dining  hall  by  the  boys,  and  submitted  "  the 
impropriety  of  such  like."  It  is  curious  that  our  chaplain, 
Allan  Morgan,  was  now  attending  all  the  meetings  as  a 
governor,  and  was  present  then,  so  that  he  was  presumably 
cognizant  of  the  practice.  But  the  governors  virtuously  and 
uanimously  condemned  "  anything  like  theatrical  per- 
formances within  the  walls  as  highly  improper,"  and,  calling 
in  Dalton,  the  acting  schoolmaster,  peremptorily  commanded 


him  to  suppress  the  malpractices.  They  might  have  done 
better  had  they  adopted  the  usage  of  the  great  pubhc 
schools  of  England,  which  tends  to  enlarge  the  classical  taste 
and  elevate  the  theatrical  instinct ;  where,  at  the  great  anni- 
versaries, the  boys  perform  the  splendid  exemplars  of 
vSophocles,  Aeschylus,  and  Euiipides,  rehearsed  throughout 
the  term,  and  in  the  presence  of  Old  Boys,  now  statesmen 
and  soldiers,  and  the  beautiful  mothers  and  sisters  of  the 
lads.  But  it  would  seem  that  at  this  time  the  discipline  of 
the  School  had  got  somewhat  out  of  hand,  probably  owing  to 
the  mistake  of  placing  the  chaplain  on  the  Board.  Nominally 
"  Head  "  of  the  School,  he  was  the  chief  and  the  responsible 
officer  ;  but  it  is  always  a  delicate  thing,  and  sometimes 
impracticable,  to  treat  a  colleague  as  a  subordinate,  or  freely 
to  criticise  his  action  in  his  presence.  Mr.  Morgan  had  been 
chosen  a  governor  eight  years  before  ;  he  constantly  attended 
the  meetings,  and  this,  apparently,  was  followed  by  a  devolution 
of  the  chief  duties  of  Schoolmaster  on  his  subordinate, 
Mr.  Dal  ton,  whom  the  boys,  who  are  very  keen  in  such 
matters,  well  knew  was  not  their  real  Head.  So  far  back  as 
1813,  just  after  the  chaplain  joined  the  Board,  eight  bo3^s 
wrote  to  Surgeon  Leake  complaining  of  Dalton's  sev^ere 
chastisements  and  injustice.  Leake  brought  the  letter 
before  the  Board,  on  which  he,  too,  had  a  seat.  With  this 
letter  was  read  a  statement  of  Dalton's  suggesting  new 
regulations.  Twenty-six  governors  were  present,  including 
Leake  and  Morgan.  Then  the  eight  complainants  weie 
called  in  and  minutely  examined,  and  then  the  two  senior 
boys  were  similarly  questioned.  Finally  Mr.  Dalton  was 
heard.  When  these  had  withdrawn,  and  after  conference,  it 
was  proposed  "  that  the  Board  do  approve  the  conduct  of 
Mr.  Dalton,  the  Master."  An  amendment  was  moved  to  add 
the  words  "  except  in  having  used  an  instrument  called 
a  Cat,  contrary  to  the  directions  of  the  Board."  This 
amendment  was  voted  on  and  lost,  but  only  on  a  division, 
and  the  original  resolution  of  approval  was  carried  with  the 
same  divergence  of  opinion.  It  is  not  stated  what  the 
numbers  were,  but  the  want  of  unanimity,  we  may  be  sure, 

TEMP.  GEORGE  IV.,  1820-18J0  257 

became  known  in  the  School,  and  that  not  to  the  strengthening 
of  Dalton's  authority.  And  so,  in  1823,  we  have  a  recrudes- 
cence of  disorder.  In  July  the  Lord  IMayor,  John  Smith 
Fleming,  called  a  special  meeting  to  consider  a  letter  of 
I\Ir.  Dalton  statmg  that  the  boys  had  got  into  a  state  of 
msubordination,  and  had  been  guilty  of  such  misconduct 
lately  that  he  had  asked  for  this  meeting  with  the  view  of 
adopting  a  plan  to  restore  order.  The  governors  took  the 
matter  up  serioush',  and  diiected  a  strong  committee  to  sit 
from  da}^  to  day  and  report  as  to  the  steps  necessary  to 
restore  order  and  "  prevent  a  repetition  of  such  misconduct 
(as  is  alleged)  in  future."  The  full  and  able  report  which 
followed  finds  "  that  a  spirit  of  party  and  consequent 
insubordination,  originating  in  the  peculiar  circumstances 
now  unfortunately  connected  with  the  anniversary  of  the 
Battle  of  the  Boyne,  did  exist  among  the  pupils  on  the  12th, 
13th,  and  14th  July,  and  that  this  arose  from  a  partial 
compliance  with  the  wishes  of  the  pupils,  on  Mr.  Dalton's 
part,  which  the  committee  considers  was  highly  injudicious, 
as  it  ought  to  have  been  either  entire  or  unreserved  or 
altogether  withheld."  But  it  is  clear  from  this  report  that  the 
root  of  disorder  was  in  the  want  of  harmony  and  true  co- 
operation between  Mr.  Morgan,  whom  they  style  chaplain 
and  Head  Master,  and  Dalton,  whom  they  style  "  the 
Schoolmaster,"  and  the  delegation  to  the  latter  of  the  direct 
control  of  the  boys,  both  in  school,  at  meals,  and  play  hours  ; 
for  they  find  that  the  resistance  to  Mr.  Dalton's  authority  is 
not,  as  alleged  by  him,  attributable  to  the  supposed  inter- 
course of  the  boys  with  the  chaplain's  servants,  but  to  the 
injudicious  course  taken  in  respect  of  the  celebration  of 
12th  July,  and  to  other  causes  affecting  the  general  welfare 
of  the  School ;  and,  especially,  to  the  too  free  intercourse  with 
strangers  and  with  their  parents  and  friends.  They  find 
further  that  Mr.  Dalton  on  the  15th  July  introduced  into  the 
Schools  and  Infirmary  a  clerical  gentleman  unknown  to  the 
other  officers  of  the  house,  who  admonished  the  pupils  on  the 
recent  occurrences,  therein  performing  a  duty  which 
peculiarly  belonged  to  jNIr.  Morgan,  and  which  he  had  never 


258       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

neglected,  having  discharged  it  on  this  occasion  with  the  best 
effects  ;  and  that,  in  this  instance,  Mr.  Dalton  has  failed  in 
that  respect  and  deference  due  to  Mr.  Morgan,  as  Chaplain 
and  Head  Master  of  the  School.  Whilst  acknowledging  that 
Mr.  Dalton's  scholastic  duties  are  efficiently  and  creditably 
discharged,  they  find  that  he  has  not  sufficiently  carried  out 
the  conditions  of  continuously  attending  at  meals,  play 
hours,  and  dormitories  on  which  his  salary  had  been  raised 
in  1820.  As  to  this,  Dalton  pleaded  that  he  had  fulfilled 
these  conditions  in  the  spirit  if  not  in  the  letter,  but  that  he 
would  consider  himself  degraded,  and  would  not  be  held  in 
respect  by  the  pupils,  should  he  mix  with  them  durmg  play 
hours.  This  plea  sounds  strangely  in  these  times,  when  one 
of  the  first  qualifications  of  a  master  in  a  public  school  is 
to  lead  the  boys  at  cricket  or  football  ;  but  the  views  of  the 
committee  would  seem  to  condemn  poor  Dalton  to  an 
indentured  slavery,  not  only  to  teach  but  to  attend  the  boys 
in  all  the  hours  till  he  saw  them  safe  in  bed  each  night.  But 
theie  is  a  further  finding,  "  tliat,  in  punishing  a  boy  for 
presumed  disobedience,  he  struck  him  violently  with  his 
clenched  fist,  and  therein  evinced  a  want  of  temper  and  sound 
discretion,  unsuited  to  his  official  station  and  character.'' 
A  usage  of  Mr.  Dalton's  is  also  condemned,  that  of  allowing 
the  senior  boys,  who  assist  him  in  the  school,  to  leave  at  4 
o'clock  and  to  take  private  tuitions  in  the  city  until 

The  strange  thing  which  strikes  us  in  this  stern  report  is  the 
absence  of  any  reference  to  the  permission  of  all  tliat  is  thus 
deemed  blameworthy  by  the  chiefly  responsible  officer, 
the  chaplain  and  headmaster,  who,  we  must  presume  either 
had  not  disapproved  or  had  failed  to  report  to  the  Boa  rd  of 
which  he  was  a  member.  But  then  he  was  at  once  a  colleague 
and  chief  salaried  official. 

This  report  came  before  the  governors  in  August.  They 
adopted  it,  and  voted  accordingly  that  all  boys  above  fifteen 
should  provide  themselves  with  situations  forthwith.  This 
points  to  the  disorders  having  been  fomented  by  the  senior 
boys,   and  to  the  permission  given  them  to   take  tuition 

TEMP.  GEORGE  IV.,  1820-1830  259 

outside.  They  recommended  that  an  iishef  should  be 
appointed  to  assist  the  schoolmaster  ;  but,  thirdly,  they 
resolved  "  that,  in  the  opinion  of  the  Board,  ]\Ir.  Dalton  had 
failed  in  the  discharge  of  those  duties  foi  which  he  had 
received  the  augmentation  of  his  salary,  and  that  he  has 
evinced  a  temper  and  disposition,  such  as  will  compel  the 
Board  to  interfere,  in  a  more  decisive  manner,  to  remedy  the 
e\-ils,  unless  Mr.  Dalton  by  his  future  conduct  shall  render  it 
unnecessary."  This  was  indeed  an  application  of  the  Cat  to 
poor  Dalton  himself  ;  if  the  reprimand  stood  it  would  have 
enforced  his  resignation  or  destro3'^ed  his  influence  with  the 
boys  for  ever  ;  but  gentler  counsels  prevailed.  It  was  felt 
that,  in  supporting  the  report  of  their  Committee  so 
drastically,  the  governors  had  gone  too  far.  At  the  October 
meeting  the  committee  were  invited  to  reconsider  the 
subject,  with  the  hope  they  could  make  such  amicable 
arrangements  as  would  prevent  recurrence  of  such  troubles  ; 
and,  in  November,  the  Board  without  dissent  resolved  that, 
whilst  highly  sensible  of  the  meritorious  exertions  of  their 
committee  of  inquiry  on  Mr.  Dalton's  statements,  they  felt 
that,  as  haimony  and  discipline  were  now  again  restoied,  and 
as  testimony  had  been  given  to  the  Board  that  had  not  been 
before  the  committee  and  which  had  a  favourable  bearing 
towards  Mr.  Dalton,  they  directed  that  the  report  of  the 
committee  and  all  proceedings  had  thereon  should  be 
rescinded,  and  rescinded  they  were  accordingly.  Richard 
Smyth,  Lord  Mayor,  presided  at  this  meeting  ;  with  him  sat 
the  Bisiiop  of  Ossory,  Dr.  Robert  Fowler,  who  had  been  long 
on  the  Board  when  Archdeacon  of  Dublin,  and  several  of  the 
governors  who  liad  taken  part  in  the  reprimand  of  August. 
It  were  pity  indeed  had  this  reprimand  stood,  for  William 
Dalton  had  for  long  years  been  a  devoted  servant.  In  his 
History  of  Dublin,  Whitelaw,  who  had  been  one  of  the 
Education  Commissioners,  writing  in  1817,  speaks  of  him  as 
the  Mathematical  Master  of  most  unwearied  assiduity,  wht), 
himself  educated  at  the  School,  was  thus  making  the  most 
honourable  return  to  the  protectors  of  his  youth.  He 
remarks  that  Dalton  received  ;/^20  a  year  in    addition  to  his 

26o       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

salary  of  £i8o  from  the  Guild  of  Merchants  as  Mathematical 
teacher ;  and  recommends  the  opulent  Corporation  to 
furnish  him  with  the  scientific  instruments  of  which  it  is 
noted  the  School  was  then  destitute.^ 

This  eirenicon  was  probably  promoted  by  Mr.  Sutton,  wlio, 
as  Master  of  the  Trinity  Guild,  was  one  of  the  governors,  for 
he  best  knew  Dalton's  work  ;  and  he  now  brought  forward  an 
invitation  from  the  Master  and  Wardens  to  the  boys  to 
attend  at  their  Hall  on  Wellington  Quay  on  Holy  Eve,  and 
partake  of  cake  and  wine,  they  not  having  had  their  usual 
Feast  of  Cake  and  Wine  on  Trinity  Eve,  and  the  invitation 
was  gratefully  accepted  by  the  Board. 

It  is  noticeable  that  when  the  governors  rescinded  the 
resolution  of  reprimand  a  notice  was  given  by  Alderman 
Archer  to  move  that  a  letter  be  written  to  the  Chaplain, 
Mr.  Morgan,  and  to  Dr.  Harty,  asking  their  resignation  as 
governors,  for  the  evils  of  divided  authorit}^  and  the  incon- 
venience of  even  the  best  officials  being  their  own  employers 
had  now  been  seen.  The  motion,  however,  was  not  persevered 
ni.  It  is  one  thing  to  unwisely  appomt  ;  it  is  another  to  undo 
the  unwisdom,  without  injustice,  when  a  removable  has  been 
made  irremovable  as  a  rector  or  a  judge. 

In  1827  the  Catholic  Emancipation  Bill  was  becoming"  a 
burning  question,  not  merely  of  Irish,  but  of  imperial  politics. 
The  atmosphere  was  surcharged  with  its  electricity,  for  the 
opposition  was  now  boldly  militant,  led  here  by  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Dublin,  Dr.  Magee.  A  great  scholar  and  a  great 
divine,  he  had  been  a  Fellow  of  T.C.D.  ;  but  he  was  a 
statesman  too,  the  intimate  of  Plunket  and  the  notables  of 
the  time  ;  but  if  a  divine,  he  was  not  a  diviner,  for  he  believed 
that  the  reformation  was  now  only  beginning  in  Ireland,  thus 
thinking  from  the  vast  growth  of  the  Evangelical  revival 
through  the  kingdom  and  the  new  movement  foi  teaching 
the  Irish  in  their  old  language,  which  was  still  that  of  the 
majority  in  many  counties  whence  it  has  long  since  dis- 
appeared. As  a  preacher  it  was  said  he  equalled  Dean 
Kirwan  as  a  born  orator,  with  the  difference  that  his  sermons,, 

i_Whitela\v's  History  of  Dublin,  by  Walsh,  p.  S7-- 

TEMP.  GEORGE  IV.,  1820-1830  261 

when  printed,  justified  their  reputation.  -  The  Archbishop 
was  now  in  the  field.  One  of  his  measures  was  to  assemble 
the  children  of  all  church  schools  of  Dublin  in  St.  Patrick's 
Cathedral,  to  which  they  were  to  march  through  the  streets 
on  the  King's  Coronation  Day.  19th  July.  Of  these  schools 
the  Blue  Coat  stood  first  as  the  school  of  the  Corporation,  and 
the  oldest  foundation.  On  the  17th  the  Archbishop  came  to 
the  Board  of  which  he  was  a  governor,  Samuel  Tvndall,  Lord 
Ma3'or,  in  the  chair,  and  moved  tliat  the  boys  be  permitted 
to  proceed  in  procession  to  the  cathedral  with  the  children  of 
the  other  institutions  of  the  city,  and  this  was  unanimously 
agreed  to.  The  report  of  this  design  roused  to  fury  the 
promoters  of  the  Bill,  and  their  press  overflowed  with 
denunciations.  Sir  George  Murra5%  Commander  of  the 
Forces  in  Ireland,  recoiled,  and  refused  to  allow  the  Hibernian 
boys  to  attend,  on  the  pretext  that  their  school  was  not  a 
charity  ;  and  the  Protestant  orphans  were  also  held  back. 
But  the  Archbishop,  with  all  the  rest,  moved  on.  Marquess 
Wellesley,  the  Lord  Lieutenant,  rode  in  the  procession,  for 
which,  of  course,  he  was  duly  abused  ;  but  the  people  in  the 
streets,  despite  the  newspapers,  took  the  scene  good- 
humouredly,  and  the  great  demonstration  went  off  with 
eclat.  Next  year  the  Archbishop  repeated  the  ceremonial, 
but  the  cause  of  the  Bill  had  largely  advanced,  for  O.'Connell 
was  returned  for  Parliament  at  the  Clare  Election  ;  so,  when 
the  Archbishop  came  down  to  our  Board  in  April  and 
renewed  his  proposal,  there  was  a  large  attendance  of  thirt}''- 
one  governors,  and  an  amendment  suggested  that  the  Blue 
Coat  boys,  whose  orange  and  blue  uniforms  made  them 
the  most  obnoxious  to  the  opponents,  should  not  join  the 
procession  but  go  apart  to  the  cathedral  and  to  a  gallery  of 
their  own.  These  more  cautious  counsels,  however,  did  not 
prevail,  and  the  Archbishop  carried  his  full  project  by  two 
to  one.  The  result  was  similar  to  that  of  the  preceding  year. 
Next  year  the  Emancipation  Act  passed,  for  the  Duke  of 
Wellington  and  Peel  had  bent  before  the  storm  ;  but  the 
Archbishop   did  not   bend.       At   a  meeting  of   thirty-two 

-  Dr.  Ball's  Reformed  Church  in  Ireland,  276. 

262       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

governors  in  June,  Alexander  Montgomery,  Lord  Mayor,  in 
the  chair,  he  carried  his  motion  that  the  boys  should  go  in 
procession  in  manner  as  in  last  year,  and  this  time  there  was 
no  dissent.  But  this  time,  too,  the  opposition  was  even 
fiercer  than  before.  The  denunciations  in  their  press  were  so 
vehement  that  it  was  thought  they  were  intended  to  inflame 
the  mob  to  attack  the  children  in  the  streets.  The  procession, 
notwithstanding,  was  organized  on  even  a  larger  scale  than 
before.  On  Wednesday,  17th  July,  five  thousand  children, 
including  the  Blue  Coats,  marched  through  the  city  with 
flags  and  banners  flying,  to  the  cathedral,  where  two  high 
thrones  were  erected,  one  for  the  Lord  Lieutenant,  Hugh 
Percy,  third  Duke  of  Northumberland,  the  other  for  the 
Archbishop  himself.  Then  the  five  thousand,  with  full 
consent,  raised  their  young  cheerful  voices  in  the  Old 
Hundreth  Psalm.  Handel's  great  Coronation  Anthem  was 
sung  by  the  choir,  and  his  Hallelujah  Chorus  at  the  close  ; 
and  all  passed  off  in  peace.  Despite  the  press,  whose 
bitterness  had  been  specially  aimed  at  the  Blue  Coat  boys, 
the  populace  looked  quietly  on,  for  our  dear  Dublin  folk  have 
always  had  an  innate  sympathy  with  pageants,  and  some 
oven  cheered  the  marching  youngsters. 

At  the  same  June  meeting  our  governors  were  called  on 
to  elect  a  new  registrar  in  the  room  of  ]\Ir.  Hart,  who  had  just 
died,  and  ]\Ir.  Addison  Hone  was  chosen.  Yet  even  this 
within-doors  affair  was  drawn  into  the  political  tide  outside, 
for  at  the  preceding  City  Assembly  there  was  tumult  and 
strife.  The  Commons  renewed  the  claim  made  b}^  Charles 
Lucas  eighty  years  before,  and  which  was  supposed  to  have 
been  set  at  rest  by  the  Act  of  1761,  that  all  members  of  the 
Corporation  were  entitled  to  be  governors  of  King's  Hospital 
under  the  charter,  and  therefore  entitled  to  vote  for  the  new 
registrar.  But  the  claim  again  proved  futile.  Mr.  Hone  was 
elected  unanimously,  and  worthily  held  office  for  the  next 
thirty  years.  This  office  has  been  remarkable  in  the  long 
tenures  its  holders  have  enjoyed.  Mr.  Hart,  his  predecessor, 
was  appointed  in  June,  1794,  and  served  for  thirty-five  years. 
Bartholomew    Wybrants    for   thirty-six ;    and    our    present 

TEMP.  GEORGE  IV.,  1820-1830  263 

popular  registrar,  Mr.  G.  R.  Armstrong,  who  succeeded  to 
the  office  in  June,  1876,  is  now  (1906)  in  the  thirtieth  year  of 
his  tenure.  Robert  Hart  was  at  the  time  deeply  regretted, 
and  his  services  had,  as  we  have  seen,  been  warmly  com- 
mended by  the  first  Education  Commissioners  twenty  j^ears 
before,  and  for  a  long  time  he  discharged  his  duties  faithfully 
but  it  might  have  been  better  had  this  public  eulogy  not  been 
expressed,  for  it  led  to  everything  being  left  in  his  hands, 
unchecked  and  unsupervised.  It  is  painful  to  find  that  his 
accounts  at  his  death  were  in  great  disorder.  The  municipal 
commission  of  1835,  on  whose  work  the  Corporation  Act  of 
1840  was  based,  reported  that  in  Hart's  time  the  funds  of  the 
Hospital  were  misapplied.^  This  is  quoted  by  the  Endowed 
Schools  Commission  of  1858  in  their  summaiy  of  the  Blue 
Coat  property  and  the  losses  sustained  by  negligence  and  by 
permitting  the  statute  of  limitations  to  run.  The  mode  of 
keeping  the  accounts  from  1818  to  1826  is  condemned,  when 
all,  as  it  was  said,  was  left  to  Hart. 

This  evil  remissness,  we  may  well  suppose,  was  encouraged 
by  the  already  noticed  laxity  allowed  to  Allan  Morgan,  the 
chaplain  and  head  master,  on  whose  headship  so  much 
depended.  A  governor  himself,  he  was  chaplain  to  several 
Lord  Lieutenants  successively,  and  took  his  scholastic  duties 
somewhat  lightl}^  He  seems  to  have  been  permitted  to 
relinquish  them  altogether  ;  for,  when  it  was  suggested  by 
the  Education  Commissioners  in  1810  that  the  union  of  the 
offices  of  chaplain  and  head  master  should  be  insisted  on,  it 
was  said  that  this  should  in  fairness  be  deferred  to  the  next 
vacancy,  as  Mr.  Morgan  had  so  long  acted  as  chaplain  only  ; 
yet  the  minute  on  his  original  appointment  in  1784  is  decisive, 
showing  that  he  was  then  called  in  and  expressly  appointed 
to  the  double  duty.  But,  like  his  father,  whom  he  then 
succeeded,  he  had  many  lofty  friends  outside  the  Board. 
He  was  the  frequent  guest  of  Lord  Moira,  afterwards 
Marquess  of  Hastings,  at  Moira  House,  then  a  chief  social 
centre  in  Dublin,  though  now  sunk  from  its  high  estate  to 
become  the  Mendicity  on  Usher's  Quay.    This  socral  prestige 

■-Reports,  185,  VoL  I.,  p.  149. 

264       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAI. 

probably  led  to  the  governors  making  him  a  colleague  and 
giving  him  too  free  a  hand.  His  high  friends  stood  to  him  to 
the  last.  Through  the  influence  of  Lord  Forbes  he  was 
appointed  Dean  of  Killaloe  in  1828,  whilst  still  holding  our 
chaplaincy,  but  died  two  years  after,  just  when  George  the 
Fourth's  reign  ceased,  on  the  26th  June,  1830.  In  one 
respect  his  career  was  unique,  he  was  chief  officer  of  the  Blue 
Coat  for  forty-six  years.  His  connection  with  King's 
Hospital  is  preserved  to-day  in  the  person  of  his  great-grand- 
nephew,  our  excellent  governor,  Mr.  William  C.  Stubbs. 

Our  Lord  Mayor  chairmen  in  George  the  Fourth's  reign 
were  : — 

1820-21  Sir  Abraham  Bradley        1824-25  Dniry  Jones. 

King,  Bart.  25-  b  Thomas  Abbott. 

21-  2  Sir    John     Kingston  26-  7  Samuel  W.  Tyndall. 

James^  Bart.  27-  8  Sir  Edmund  Nugent, 

22-  3  Jolin  Smyth  Fleming  28-  9  Alexander  Montgomery 

23-  4  Richard  Smyth.  20-30  Jacob  West. 

[     265     ] 




The  first  act  of  the  Board  in  the  new  reign  was  again  to 
reunite  the  offices  of  chaplain  and  head  master  in  the  person 
of  the  Rev.  James  Walker  King.  He  was  an  able  and 
accomplished  man,  but  he  was  the  son  and  heir  of  the  late 
chairman,  Sir  Abraham  Biadley,  and  he  was  himself  chaplain 
to  the  new  Lord  Lieutenant,  Marquess  of  Angiesea  ;  and  the 
position  on  the  Board  of  his  father,  who  was  a  magnate,  his 
own  interests  outside,  and  the  poor  example  of  Allan 
Morgan's  long  headship  did  not  contribute  to  the  zeal  and 
devotion  essential  in  the  chief  of  a  public  school.  In  1834  he 
married,  and  this  did  not  attach  him  more  closely  to  dull 
routine  :  he  occasionally  examined  the  senior  boys,  but 
seems  to  have  left  the  strain  of  teaching  to  Dalton,  and 
matters  of  discipline  mainly  to  Mr.  Hone,  the  registrar. 
Then,  in  1836,  he  resigned,  and  two  years  after  succeeded  to 
his  father's  baronetcy,  and  his  son  is  the  present  baronet, 
Sir  Charles  Simeon  King,  of  Corrard,  Fermanagh,  which  his 
ancestors  had  possessed  from  Charles  L's  time  ;  they  were 
kinsmen  of  the  great  Archbishop,  to  whom,  as  w^e  have  seen, 
our  King's  Hospital  owes  so  much. 

In  the  early  thirties  our  governors  were  much  occupied 
in  enforcing  their  claims  on  Cappoloughlin  mentioned 
above,  and  the  tale  unfolds  a  romance  of  the  nwsteries 
of  Chancery  beside  which  Jamdyce  v.  Jarndyce  shrinks, 
acquitting  the  genius  of  Dickens  of  all  overstatement  of 
the  cause  celebrc  by  which  he  wrought  reforms  which 
the  world    had    long   sought  vainly  from  jurists  or  judges. 

266       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Even  old  lawyers,  not  merely  of  to-day,  but  those  engaged 
in  such  causes  themselves,  could  hardly  tell  how  they 
could  last  for  generations  without  doing  anything,  or 
anything  but  evil  ;  for  they  had  begun  often  generations 
before  the  counsel  or  Lord  Chancellor  of  the  day  had  been 
born.  And  as  in  this  instance  King's  Hospital  stood 
defrauded  for  years  and  years,  and  the  scandal  has  not 
been  hitherto  disclosed,  the  scarce  credible  story  must  be 
recorded  here. 

It  has  been  already  told  how  the  Education  Commissioners 
in  their  report  of  1810'  had  included  in  the  Blue  Coat 
endowments  an  annuity  of  ;^20  granted  by  our  old  founder 
John  Preston  in  1686,  and  how  their  inquiry,  held  on 
other  schools,  disclosed  that  Preston's  grant  had  given  his 
estate  of  Cappoloughhn,  739  acres  in  Queen's  County,  on  an 
educational  trust  for  ever.  The  rental  was  then  only  £80 
yearly,  for  those  were  the  days  of  the  Revolution.  Of  this 
£80,  £35  was  to  pay  a  schoolmaster  in  Navan,  to  be  named  by 
his  heirs ;  {25,  similarly,  for  one  in  Ballyroan;  and  one-fourth, 
or  £20,  to  the  Blue  Coat  governors  ;  but,  if  the  rental  shoirld 
increase,  the  surplus  was  to  be  divided  between  these  schools 
as  his  heirs  and  trustees  should  determine.  The  Commissioners 
in  a  second  report  informed  the  Lord  Lieutenant  that 
Cappoloughlin,  with  a  rental  now  of  £1,400  a  year,  was  in 
Chancery,  and  had  been  the  subject  of  gross  mismanagement 
and  abuses.  Thereupon,  in  1813,  a  statute  (53  Geo.  III., 
c.  107)  created  a  great  commission,  long  known  as  the  Clare 
Street  Commissioners  of  Education — ^the  Lord  Chancellor, 
the  Archbishops,  Provost,  bishops,  and  magnates  many, 
armed  with  the  most  drastic  power  over  endowed  schools  ; 
it  specially  named  the  Preston  foundations,  and  declared  the 
right  of  the  Blire  Coat  to  one-fourth  of  the  Cappoloughlin 

But  it  needed  a  stronger  Act  to  loosen  the  Chancery 
clutches.  With  all  their  powers  the  Commissioners  must 
await  the  final  decree  in  the  Attorney-General  v.  Preston, 
though  that  might  linger  to  the  judgment  of  all  things  ;  and 

1  Chapter  XIII. 


yet  they  might  hope,  for  was  not  Lord  Manners  the  Chan- 
cellor and  chief  in  the  Commission  himself  ?  The  suit  was 
indeed  then  dead,  but  awaiting  resurrection  from  the  limbo 
of  an  abatement.  So,  in  1816.  Attorney-General  Saurin, 
on  the  relation  of  the  Commissioners,  filed  a  Bill  of  Review 
which  sets  forth  the  shameful  and  sordid  story.  It  recites 
Alderman  Preston's  deed,  and  how  his  four  trustees  and  the 
heirs  of  their  survivors,  and  his  own  heir  male  and  heir 
general  for  ever  were  to  manage  Cappoloughlin  and  the 
schools,  his  heirs  to  nominate  the  schoolmasters  in  Navan 
and  Ballyroan.  The  trusts  were  to  begin  on  the  death  of  his 
widow,  and  no  one  knew  when  that  was  ;  but  in  1735  the 
Attorney- General  v.  Edwards,  the  original  cause,  brought 
estate  and  tiusts  into  the  iron  giasp  of  Chancery,  and  asked 
to  have  the  trusts  carried  out.  These  were  simple  enough  ; 
if  it  were  to-day,  a  careful  scheme  could  be  at  once  submitted 
to  the  Court  and  adopted  at  a  moderate  expense.  But,  to 
follow  the  sorry  sequel,  one  must  recall  the  noble  principles  of 
equity  on  which  this  suit  was  framed.  One  was  the  golden 
lule  that  everyone,  no  matter  how  bare  or  unsubstantial  his 
interest  in  the  cause,  must  be  a  party  to  it,  and  that  no  step, 
however  formal,  could  ever  be  taken  unless  all  were  present 
to  see  equity  done.  Another  was  that  if  any  one  of  all  these 
parties  died,  the  cause  in  sympathy  died  with  him,  and  so 
lay  dead  till  revived  by  a  new  bill  telling  the  story  all  over 
again.  So  this  Attorney-General  v.  Edwards  made  defendants 
Hugh  Edwards  and  I\Trs.  Margaret  Faviere  and  her  husband 
John,  representing  the  co-heiresses  of  David  Cairns,  the  last 
of  John  Preston's  four  trustees  of  1686,  and  Mrs.  Mary 
Ludlow  and  her  husband  Peter,  for  she  was  Preston's  heiress 
at  law,  and  the  golden  theory  required  that  husbands  must 
be  present  to  protect  the  rights  of  their  ladies,  though  these 
were  nil ;  and  with  these  were  John  Preston  of  Bellinter.  now 
heir  male,  who,  with  his  tenant  defendant,  Fysher,  were 
enjoying  Cappoloughlin  in  breach  of  the  trusts.  In  1737 
Lord  Wyndham  made  his  seemingly  simple  decree  to  carry 
out  the  trusts,  and  directing  that  the  heirs  and  trustees 
should  lay  a  scheme  before  the  master,  and  that  Mr.  Preston 

268       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

should  give  an  account  of  the  estate  since  old  Mr.  Preston's 
death.  But  we  are  now  naively  told  that  "  before  am^^thing 
was  done  under  the  decree  Mr.  Edwards  died  and  with  him 
the  cause,  though  this  descendant  of  a  long  dead  trustee,  who 
had  never  acted,  had,  perhaps,  never  even  heard  of  Cappo- 
loughlin  till  dragged  into  a  suit  he  had  no  concern  in.  Equity 
had  then,  as  now,  the  power  to  appoint  trustees  of  its  own 
when  the  legal  trustees  were  not  available,  but  another 
golden  rule  forbade  that  this  should  be  done  till,  at  any  cost, 
the  heirs  of  the  last  trustee  should  be  found,  though  he  might, 
when  found,  prove  to  be  a  pauper,  a  fool, or  a  felon.  So  the 
suit  was  revived,  and  a  full  new  decree  was  made  against 
Hugh  Edwards'  heirs,  three  little  girl  minors,  Olivia,  Jane, 
and  Elizabeth,  who  were  gravely  commanded  to  carry  out 
the  trusts.  Thus  time  sped  over,  and  other  defendants  died, 
and  again  we  are  naively  told  that  many  new  bills  of  revivor 
were  filed  "  as  deaths  of  the  parties  required."  Pending 
these,  nothing  was  done,  save  that  Cappoloughlin  was 
"  administered  "  by  the  Court,  every  new  letting  being 
attended  by  all  the  parties  to  see  justice  done,  all  being 
allov/ed  their  costs. 

Thus  we  come  to  1758,  when  the  suit  was  only  twenty- 
three  years  old,  and  a  new  Attorney-General  revived  it, 
asking  that  Mr.  Preston  and  his  tenant  should  be  ordered  to 
give  up  Cappoloughlin,  whither  they  had  retired  in  the  years 
of  suspended  animation;  but  new  heirs  were  now 
indispensable  parties,  for  Olivia  Edwards  had  grown 
up  and  was  now  Lady  Rosse,  and,  with  her 
husband,  Earl  Richard,  and  Faviere's  son,  were 
now  the  heirs  of  the  old  dead  trustee  Cairns. 
Mrs.  Ludlow,  John  Preston's  heir  when  the  suit  began,  was 
now  represented  by  her  son.  Lord  Ludlow.  But  this  new 
suit  lingered  and  broke  down,  the  Evil  One  knows  why. 
Lord  and  Lady  Rosse  and  her  maiden  sisters,  Jane  and 
Elizabeth,  now  renounced  any  share  in  the  fraudful  game, 
and  it  was  only  in  1773  the  cause  was  again  fully  heard,  when 
the  Chancellor,  Lord  Lifford,  solemnly  decreed  that  Lady 
Rosse  and  her  sisters  should  be  discharged,  and  that  all  the 


remaining  heirs  and  trustees  should  be  at  hberty  to  lay  a 
scheme  before  the  Master  in  Chancery  exactly  as  had  been 
ordered  in  vain  b}'-  Lord  Wyndham  only  thirty-five  years 

The  case  then  was  with  Master  Walker  for  two  years,  and, 
on  his  reports,  emerged  before  the  Chancellor  in  1776  for 
another  perfect  decree,  which  ordered  Lady  Rosse  and  her 
sisteis  to  convey  Cappoloughlin  to  a  body  of  trustees  well 
chosen  by  the  Master,  including,  with  the  remaining  heirs, 
three  bishops,  a  Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  and  Lord  Dawson 
of  Portarlington.  It  directed  £^4^  a  year  to  be  allocated  to 
the  schoolmasters  of  Navan  and  Ballyroan  when  these  should 
be  appointed,  but  reserved  further  action  till  the  heirs  should 
decide  whether  they  wished  to  exercise  their  powers  of 
appointing  the  schoolmasters,  though  all  of  them  were  then 
before  the  Court.  This  order,  however,  looked  too  much  like 
business  ;  so  it  was  found  when  the  ladies  came  to  assign  the 
estate  to  the  new  trustees,  that  though  prepared  at  great 
cost,  the  name  of  Lord  Dawson,  now  become  Lord  Carlow, 
who  had  nothing  to  do  with  Cappoloughlin,  had  been 
omitted.  A  new  decree  must  be  obtained  from  the  Chancellor 
to  remedy  this  fatal  defect  ;  and  as  it  now  transpired  that 
there  were  no  school  buildings  or  homes  for  the  masters 
either  in  Navan  or  Ballyroan,  this  last  decree  again  ordered 
a  scheme  to  be  proposed  for  these  and  laid  before  the  Court. 

It  would  seem  that,  after  this,  upon  the  next  death,  the 
dead  suit  was  allowed  to  lie  dead.  Possibly  when  Lord  Clare 
w-as  Chancellor  the  ring  of  delinquents  dared  not  let  the  case 
come  before  one  who  would  have  stamped  out  the  iniquity 
instanter.  For  here  a  deeper  dark  settles  on  the  lurid  drama, 
which  the  discoveries  of  the  Clare  Street  Commissioners  in 
1816  only  partially  dispel.  Attorney-General  Sauiin's 
reviving  bill,  however,  tells  such  unbelieveable  things  as  that 
the  conveyance  of  Cappoloughlin  to  the  new  trustees  ordered 
by  Lord  Lifford  in  1777  had  never  been  even  executed,  and 
no  schoolhouses  had  yet  been  built  ;  and  that  meanwhile  two 
receivers,  who  as  officers  of  the  Court  had  the  estate  in  hands, 
had  successively  put  the  rents  into  their  pockets,  the  loot  of 

270       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Mr.  John  Joner  reaching  ;£2,ooo,  followed  by  that  of  Mr. 
Mark  M'Causland,  being  £i;500  more.  The  Court,  which, 
like  a  silly  pedigreeist,  had  been  spending  years  and  hundreds 
in  hunting  after  the  heirs  of  the  dead,  who  had  never  the 
slightest  interest  in  the  case,  never  seems  to  have  made 
inquiiy  after  these  brigands  or  the  sureties  answerable  for 
their  defaults.  Further  it  was  found  that  Preston's  heir-at- 
law,  who  had  become  Lord  Tara,  had  somehow  been  paid  out  of 
Court  for  years,  the  salaries  allocated  to  the  two  schoolmasters, 
amounting  to  £175  yearly,  and  in  1794  had  nominated  his 
brother,  the  Rev.  Joseph  Preston,  as  schoolmaster,  both  in 
Navan  and  Ballyroan,  the  latter  being  forty  miles  from  his 
reverence's  home.  Tliis  gentleman,  it  was  averred,  had  only 
been  in  tlie  schools  some  seven  times  in  as  many  years,  and, 
whilst  appropriating  the  salaries,  had  named  poor  ushers  as 
deputies  at  starvmg  wages.  Meanwhile  Cappoloughlin,  re-let 
in  1807  at  the  war  rents,  yielded  nearly  £6,000  in  four  yeais, 
of  which  more  than  half  was  devoured  in  costs  and  expenses. 
The  Commissioners  further  told  that  in  181 3  they  had,  under 
the  powers  of  their  Act,  turned  out  the  Reverend  Joseph  from 
the  mastership  of  Cavan,  there  being  then  only  two  children 
in  the  school  of  the  High  Court  of  Chancery.  He  had 
voluntarily  resigned  Ballyroan  six  years  before,  when  the  old 
Commission  was  on  the  trail,  but  his  brother.  Lord  Tara, 
appointed  one  Hamilton  deputy  instead,  and  he,  too,  never 
entered  the  walls.  The  Commissioners  then  resolved  on  a 
large  effective  meicantile  school,  but  here  Lord  Tara  again 
stepped  in  and,  as  Chancery  nominator,  named  Rev.  Alex. 
Frankin,  who,  being  required  by  the  Commissioners  to 
discharge  the  duties,  admitting  his  disability,  resigned  ;  and 
one  M'Loughlin.  named  by  Lord  Tara  instead,  at  the  new 
salary  of  £150,  was  found  to  be  one  of  the  old  ushers  at  fi^ 
a  year,  and  was  disallowed  by  the  Commissioners  as  wliolly 

It  is  refreshing  to  read  that  one  at  least  of  these  hereditary 
trustees  now  refused  to  act  further  with  the  Chancery  gang. 
The  reverend  defendant,  Joseph  Favicre,  one  of  the  heirs  of 
Cairns,  the  last  trustee,  did  so  because  he  wished  the  trusts 


to  be  left  wholly  to  the  Commissioners,  who,  winding  up  with 
the  statement  that  both  schools  are  in  ruins,  pray  the  Lord 
Chancellor  to  discharge  Tara  as  nominator,  to  vest  Cappo- 
loughlin  in  themselves,  and  allow  them  to  execute  theii 
statutory  duties. 

But  that  would  have  stopped  the  cause,  and  the  pleasant 
little  parties  in  the  Master's  office  whenever  tlie  smallest 
game  was  afoot,  and  where  everyone  was  allowed  his  costs, 
though  nothing  at  all  was  done,  since  everyone  must  be 
there  according  to  the  golden  rule,  and  if  anyone  was  absent, 
though  by  negligence,  there  must  be  a  further  little  party  ; 
for  by  another,  and  what  we  may  call  a  brazen  rule,  the 
Master  could  not  disallow  the  costs,  though  he  knew  the 
absence  to  have  been  negligent.  This  amazing  impotence 
was  only  remedied  by  statute  in  the  fourth  year  of  George  IV., 
the  partial  reform  being  perhaps  partly  due  to  the  scandals 
of  this  very  case. 

So  answers  were  filed  by  Lord  Tara  and  otlicrs,  fi\'e-barred 
gates  and  wiie  entanglements  to  prevent  the  capture  of  the 
Fortress  of  Fraud.  Tara  pleaded  his  sacred  rights  as 
Alderman  Preston's  heir  male,  and  that  his  co-defendant, 
Earl  Ludlow,  heir  general,  had  always  joined  in  liis 
nominations  of  the  schoolmasters,  which,  he  sa3^s,  had  always 
been  sanctioned  by  the  Court.  Ludlow  lived  in  England  and 
probably  didn't  even  know  where  Ballyroan  was,  but  he  also 
aided  his  kinsmen,  putting  in  a  similar  answer.  As  to  the 
abuses  charged  they  were  discreetly  silent.  Then  there  were 
replications  and  rejoinders,  and  the  suit  trailed  on  like  a 
slim}'-  boa-constrictor  till,  nearly  four  years  after  the 
Commissioners  had  intervened,  it  came  before  Lord  ^Manners 
for  what  was  now  hoped  would  be  the  final  hearing. 

In  January,  1820,  His  Lordship  did  indeed  decree  that  the 
estates  should  be  conveyed  to  the  Commissioners,  but,  with 
the  appalling  facts  all  before  him,  the  prayer  to  displace  Tara 
and  Ludlow  as  nominators  \\as  dismissed  with  costs  ;  all 
parties  w-ere  to  have  their  costs  out  of  Cappoloughlin,  and 
the  cause  was  to  stand  over — for  what  ? — to  ascertain  who 
were  the  heirs  of  David  Cairns,  the  last  trustee  of  the  deed 

272       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

of  one  hundred  and  thirty  years  before,  and  who  himself  had  - 
never  hved  to  act.  But  next  year,  again  before  anything 
was  done,  Lord  Tara  died,  and  with  him  the  cause  ;  but  his 
brother,  the  Reveiend  Joseph,  was  now  his  heir  and  lieir 
male  of  Alderman  Pieston,  and  so  the  boa-constrictor, 
scotched,  not  killed,  must  be  galvanised,  and  the  suit 
recom.menced  against  that  exemplary  clergy^man. 

But  the  barbed  wires  and  five-barred  gates  were  again 
erected  by  him.  His  answer  reads  as  a  delightful  sample  of 
subtle  irony.  As  to  the  ruined  school  buildings,  the 
nicompetent  masters,  the  paucity  of  scholars,  without 
admitting  the  facts,  he  pleads  that,  if  these  be  true,  they  weie 
all  the  work  of  the  Court  itself,  with  whom  lay  the 
administration  of  all,  and  if  enough  money  was  not  allowed, 
surely  the  Court  and  not  he  or  his  brother  was  to  blame. 
As  to  the  several  abortive  decrees  of  successive  Chancellors, 
he  had  no  information,  but  would  refer  His  Lordship  to  the 
files  of  his  own  Court,  where  he  could  find  it  all  himself. 
Did  the  Loid  Chancellor  wince  at  this  ?  Surely  Charles 
Dickens  could  scarce  have  beaten  it  !  But  as  to  the  future 
nominations,  he  relies  on  his  rights  as  heir  of  the  Founder, 
which  he  is  quite  prepared,  he  says,  to  exercise. 

So  after  a  modest  delay  of  three  more  years  the  case  came 
again  before  Lord  Manners  in  June,  1824.  Surely  now 
there  must  be  an  end.  The  decree  is  indeed  a  mighty  one. 
It  fills  thirty-two  immense  folio  pages  in  our  Record  Office, 
closely  written,  and  would,  if  spun  out  like  the  cause  itself, 
have  reached  a  furlong.  In  the  first  thirty-one  pages  it 
rehearses  all  that  we  have  hitherto  told  ;  the  last  half  page 
contains  His  Lordship's  wise  decision  on  it  all. 

One  would  like  to  ask  all  the  judges  to  guess  what  this 
long  sought  judgment  was.  They  couldn't.  It  sublimely 
directs  an  inquiry — In  whom  the  right  of  nomination  of 
masters  to  Navan  and  Bally  roan  rests,  and  who  are  the  heirs 
of  David  Cairns,  the  last  trustee  of  1686  ! 

The  scandal  is  enhanced  when  we  reflect  how,  whilst  a 
century  was  passed  in  hunting  for  the  phantoms  of  a 
phantom,  the  heirs  of  an  old  trustee,  on  the  golden  rule  that 


all  interests  must  be  represented,  nobody,  of  all  the  Chan- 
cellois.  Masters,  Attorney-Generals,  or  solicitors,  ever  thought 
it  right  to  give  notice  to  the  Blue  Coat  governors  of  their 
interest  in  the  estate,  in  their  ignorance  of  which  they 
accepted  for  two  generations  the  3'early  pittance  of  £20, 
whilst  the  surplus  rents,  of  which  they  should  have  had  a 
full  fourth,  were  lavished  on  a  futile  litigation. 

The  mountain  was  in  labour ;  this  ridiculous  mouse 
emerged.  Reading  the  reams  of  recital  one  might  think  the 
Chancellor  had  tired  before  he  came  to  his  judgment,  like 
the  little  Dutchman  who,  wanting  to  win  momentum  to 
jump  a  fence,  took  a  mile  to  run  at  it,  but,  just  as  he  reached 
it,  lay  down  fatigued  before  he  could  rise  to  spring.  The 
inquiries  he  directed  had  been  made  and  answered  to  his 
predecessor  eighty-seven  years  before,the  pedigree  of  heirship 
had  been  represented  ever  since,  and  the  then  heirs  were 
there  before  him  ;  but  certainty  must  be  more  certain,  for 
was  not  the  golden  rule  that  the  wish  of  the  pious  founder 
that  his  trustees  for  ever  should  manage  his  bounty  far  more 
sacred  than  that  his  bounty  itself  should  go  according  to  his 
wish  for  the  training  of  the  children  upon  his  estate  ?  So 
the  ghost  of  David  Cairns  must  again  be  captured.  It  is  hard 
to  forbear  surmise  that  the  Chancellor  was  jealous  of  the 
statute  that  gave  commissioners  the  control  of  trusts  that 
were  vested  in  himself,  and  shrank  from  the  just  condemna- 
tion of  their  discharge  by  his  Court  ;  and  yet  he  was  himself, 
as  has  been  said,  one  of  the  leading  Commissioners,  and  thus 
doubly  a  trustee  of  the  very  first  magnitude. 

So  the  boa-constrictor  trailed  on  once  more  ;  three  years 
elapsed  before  Master  Ellis  reported  what  everyone  knew; 
after  telling  all  about  Hugh  Edwards  and  Lady  Rosse  and 
her  infant  sisters,  he  declared  the  Reverend  Joseph  the  true 
nominator  of  schoolmasters,  and  Rev.  Joseph  Eaviere  to  be 
the  heir  or  ghost  of  David  Cairns. 

And  thus  it  might  have  trailed  to  the  crack  of  doom. 
During  all  this  sordid  lapse  the  Commissioners,  annually 
reporting  to  the  Lord  Lieutenant,  told  how  they  were 
hopefuUv  awaiting  a  final  decree,  or  that  it  scarcely  can 


274       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

be  much  longer  deferred.  Through  all  tlie  dreary  time  the 
Blue  Coat  had  been  basely  defrauded.  The  governors  seem 
never  to  have  seen  John  Preston's  grant,  until  they  learned 
from  the  old  Commission  of  their  right  to  the  surplus  of 
Cappoloughhn.  When  this  was  declared  by  the  statute  of 
1813,  their  fourth  share  was  found  to  be  £362  yearly,  and 
that  was  actually  paid  them,  by  the  Clare  Street  Conmiission 
for  1812  and  1813,  but  after  Attorney-General  v.  Lord 
Tara  the  payments  became  intermittent  and  scant,  the 
apology  being  always  "  the  cause  and  the  costs."  l^ut 
in  1831  our  board  grew  angry.  John  Claudius  Beresford, 
who  was  still  one  of  our  governors,  and  possessed  the  grit 
of  his  gallant  race,  attacked  the  Clare  Street  Commissioners 
themselves,  boldly  suggesting  that  they  were  battling  us. 
And,  indeed,  here  again  it  is  hard  to  avoid  surmising  that 
their  law^'eis  had  entered  the  vicious  circle  in  Chancery 
which  was  grinding  the  estate  to  costly  powder  without 
moving  it  an  inch  towards  the  door.  They  pleaded  to  the 
demand  of  a  settlement,  that  the  receivers'  last  account 
must  first  be  passed,  and  that  the  final  decree  was  expected 
daily.  But  Beresford  declining  to  submit  to  any  further 
delay,  a  King's  Counsel  was  appointed  arbitrator,  and  he 
awarded  in  1833,  £1,460  due  to  the  Hospital  after  all 
deductions,  though  but  for  the  costs  our  arrears  were  then 
nearly  £5,000. 

How  the  boa-constrictor  actually  died  is  somewhat 
misty.  We  cannot  find  a  final  decree  in  the  Record  Office, 
but  we  know  that  the  Clare  Street  Commissioners  reported 
to  Government  in  1834,  ^^^^.t  the  great  cause  was  at  last 
ended,  adding  as  their  pathetic  requiem—"  after  exactly 
Ninety-nine  Years." 

Ninety-nine  years  doing  nothing  but  mischief  ;  debasing 
the  great  court,  whose  proud  boast  is  to  be  the  King's  royal 
guardian  of  charities  and  trusts,  into  an  instrument  of 
chicane,  rifling  the  charitv  with  breaches  of  trust  of  the 
grossest.  Fraudulent  trustees  now  earn  penal  sen'itude 
for  far  less  rapine  than  this,  our  Jarndyce  v.  Jarndyce, 
discloses.       To  those  who  ask  how  these  thing?  could  be 


the  answer  is  "  The  system  and  routine."  The  judge  only 
decided  on  what  was  laid  before  him  at  long  intervals  on 
the  Masters'  reports.  The  blaster  only  decided  what 
the  jxirties  brought  before  him  from  time  to  time,  and  the 
lawyers  worked  on  from  term  to  term,  changing  often, 
and  nobod}^  ever  looking  back  on  the  past.  And  yet  the 
result  was  as  bad  as  though  all  concerned,  Chancellors, 
Masters,  parties,  lawyers,  had  been  banded  together  as 
Sicilian   brigands. 

The  Clare  Street  Commissioners  have  long  since  merged 
in  the  Land  Commission,  and  it  is  our  comfort  to  know 
that  old  John  Preston's  annuit}/  still  yields  us  some  £140 
yearly,  and  to  take  such  solace  for  our  losses  as  v/e  may 
from  the  humorous  side  of  this  comico-tragedy.  John 
Claudius  Beresford,  who  forced  the  falling  of  the  curtain, 
was  not  a  man  to  be  trifled  uith  safely.  Strong  himself, 
he  was  a  son  of  one  of  the  strongest  and  perhaps  then  the 
most  influential  potentate  in  Ireland — the  Right  Hon. 
John  Beresford,  President  of  the  Revenue  Board,  of  whom 
Lord  Fitzwilliam  complained  that  he  had  far  more  power 
than  the  Lord  Lieutenant  himself.  John  Claudius  was 
himself  also  a  memiber  of  the  Privy  Council,  but  he  was 
a  city  magnate  too,  and  had  been  chairman  of  our  Board 
when   Lord  Mayor  in   18 14. 

Under  the  somewhat  laisscz  faire  regime  of  Mr.  King, 
discipline  had  gone  a  little  out  of  hand.  The  boys  had  been 
allowed  to  go  home  or  through  the  city  too  much  as  they 
pleased,  with  the  sure  consequence  when  such  laxity  exists, 
but  the  governors  now  had  an  invaluable  addition  in  Dr. 
Charles  Elrington,  the  regius  professor  of  Divinity  in  the 
University.  He  cam^e  as  treasurer  of  the  Erasmus  Smith 
board,  to  follow  in  the  steps  of  his  great  predecessors. 
Archbishop  King  and  Lord  Chief  Justice  Downes.  In 
paying  this  tiibute,  it  is  a  pleasure  to  know  that  he  is  still 
represented  in  tlie  Blue  Coat,  for  his  grandson,  Frank 
Elrington  Ball,  the  late  Lord  Chancellor's  son,  is  one  of  our 
worthiest  governors  to-day.  In  1835  Dr.  Elrington  carried 
a  scheme  of  new  rules  ;  these  restored  the  controlling  power 

276       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

over  all  in  the  Chaplain  and  Headmaster,  with  the  sole  and 
specific  charge  of  the  religious  instruction  ;  they  carefully 
guarded  the  system  of  exeats,  whicli  must  be  given  in  writing 
by  the  Headmaster  or  Registrar.  The  classes  were  all 
remodelled,  and  provision  made  for  an  usher  to  assist  Dalton  ; 
they  defined  the  hours  of  roll  call,  when  the  boys  rose,  and 
at  curfew,  and  they  strictly  required  that  und'^r  no  cir- 
cumstances or  at  any  time  should  the  boys  be  left  without 
the  presence  of  some  master — "as  controlling  power  over 
their  actions."  Had  Mr.  King  remained  to  carry  out  these 
excellent  reforms  all  might  have  been  well,  but  he  probably 
found  them  too  irksome  a  task,  for  next  year  he  left  us  ; 
and  before  they  were  given  time  to  operate,  the  Reverend 
Fielding  Quid  was  elected  to  the   united  office. 

This  appointment  was  most  unfortunate,  for  he  proved 
to  be  deficient  in  all  the  qualities  requisite  in  the  head  of 
a  large  public  school.  He  failed  as  a  teacher,  whilst  he  was 
absolutel}^  devoid  of  the  disciplinary  faculties  so  essential 
to  his  position.  He  was  a  chronic  invalid,  and  was  con- 
tinually asking  leave  of  absence,  and  the  most  that  could 
be  said  for  him,  was  that  he  was  a  blameless  clergyman. 
Though  now  headmaster,  he  interpreted  his  duties  as  such 
in  the  light  of  his  predecessors,  Morgan  and  King,  by 
confining  his  tuition  to  the  religious  teaching,  only 
occasionally  taking  a  secular  class,  but  devolving  all  the 
routine  instruction  on  Dalton,  the  second  master,  and 
Courtney,  the  ushei,  and  all  disciplinary  powers  on  these 
and  Mr.  Hone,  the  Registrar.  The  result  was  that  in  the 
next  five  years  a  spirit  of  anarchy  was  evoked  which  took 
years  to  allay,  and  which  made  the  last  lustrum  under  our 
old  constitution  domestically  the  most  troubled  of  any  in 
our  annals.  The  recurrent  friction  might  well  be  forgotten, 
but  that  it  developed  a  saving  element  of  humour  which, 
we  may  hope,  gave  some  solace  to  the  governors  who  had 
to  deal  v/ith  the  troubles,  and  w^iich  preserves  for  it  a  niclie 
in  this  modest  narrative  now. 

Had  Dalton  and  Courtney  been  other  than  they  were, 
harmony  might  still   have  endured,  but  though  poor  Dalton 


was  a  devoted  officer,  and  had  profited  by  the  reprimand  of 
a  few  years  before,  we  have  seen  that  he  was  somewhat 
lacking  in  tact ;  he  had  become,  however,  popular  with 
the  boys.  But  Courtney,  the  usher,  who  now  styled  himself 
junior  master,  shewed  one  title  to  the  name,  in  tliat  he 
claimed,  not  only  to  be  master  over  the  boys,  but  to  be 
master  of  Dalton,  whose  subordinate  he  was.  Dr. 
Elrington's  rules  giving  them  a  dual  control  over  the 
pupils  through  all  the  long  day,  gave  an  occasion  for  strained 
relations  which  had  not  been  foreseen.  During  King's 
headmastership  peace  was  preserved,  but  when  enough  time 
was  given  to  allow  JMr.  Quid's  incapacity  to  transpire,  the 
war  bioke  out. 

In  December,  1837,  Dalton  sent  to  the  governors  a 
moderate  statement,  which,  without  any  incriminating 
complaint,  asked  for  some  more  clear  definition  _  of  the 
relative  duties  of  tlie  usher  and  himself,  as  there  was  now 
some  friction  between  them.  Before  any  action  was  taken, 
Courtney  became  aware  of  this  proceeding  of  Dalton 's,  and 
thereupon  the  strain  stretched  to  breaking  point. 

In  calling  the  roll  in  the  school-room  at  seven  in  the 
morning,  as  ordered  by  the  Elrington  rules,  Dalton 's  usage 
was  to  call  it  twice,  and  any  bo}^  coming  in  afterwards  was 
asked  b\'  him  to  account  for  his  absence.  After  roll  the 
boys  passed  to  their  classes  under  Courtney.  One  December 
morning  a  boy  came  in  after  second  call,  and  Dalton  directed 
him  to  come  over  and  account;  but,  as  the  school  hour  had 
just  rung,  Courtney  had  arrived  to  take  up  the  class 
to  which  the  belated  boy  belonged,  and,  seeing  this,  Dalton 
told  him  he  might  go,  but  this  did  not  satisfy  the  usher  ; 
in  presence  of  the  school,  he  ordered  the  boy  not  to  obey 
his  superior  in  office.  This  was  too  much,  Dalton  now 
commanded  the  boy  to  come  forward,  but  Courtney  cried  : 
"  I  will  not  let  him,"  and  on  Dalton  approaching  the  lad 
the  usher  interposed,  and  grasped  Dalton  in  a  personal 
encounter,  amid  cnes  of  "shame"  from  the  assembled 
school.  Dalton  having,  as  he  aftei wards  said — "  no  alter- 
native but  to  repel  force  by  force  or  to  submit  to  the  usher's 

278       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAT 

domination,"  chose  the  latter,  merely  observing,  "  Your 
conduct,  sir,  is  exceedingly  improper." 

One  might  have  supposed  that  this  was  a  case  for  the 
arbitrament  of  the  Head  Master,  but  no  one  seems  to  have 
even  thought  of  appealing  to  Mr.  Quid.  Dalton  wrote  to  the 
Loid  Mayor,  Samuel  Warren,  "  as  head  governor  and 
authorized  to  act  in  cases  of  emergency."  But  the  governors 
seem  to  have  only  desired  to  hush  the  affair.  Courtney  had 
been  appointed  by  them  under  the  new  rules,  and  would 
appear  to  have  had  some  powerful  influence  amongst  them, 
for  they  took  his  excuse  that  he  was  acting  under  their  orders 
in  taking  his  class,  and  they  kindly  suggested  to  Dalton  that 
as  he  had  now  been  in  office  thirty-three  years  it  might  be 
better  for  him  to  retire  on  a  pension.  His  reply  in  writing  is 
modest  and  dignified  ;  expressing  his  desire  to  meet  the 
Board's  wishes,  he  suggests  that  on  the  precedent  in  Beasley's 
case  his  pension  of  two-thirds  of  salary  and  value  of  his 
rooms  would  amount  to  £250  yearly.  This  caused  the  Board 
to  shrink,  so  the}'  allowed  things  to  go  on  for  the  present, 
merely  counselling  peace. 

They  should  have  known,  if  they  were  wise,  that  things 
could  not  end  there.  The  boys  had  now  espoused  Dalton's 
cause,  and  openly  rebelled  against  Courtney.  The  latter  had, 
moreover,  taken  on  himself  the  right  of  inflicting  corporal 
punishment,  and  used  this  freely,  and  friction  recurred  in 
January  ;  but  in  February  the  boys,  finding  that  Courtney's 
cane  had  become  keener  since  they  had  cried  out  "  shame," 
refused  to  go  up  to  his  night  roll  in  the  dormitories,  and, 
locking  themselves  in  the  dining  room,  barred  Courtney  out. 
He  did  apply  then  to  Quid,  who  at  first  vainly  begged  the 
boys  to  open  the  door;  but,  on  being  asked  wh}^  they  rebelled, 
there  arose  a  shout,  "  the  usher,  the  usher."  But  Dalton 
now  came  on  the  scene,  and  then  the  rebels  quietly  slipped 
out  by  the  further  door,  and  the  authorities  entering  found 
the  dining  room  empty  and  the  boys  gone  to  bed.  The  usher 
could  not  complain  of  Dalton  in  this  emente,  for  he  had 
warned  the  rebels  in  the  usher's  presence  that  they  must  be 
punished  for  disobedience.       So  Courtney,   thinking  there 


might  be  danger  in  again  directly  appealing  to  the  Board, 
wrote  a  fierce  indictment  of  the  boys  to  Mr.  Hone,  giving  the 
names  of  nine  ringleaders  whose  conduct  was  such  as  no 
corporal  punishment  could  adequately  meet.  "  as  they  not 
only  seem  still  to  exult  in  their  misconduct,  but  to  be  under 
the  impression  that  no  further  notice  will  be  taken  of  it,  and 
tiiat  the  singing  boys  only  seem  to  be  under  the  displeasure 
of  the  governors."  This  allusion  to  the  choir  referred 
to  a  well-founded  complaint  that  on  practising  night  an 
unmentionable  thing  had  been  placed  in  the  usher's  seat 
in  the  chapel,  which  must  have  been  perpetrated  with  the 
knowledge  of  all.  This  extreme  measure  of  the  contempt  in 
which  the  usher  was  held  made  it  impossible  to  allow  things 
to  continue  as  before.  The  inaction  of  the  governors  on  the 
usher's  insubordination  towards  his  superior  naturally  had 
reacted  in  the  boys'  insubordination  to  the  usher  himself. 
So  Courtney  was  relieved  of  his  office  with  an  apparently 
handsome  testimonial  ;  but,  as  this  class  of  literature  is  read 
by  the  wise  rather  for  what  is  omitted  than  for  what  is  said, 
we  note  that  this  one,  whilst  highly  lauding  Mr.  Courtney's 
literary  endowments,  his  zeal,  and  his  moral  character,  is 
silent  as  to  his  temper  or  discretion  or  his  qualification  for 
the  management  of  schoolboys  ;  but  the  practice  of 
accelerating  the  departure  of  undesirable  subordinates  by 
high  encomium  to  facilitate  their  employment  elsewhere  is 
not  quite  unknown  even  in  these  days. 

The  Board  elected  to  the  vacant  places  Mr.  Fenby  as 
second  master  and  Mr.  Hanly  as  usher,  but  unfortunately 
leaving  Mr.  Ould  his  nominal  headship.  For  Fenby  proved 
so  far  worse  than  Courtney  that  he  was  now  chief  teacher, 
and  thus  had  colour  for  his  treatment  of  Hanly,  his 
subordinate,  whom  he  proceeded  to  discredit  coram  pueris. 
Mr.  Ould  he  treated  with  undisguised  contempt.  He  took 
from  the  usher  the  Scripture  classes,  which  the  chaplain 
himself  had  placed  in  Hanly's  charge,  prohibited  his  taking 
any  part  in  the  teaching  of  the  seniors  ;  and,  when,  in  his  own 
necessary  absence,  Hanly  had  taken  up  an  algebra  class,  by  a 
message  through  one  of  the  boys  he  obliged  him  to  desist. 

28o       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

It  seems  that  the  poor  usher  was  the  son  of  a  shoemaker  who 
had  supplied  the  School,  so,  in  the  presence  of  the  boys, 
Mr.  Fenby  produces  some  newly  mended  shoes  and  directs 
the  poor  usher  to  inspect  them,  adding  "  I  am  no  judge  of 
such  things  ;  the  last  shoemaker  was  too  poor  to  afford  wax," 
and  then  joined  in  the  laugh  his  refined  pleasantry  evoked  ; 
boys  are,  alas,  too  ready  to  rejoice  when  any  of  their  masters 
are  put  to  the  torture.  Thus  the  usher's  authority  was  for  the 
time  wholly  undermined  ;  the  rebellious  spirit,  of  course, 
re-awoke,  and  Fenby,  too,  liad  to  face  it.  In  December,  1838, 
he  joined  with  Hanly  in  a  charge  of  sedition  against  a  boy, 
Hautainville,  who  had  been  one  of  the  ringleaders  against 
Mr.  Courtney  some  months  before.  The  Committee  who 
heard  tlie  charge  included  Dr.  Elrington  ;  they  ordered  that 
Hautainville  should  be  removed  fromi  the  institution,  and 
that  Mr.  Quid  should  read  the  sentence  next  day  in  the  full 
schoolroom.  But  the  chaplain  himself  now  came  in,  and  in 
what  the  Committee  records  as  a  long  and  interesting 
conversation  told  them  the  School  as  at  present  constituted 
could  not  succeed  in  its  objects  ;  he  was  directed  to  send  a 
written  report  to  the  next  Board  meeting.  He,  however, 
had  scarce  withdrawn  when  F^enby,  asking  an  interview, 
lodged  the  following  counterblast.  It  is  given  in  full  as  a 
specimen  of  the  nadir  which  anarchy  had  now  reached  : — 

First — that  no  gentleman  comiiig  into  a  large  public  school 
for  only  one  hour  a  day,  and  who  is  entirely  unacquainted  with 
the  various  branches  of  science  taught  in  the  schools,  and  who 
is  likewise  without  any  knowledge  of  the  late  improvements 
adopted  in  the  government  and  discipline  of  large  schools,  can 
with  any  propriety,  be  considered  as  fully  competent  to  be  the 
head-master  without  serious  injury  and  impediment  to  the  school. 
Second. — That  it  is  altogether  impossible  that  the  second 
master  can,  with  any  degree  of  consistency,  take  on  himself  to 
arrange  the  school  on  a  new  plan,  and  change  its  mode  of 
discipline,  being  at  \he  same  time  interfered  with  by  the  head- 
master, a  gentleman,  who  from  his  age,  temper  and  want  of 
practical  experience  in  the  tuition  and  management  of  boys, 
is  altogether  unfit  for  so  important,  difficult  and  arduous  an 
undertaking.  Third. — That  the  assistant  might  be  placed 
under  the  control  of  the  master,  otherwise  not  being  responsible 
for  the  state  and  order  of  the  schocl  he  has  it  in  his  power,  should 



he  feel  hin:self  offended  by  the  master,  instead  of  being  a  useful 
auxiliary,  to  be  an  annoyance  and  destroj^er  of  the  discipline 
of  the  school. 

This  striking  model  of  discipline  the  Committee  simply 
ordered  to  stand  to  the  ensuing  meeting. 

Next  day,  when  the  school  assembled  to  witness  the 
sentence  of  expulsion  of  Hautainville,  Mr.  Fenby,  who  had 
joined  in  the  complaint  against  him,  walked  out  of  the  room, 
presumably  to  leave  the  odium  of  the  execution  on  the 
chaplain  and  usher,  for  he  was  now  courting  the  fa\-our  of 
the  boys,  as  a  despot  often  stirs  Acheron,  in  view  of  the 
pending  inquiries.  Thereupon  a  general  hiss  broke  out  from 
the  boys,  who,  on  the  following  Sunday,  armed  with  stones, 
flung  them  at  Hanly,  and  crying  out  they  would  have  him 
out  of  that,  followed  him  to  his  room,  and,  assailing  the  door, 
filled  the  lock  with  stones  and  sand.  This  fracas  occupied  the 
next  Committee  to  the  exclusion  of  the  larger  pending  cases. 
The  examination  disclosed  that  the  ringleaders  w^re  chiefly 
those  who  had  been  denounced  as  such  by  Courtney  the 
year  before.  They  admitted  throwing  stones,  but  pleaded 
it  was  not  at  Hanly  but  after  him.  One  little  fellow,  Charles 
Bilton,  was  caught  with  a  stone  in  his  pocket,  so,  unable  to 
deny  his  missile,  he  explained  that  it  was  not  there  for 
throwmg,  and,  as  it  was  not  flung  in  fact,  it  might  be  that  it 
was  only  a  stone  in  his  sleeve  to  be  used  in  the  general  melee 
as  occasion  might  require.  The  Committee  adjourned  all 
the  cases^till  after  the  Christmas  holidays,  so  of  course  the 
anarchy  ceased  not.  Before  the  meeting  in  January,  1839, 
Mr.  Ould  had  a  further  charge  against  Fenby  that  he  had 
refused  to  give  him  a  copy  of  the  new  rules — rather  strange 
that  the  Head  Master  should  not  have  a  copy  himself. 

At  the  meeting  the  Committee,  having  before  them  all  the 
cases,  Fenby  v.  Ould  and  vice  versa,  and  Hanly  v.  Fenby,  cam.e 
to  the  astounding  conclusion  that  it  did  not  appear  necessary 
to  adopt  any  proceedings  on  the  above  complaints,  all  of 
which  were  left  in  damning  record  on  the  minute  books. 
It  is  noticeable  that  Dr.  Flrington  was  not  present  at^any  of 
the  last  preceding  committees. 


So  of  course  there  was  soon  a  recrudescence.  One  of 
the  Elrington  reforms  directed  that  the  boys  should  be 
periodically  inspected  by  examiners  from  outside,  a  salutary 
measure,  acted  on  ever  since  until  the  Intermediate  system 
made  it  unnecessary.  The  first  examanation  was  fixed  for 
M^\^  Preparing  for  it  in  April,  Mr.  Quid  took  up  one  day 
Mr.  Fenby's  history  class,  and,  finding  it  utterly  ignorant, 
observed  to  the  boys  "  I  don't  blame  you."  "  To  whom  do 
you  refer  ?  "  said  Fenby,  who  was  present.  Quid  replied 
'•'To  you,  as  their  teacher."     This  scene  had  a  sequel 

A  Mr.  Irvine  and  another  examined  all  the  School  during 
two  days  in  ]\Iay.  Flis  report  on  each  class  was  fairly 
favourable,  but  contained  two  ominous  passages.  After 
praising  the  neatness  of  the  boys,  than  whom  he  had  seldom 
seen  a  more  interesting  set,  he  adds  that  "  When  the 
respective  duties  of  each  individual  is  properly  defined,  and 
so  limited  as  to  prevent  the  duties  coming  in  collision,  then 
may  those  interested  in  the  well-being  of  the  institution  hope 
for  prosperity  ;  "  and  he  thus  concludes,  "  These  are 
circumstances  on  which  I  am  not  aware  it  is  my  duty  to 
remark,  but  as  they  seem  to  mar  the  advancement  of  the 
School  I  cannot  refrain  from  saying  that  they  are  worthy  of 
the  investigation  of  the  governors,  in  which  I  would  be 
happy  to  give  any  explanation  as  far  as  these  things  have 
com.e  within  my  knowledge."  This  calm  verdict  of  an 
outsider,  ■\\hich  in  truth  was  a  severe  reflection  on  the  apathy 
of  the  governors,  at  last  compelled  a  decisive  inquiry. 

This  was  forthwith  held,  and  occupied  two  days  ;  Quid 
and  Fenby  were  present,  and  a  charge  was  made  that, 
immediately  before  the  examinations,  the  latter  had  bid  the 
boys  not  to  answer  in  Scripture,  which  would  thus  secure 
condemnation  of  the  chaplain,  whose  special  subject  of 
teaching  it  was,  and  so  prepare  for  a  breakdown  in  his  own 
subjects,  wherein  Quid  had  found  his  class  so  deficient.  A 
boy,  M'Donald,  alleged  that  Mr.  Fenby  told  him  if  the  boys 
tripped  or  broke  down  in  Scripture  he,  Fenby,  would  be  all 
right,  otherwise  he  would  lose  his  situation  ;  and  asked  him, 
as  he  could  not  himiself  interfere  directly,  to  pass  the  word 


through  the  senior  boys  and  all  would  be  right.  Another 
boy,  Clarke,  stated  he  had  heard  tlie  word  go  round  generally, 
but  could  not  tell  where  it  originated.  A  third  boy,  Colgan, 
heard  the  words  "  Don't  answ-er  "  go  round,  and  passed  it 
himself  to  thiee  others  :  he  explained,  however,  his  real 
reason  was  only  to  cover  liis  own  bad  answering.  As  Colgan 
was  one  of  the  rioters  of  the  year  before  and  one  of  the  Hanly 
stone  throwers,  his  ingenuous  plea  was  highly  likely.  Per 
contra  Master  Nathaniel  Joint  said  he  had  himself  answered 
as  well  as  he  could,  but  advised  the  other  boys  not  to  answer. 
This,  however,  he  naively  explained,  was  to  secure  the 
premium  himself.  The  Committee,  failing  to  see  any  humour 
in  this,  made  poor  Joint  their  first  victim,  and  sentenced  him 
to  be  turned  out  of  the  School.  M'Donald,  recalled,  was 
severely  cross  examined  by  Fenby,  but  without  effect,  and 
solemnly  asked  to  reconsider  his  evidence,  said  he  would 
swear  to  it  if  necessary.  The  cup  was  full.  The  Committee 
reported  to  the  Board  their  unanimous  opinion  that  they 
should  dispense  with  the  services  of  Mr.  Fenby  ;  and  this 
at  last  they  did. 

In  his  place  was  chosen  one  of  the  very  best  officers  the 
Blue  Coat  has  ever  possessed,  Mr.  Louis  Le  Pan,  of  one  of 
the  Dublin  French  refugee  families.  He  had  all  the 
characteristic  faculties  essential  for  a  true  head  master.  In 
this  position  he  was  now  placed,  and  retained  it  with  the 
commendation  of  all  for  more  than  a  generation.  He  was 
not  now  in  orders,  so  he  could  not  be  made  chaplain  too. 
Mr.  Quid  was  retained  in  that  latter  office,  but  was  relieved 
of  all  his  other  scholastic  duties.  Even  as  chaplain  he  was  a 
melanchoh'  failure.  He  w^as  cautioned,  however,  not  to 
interfere  with  the  ]\Iaster's  headship.  Mr.  Hanly,  too,  was 
retained  with  a  caution,  and  a  new  official,  Shirley,  was 
appointed  as  Superintendent  to  aid  in  the  care  and  discipline 
of  the  boys  out  of  school  hours.  And  peace  w^as  at  length 
restored  in  the  schoolrooms. 

But  it  would  have  been  too  ro.uch  to  hope  that  the  heated 
atmosphere,  so  long  surcharged,  should  not  have  reached  the 
basement  storey,  where  the  feminine  staff,  which  included 

284       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

five  nurses,  were  under  the  housekeeper,  Mrs.  Sherwin.  As 
this  lady  had  £80  a  year,  with  her  maintenance  and  rooms, 
she  might  have  been  thought  the  proper  person  to  select  the 
kitchen  chief,  but  the  Board,  who  had  taken  charge  of 
domestic  routine  themselves,  elected  Miss  Georgina  Crawford, 
with  the  common  result  when  men  take  on  them  women's 
functions.  Miss  Crawford's  personality  is  so  unique  as  to 
merit  a  portrait  ; — if  the  qualifications  for  a  cook  had  been 
literary,  her  selection  was  good,  for  she  could  quote  Shakes- 
peare, and  Miss  Edgeworth  might  have  envied  her  writing. 
She  began  by  spurning  Mrs.  Sherwin's  authority,  on  the 
ground  that,  having  been  appointed  by  the  Board,  thev  alone 
were  her  masters.  Then  she  brought  in  her  father,  who,  an 
absolute  intruder,  took  upon  him,  in  Mr.  Le  Pan's  absence, 
to  ordei  the  boys  into  the  dining  hall  before  the  prescribed 
hour.  As  Le  Pan  had  never  even  seen  this  man,  he  naturally 
asked  an  explanation.  Thereupon  the  gentle  Georgina  gave 
a  double  knock  at  his  door  ;  and,  as  he  was  just  then  not  in, 
slie  made  her  way  to  the  sittingroom,  where  a  member  of  his 
famil}^  sat,  with  an  outburst  of  vituperation.  This,  on  Mr. 
Le  Pan's  return,  she  re-poured  upon  himself  in  language  so 
violent  and  insulting  that  it  would  be  difficult,  he  says,  to 
convey  an  idea  of  it,  and  ended  b}''  saying  her  father  vn^ouM 
have  a  Board  called  and  have  him  turned  out  for  insulting 
her  father  (whom  he  had  never  peisonally  seen),  as  also  the 
housekeeper,  who  apparently  had  suggested  that  this  queen 
of  the  kitchen  had  been  drinking.  Mr.  Le  Pan,  calling  in 
Mrs.  Sherwin,  as  the  supposed  regulator  of  things  downstairs, 
the  invectives  were  only  repeated  with  further  force.  All 
the  above  was  very  moderately  reported  to  the  governors  by 
Le  Pan  at  their  own  request.  Mrs.  Sherwin  told  the 
Committee  that  Miss  Georgina's  language  was  such  that,  had 
she  been  her  own  servant,  she  must  have  been  discharged  at 
once.  The  Committee  sat  to  four  o'clock  waiting  for 
Georgina,  who  only  appeared  when  they  had  risen,  and, 
taking  advantage  of  this  absence,  they  postponed  the  inquiry 
for  a  more  convenient  season,  thus  weakly  adjourning  it  sine 
die  ;  but  Georgina  was  no  ordinary  person,  they  had  chosen 


her  themselves  and  they  could  trust  to  the  magnanimitv  of 
Mr.  Le  Pan  ;  they  were  so  far  right,  for  she  did  not  colHde 
with  him  again. 

But  of  course  it  did  not  end  here.  Within  three  months 
the  Committee  sat  on  a  protocol  of  Miss  Crawford's,  which  is 
indeed  unique  and  beyond  even  the  fancy  of  Swift  in  his 
studies  of  the  Servants'  hall.  The  penmanship  looks  really 
like  that  of  a  lady,  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  both  in  this 
and  the  style  not  one  of  the  governors,  save  Dr.  Elrington 
perhaps,  could  have  distantly  approached  it.  In  form  it  can 
only  be  likened  to  the  King's  Speech  ;  there  are  six  stately 
paragraphs,  each  commencing  "  My  Lords  and  Gentlemen," 
but,  unlike  those  gracious  yet  cautious  pronouncem.ents  this 
is  an  impeachment  of  the  whole  staff,  high  and  low,  as 
engaged  in  a  vile  conspiracy  against  her.  "  My  Lords  and 
Gentlemen,"  one  paragraph  runs,  "  you  cannot  but  too 
plainly  see  that  a  conspirac}'  exists  against  me  because  I  am 
conscientiously  and  faithfully  endeavouring  to  protect  the 
property  of  the  institution  and  doing  justice  to  the  boj^s,  this, 
my  Lords  and  Gentlemen,  is  the  head  and  front  of  my 
offending,  and  a  few  weeks  will  but  too  plainly  prove  the 
truth  of  my  economy  in  every  branch  under  my  care."  ;  and 
she  concludes,  "  I  am  very  fond  of  my  situation,  and  I  take 
a  delight  in  performing  its  duties,  and  it  is  my  determination 
to  continue  to  render  justice  to  all  parties.  My  Lords  and 
Gentlemen,  I  only  ask  in  return  your  kind  protection  and 
support  to  enable  me  to  fulfil  the  duties  of  my  situation  with 
satisfaction  to  your  institution  and  credit  to  myself." 

Her  specific  complaints  are  against  the  nurses  and  house- 
keeper, and,  with  one  exception,  refer  to  small  domestic 
details  ;  but  even  these  are  couched  in  Johnsonian  clauses  ; 
but  she  directly  charges  that  on  Sunday,  25th  October, 
Nurse  5  wilfully  threw  a  gallon  of  scalding  broth  on  her 
hands  and  arms  as  she  leaned  over  the  boiler,  which  caused 
her  "  excruciating  pain,"  and  obliged  her  to  discharge  her 
duties  for  a  week  in  torture  ;  and  her  evidence  of  conspiracy 
is  that  the  whole  staff,  whom  she  names,  from  IMr.  Le  Pan 
down,  showed  an  utter  want  of  sympathy,  Mr.  Hone,  the 

286       FOUNDATION    OF    IHE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

registrar,  refusing  her  demand  to  summon  a  Board,  as  her 
complaints  were  too  trifling  for  such  a  step.  The  refusal 
was  natural,  for  all  who  were  piesent  at  the  scalding  had 
informicd  him  that  her  charge  against  Nurse  Johnston  was 
wholly  baseless,  that  they  had  seen  how  she  herself  when 
filling  the  vessel  had  accidentally  tilted  it  into  the  boiler,  and 
Nurse  Johnston  solemnly  declared  in  the  presence  of  God 
that  she  had  never  touched  either  gallon  or  pail,  whilst  all 
five  nurses  sent  in  a  statement  that  i\Iiss  Crawford,  ever  since 
she  came,  had  kept  them  in  complete  confusion,  and  had  told 
them  she  would  drain  the  last  diop  of  her  veins  to  be  revenged 
on  them  all. 

Her  clause  aiming  at  Shirley,  the  superintendent,  can 
scarcely  be  passed  by--"  He,  during  the  Fair  week  of 
Donnybrook,"  she  says,  "  wa.s  absent  on  three  several 
occasions,  having  taken  with  him  the  key  of  the  hall.  Did 
Mrs.  Sherwm,  or  i\Ir.  Le  Pan,  or  !Mr.  Hanly,"  she  asks, 
"  report  his  absence  to  Mr.  Hone,  and,  if  so,  has  Mr.  Hone 
reported  such  negligence  to  the  Board  ?  "  This  would  have 
done  credit  to  a  cross-examining  counsel,  though,  perhaps,  the 
famous  fair  green  would  have  been  the  most  fitting  scene  for 
the  exercise  of  lier  impartial  warfare.  Yet,  in  the  face  of  all 
this,  the  facile  governors  retained  Miss  Georgina  \Aith  a 
gentle  reprimand,  accompanied  by  another  on  j\Irs.  Sherwin 
for  not  exercising  greater  firmness,  and  they  added  a  comic 
postscript  which  points  to  an  oral  hint  from  Georgina.  It 
orders  that  Mrs.  Matthews,  alias  Baily,  the  infirmary  nurse, 
do  exhibit  her  marriage  certificate  to  the  registrar,  and, 
in  default,  be  immediately  dismissed. 

They  were  perhaps  influenced  by  Georgina's  apparent  zeal 
for  economy.  If  so,  their  wisdom  was  tested  when,  two  yeais 
later,  it  was  found  that  the  charges  for  bread  far  exceeded 
the  estimated  expense.  Tlie  police  were  set  to  watch  the  gates, 
and  forthwith  arrested  an  under-servant,  burdened  with  a  large 
fresh  loaf.  Taken  to  the  station,  she  now  deposed  that  she 
was  habitually  thus  sent  out  by  Miss  Crawford  to  sell  the 
loaf  for  sixpence  and  biing  back  the  proceeds  in  the  form  of 
whiskey.     A  special  committee  of  inquiry  then  disclosed  a 


long  prevalent  system  of  abuses  under  which  the  rations 
given  out  to  the  under-staff  were  regularly  sold  to  purcliasers 
who  came  to  the  Hospital  weekh^  as  to  a  market.  The 
housekeeper  successfully  pleaded  that  as  the  governors  liad 
confirmed  Miss  Crawford's  claim  to  be  the  officer  of  the  Boaid, 
independent  of  her,  she  could  exorcise  no  contiol,  and  had 
already  felt  the  results  of  interference.  The  scandals  had 
now  gone  before  the  public  through  the  Magistrates'  Court. 
Forensic  skill  could  no  longer  screen  even  the  gentle 
Georgina,  who,  at  last  dismissed,  henceforth  disappears  in 
oblivion.  j\Irs.  Sherwin  was  pensioned  off,  and  her  successor 
was  duly  charged  with  the  selection  of  the  new  kitchen  queen. 

But,  meanwhile,  the  radical  change  in  our  constitution  had 
come.  In  August,  1840,  the  ^Municipal  Corporations  Act 
(3  &  4  Vic,  cap.  108)  was  passed,  by  which  the  Blue  Coat 
ceased  to  be  the  cit}-  school.  Section  113  provides  that  the 
existing  sixty-one  governors,  the  majority  of  whom  were 
members  of  the  Corporation,  should  continue  as  individuals, 
but  no  longer  as  representing  the  city.  They  were  now 
incorporated  in  accordance  with  King  Charles's  original 
charter,  but  when  they  had  become  reduced  to  fifty,  at 
which  number  the  Board  should  thenceforth  stand,  vacancies 
should  be  filled  up  by  the  Lord  Primate,  the  Lord  Chancellor, 
the  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  and  the  Bishop  of  Meath,  except 
the  treasurer  and  three  governors  of  the  Erasnms  Smiith 
Board,  who  are  always  to  be  four  of  the  fifty  as  delegated  by 
themselves,  they  also  to  have  the  co-option  of  four  Blue  Coat 
governors  for  their  own  board,  as  provided  by  Archbishop 
King's  statute  of  George  I.  But  the  old  power,  once  so 
salutary,  of  co-opting  eminent  members,  is  taken  awa}"  from 
the  newly  constituted  Board. i 

For  the  present,  however,  there  was  little  change,  and 
under  Mr.  Le  Pan  efficiency  reappeared  on  all  sides,  sa\'e  in 
the  chaplain's  classes.  Dr.  Harty,  appointed  in  1811,  only 
retired  in  1854,  having  served  with  the  utmost  satisfaction 
not  only  as  physician,  but  as  one  oi  the  most  active  members 
of  the  Board,  for  the  long  termi  of  forty-three  years.     His 

^  See  Appendix  C. 


colleague,  Dr.  Read,  appointed  suigeon  in  1823,  so  continued 
up  to  186 1  ;  on  Haity's  retirement  he  took  upon  him  the 
twofold  medical  duties,  for  each  of  which  ^40  a  year  had  been 
assigned,  at  a  salary  of  £50.  He  in  turn  retired  after  good 
service  of  thirty-eight  years.  The  medical  officers  certainly 
took  care  of  themselves.  Hanly,  relieved  of  such  overlord- 
ship  as  Mr.  Fenby's,  remained  second  master  up  to  1876, 
thus  earning  his  pension  after  also  having  served  just  thirty- 
eight  37ears.  These  long  terms  may  be  deemed  a  tribute  to 
the  peacefully  effective  rule  of  the  responsible  Head  master. 
But  the  chaplain  Ould  still  remained  for  nine  long  years 
an  incubus,  indeed  an  Old  Man  of  the  Sea  ;  in  every  year  he 
is  found  defective.  By  a  thoughtful  order  the  governors  had 
directed  "  that  his  discources  from  the  pulpit  shall  be,  both 
in  substance  and  duration,  such  as  are  calculated  for  the 
moral  instruction  and  religious  information  of  the  boys 
entrusted  to  his  care."  For  failuie  in  this  he  is  censured 
next  year.  Then  in  the  successive  annual  examinations  his 
classes  are  always  reported  as  deficient  in  Scripture  and 
Catechism,  and  he  is  each  time  summoned  to  explain.  His 
excuses  aie  failing  health  and  leaves  of  absence,  or  that  he 
has  sent  a  sufficient  substitute.  But  though  the  governors 
sanctioned  an  assistant  clergyman  approved  by  Archbishop 
Whateley  and  Dr.  Elrington,  the  same  unsatisfactory  results 
recurred.  At  last  the  governors  resolved  that  in  default  of 
amendment  they  must  exercise  their  power  of  dismissal 
under  the  charter.  Thereupon  the  chaplain  went  alone  to 
the  Archbishop.  Now  Dr.  Whateley,  like  many  strong  and 
masterful  men,  had  the  weakness  of  being  open  to  flattery, 
or  what  is  coarsely  called  to  be  earwigged,  and  he  very 
incautiously  wrote  Mr.  Ould  a  letter  angrily  condemning  the 
governors  for  presuming  to  suggest  the  dismissal  of  the 
chaplain  without  resorting  to  him,  our  Diocesan,  and 
intimating  that  he  would  not  approve  a  successor  under  the 
charter.  This  letter  Ould  had  printed  and  sent  to  the 
governors.  In  a  dignified  missive  to  the  Archbishop  they 
asked  whether  this  treatment  of  his  letter  had  been 
sanctioned  by  his  grace,  and  whether  he  was  aware  of  the 


facts  on  which  they  had  acted.  Then  Dr.  Whateley  perceived 
the  mistake  he  had  made.  Satisfied  presumably  with 
Dr.  Elrington  as  a  due  representative  of  the  Church,  he  had 
not  personally  taken  part  as  a  working  governor.  He  now 
explained  that  though  he  had  not  forbidden  publication,  he 
liad  intended  his  letter  as  a  private  one,  and  would  certainly 
not  think  of  acting  officially  until  he  had  heard  both  sides. 
The  chaplam  was  thereupon  summoned  by  the  Board  and 
asked  to  defend  his  recent  action,  and  on  his  wholly  failing 
to  do  so,  the  former  resolution  of  conditional  dismissal  was 
unanimously  passed  in  his  presence.  He  shortly  after 
disappeared.  Lc  Pan  had  now  graduated  in  divinity  in  the 
University,  and  was  immediately  sanctioned  by  the  Arch- 
bishop as  chaplain  ;  he  obtained  his  Doctor's  degree,  and  as 
chaplain  and  head  master  ruled  till  his  superannuation  in 
1876,  alter  a  splendid  record  of  thirty-seven  years. 

The  drastic  quality  ot  the  new  statute  does  not  seem  to 
have  been  realized  at  first,  for  the  majority  of  the  governors 
were  still,  in  fact,  members  of  the  Corporation.  They  might 
have  seen  what  was  coming  from  such  a  sign  of  the  times  as 
the  election  of  Daniel  O'Connell  to  the  mayoralty  in 
immediate  succession  to  Sir  John  Ivingston  James,  our  last 
chairman  under  the  old  Protestant  regime,  O'Connell  being 
the  first  Lord  Mayor  of  his  communion  since  the  days  of  Sir 
Thomas  Hacket  and  Tyrconnel,  a  century  and  a  half  before. 
But  in  1842  the  government  auditor  under  the  Act  sent  to 
the  Board  from  London  requiring  a  full  statement  of  the 
revenue  from  all  sources,  which  led  to  the  exhaustive  report  of 
Mr.  O'Brien,  which  has  been  already  referred  to,  and  he 
warns  the  governors  of  the  serious  loss  entailed  by  the 
cessation  of  the  Corporation  grants  ;  he  sympathetically 
suggested  that  the  new  nominators  should  be  asked  to 
enforce  a  gift  of  £100  from  each  governor  nominated  in 
future.  The  Board  thereupon  resolved  on  an  address  to 
Government  setting  forth  that  in  the  last  twenty  years  they 
hfid  received  from  the  city  on  the  election  of  22  aldermen 
£2.210,  and  in  respect  of  the  40  sheriffs  in  the  same  period 
£4.200,  the  interest  of  which  maintained  fifteen  pupils,  and 



they  asked  for  an  amending  bill  providing  that  all  future 
Protestant  sheriffs  and  all  future  governors  should  contribute 
one  hundred  guineas  to  the  Hospital.  This,  of  course,  proved 
abortive,  their  civic  power  had  gone  for  ever.  Dr.  Whateley, 
asked  by  them  to  arrange  that  the  nominators  should  require 
from  each  nominee  a  contribution  as  above,  as  was  usual  in 
Christ's  Hospital  in  London,  declined,  believing  that  the 
selection  being  thus  limited  to  the  wealthy  few,  would 
prevent  that  of  useful  governors  who  would  not  or  could  not 
afford  such  a  payment.  This  loss  was  deeply  felt.  When 
the  Act  had  passed  there  were  123  boys  in  the  School,  but 
the  numbers  fell  to  60  in  twelve  years,  and  twenty  years  ago 
they  only  attained  to  80. 

But  apart  from  this,  all  went  well.  Our  Board  in  1840 
comprise  the  Primate,  Lord  J.  G.  Beresford,  Archbishop 
Whateley  of  Dublin,  the  Right  Hon.  Frederick  Shaw,  the 
Recorder,  then  M.P,  for  the  University,  and  Dr.  Elrington, 
who  for  many  years  after,  as  treasurer  of  the  Erasmus  Smitli 
Board,  gave  his  high  services  and  continued  to  send  tlie 
additional  seven  boys,  representing  his  treasurer's  personal 
fees  ;  he  continued  to  superintend  the  religious  training  and 
the  annual  examinations  which  he  had  instituted,  and  which 
have  been  continued  up  to  our  time.  After  the  old  Corporate 
governois  had  declined  to  fifty,  and  as  the  lives  of  these 
continued  to  drop,  the  eminent  prelates  and  the  Lord 
Chancellor,  appointed  by  the  statute  as  nominators,  have 
ever  and  anon  sent  to  our  Board  some  of  the  best  representa- 
tives of  the  social,  official  and  commercial  life  of  Dublin,  and 
the  system,  up  to  now  has  always  worked  well.  The  great 
changes  by  which  in  the  last  half  century  vast  sums  from 
public  resources  have  been  expended  on  Elementary 
Education  have  gradually  and  necessarily  raised  the  Hospital, 
which  has  no  share  in  Parliamentary  grants  or  in  rates, 
to  the  distinct  status  of  a  Public  School. 

We  have  now  reached  the  years  of  living  memory,  and 
our  task  is  done  ;  but  in  so  far  closing  our  annals  it  is  very 
grateful  to  know  that  never  in  its  past  has  this  historic 
place  attained  such  a  position  as  it   now    holds    under    the 


auspices  of  its  present  chaplain  and  head  master,  Mr. 
Richards.  Under  him  improvement  has  been  signal  in 
all  departments.  The  numbers  have  been  gradually  laised 
from  seventy-eight  to  one  hundred  and  thirty  pupils, 
and  at  all  recent  Intermediate  examinations,  and  in  many 
of  those  for  the  Dublin  and  the  Royal  Universities,  the 
boys  have  made  successful  marks.  The  pla^^'ground,  the 
old  Bowling  Green  of  Dublin,  which  a  few  years  since  was 
in  winter  a  swamp,  has  by  Mr.  Richard's  ingenuity  been 
raised  some  three  feet  without  any  felt  expense,  so  that 
now  the  King's  Hospital  stands  high  in  the  annual  records 
of  cricket  and  football ;  whilst  in  the  late  examinations  in 
Christian  Knowledge,  including  the  Greek  Testaments,  held 
under  the  sanction  of  the  General  Synod  of  the  Church  of 
Ireland,  King's  Hospital  stood  amongst   the  highest  places. 

Thus  the  torch  that  was  lighted  two  hundred  and  thirty- 
seven  years  ago  has  been  handed  on  and  down  through  all 
the  generations.  May  we  trust  that  the  principles  of  truth 
and  justice,  religion  and  piety,  on  which  our  royal  charter 
was  originally  founded,  are  quickening  to-day  the  life  of  this 
School,  to  make  it  fragrant  with  the  spirit  of  Christian 
charity,  and  so  may  we  conclude  with  the  fervent  hope  that, 
as  in  the  coming  time  the  successive  tides  of  boyhood  go 
forth  each  year  from  its  walls  to  the  world,  its  best  traditions 
may  be  living  powers  to  animate  and  sweeten  their  lives  and 
the  lives  of  those  that  may  gather  around  them.  Et  nati 
natorum  et  qui  nascuntur  ah  illis. 

Our  Chairmen  and  Lord  Mayors  in  William  IV.,  and  to 
1840  were : 


Sir  R.  W.  Harty,  Bart. 


Sir  Thos.  Whelan 


Charles  F.  Archer 


Sir  George  Whiteford 


Arthur  Perrin 


Arthur  Morrison 


William  Hodges 


Samuel  Warren 


George  Hoyte 


Sir  R.  W.  Brady 


Sir  John  Kingston  James,  Bart. 

''■'/  'Pjo 

L'I'o  face  pase  ■JIC-! 

[      2Q3      ] 



Charles  the  Second,  by  the  Grace  of  God,  of  England,  Scotland, 
France  and  Ireland,  King,  Defender  of  the  Faith,  &c.  To  all 
to  whom  these  Presents  shah  come  Greeting.  Whereas  the 
Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons  and  Citizens  of  our  City  of  Dublin, 
in  our  Kingdom  of  Ireland,  have  humbly  petitioned  Us.  thereby 
setting  forth.  That  several  of  our  Subjects  in  that  our  City  and 
Kingdom,  beings  charitably  affected  towards  such  as  through 
Age,  Sickness,  or  other  AccidentSj^^are  reduced  to  Poverty, 
or  disabled  to  gain  their  Liviiig  by  their  own  Labour  ;  and  piously 
considering  also  the  great  Benefit  cf  the  good  Education  and 
Instruction  of  Youth  ;  have  proposed  the  Erection,  building^and 
establishing  of  an  Hospital  and  Free  Schocl,  within  the  Liberties 
of  our  City  of  Dublin,  and  have  shewed  great  Willingness  to 
contribute  to  so  good  a  Work,  which  they  hope  to  accomplish, 
in  Case  they  may,  by  our  Royal  Authority,  be  enabled  and 
capacitated  to  purchase  Lands,  Tenements  and  Hereditaments 
for  the  erecting  and  maintaining  of  such  an  Hospital  and  Free 
School,  and  to  make  good,  wholesome  and  necessary  Laws  for  the 
Rule  and  Government  thereof.  Know  Ye  therefore,  that  We  of 
our  princely  Disposition,  for  the  Furtherance  and  AccompHsh- 
ment  of  so  good  and  charitable  a  Work,  of  our  especial  Grace, 
certain  Knowledge  and  mere  Motion,  by  and  with  the  Advice 
and  Consent  of  our  right  trusty  and  well  beloved  Counsellor, 
John,  Lord  Berkeley,  our  Lieutenant  General  and  General 
Governour  of  our  said  Realm  of  Ireland,  and  according  to  the 
Tenour  and  Effect  of  our  Letters,  bearing  Date  of  our  Court  at 
Whitehall,  the  four  and  twentieth  Day  cf  October,  in  the  three 
and  twentieth  Year  of  our  Reign,  and  now  enrolled  in  the  Rolls 
in  our  High  Court  of  Chancery  in  our  said  Realm  of  Ireland, 
Have  given,  granted,  released  and  confirmed.  And  by  these 
Presents  for  Us,  our  Heirs  and  Successors,  Do  give,  grant,  release 
and  confirm  unto  the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons,  and 
Citizens  of  Our  City  of  Dublin,  and  their  successors  for  ever, 
ALL  that  Piece  or  Parcel  of  Ground  on  Oxmaniown  Green,  near 



Our  said  City  of  Dublin,  on  which  the  intended  Hospital  and 
Free  School  is  already  begun  to  be  built.  And  all  and  singular 
the  Edifices  and  Buildings  thereon,  and  all  Yards,  Backsides, 
Lands.  Tenements,  Ways,  Waters,  Water-courses,  Easements, 
Liberties,  Privileges,  Profits,  Commodities,  Advantages,  Appur- 
tenances, and  Hereditaments  whatsoever,  to  the  same  belonging 
or  appertaining,  of  what  Quantity,  Quality,  Nature,  Kind,  or 
Sort  soever  they  be,  and  by  whatsoever  Name  or  Names  the 
same  are  called  or  known,  or  reputed,  accepted  or  taken,  together 
with  their  and  every  of  their  Rights,  Members  and  Appurtenances 
whatsoever  ;  and  also  the  Reversion  and  Reversions,  Remainder 
and  Remainders  of  all  and  singular  the  Premises,  and  every 
Part  and  Parcel  thereof,  and  also  all  the  Estate,  Right,  Title, 
Interest,  Claim,  Property,  Challenge  and  Demand  whatsoever 
which  We  Our  Heirs  or  Successors  have,  or  at  any  Time  hereafter 
may,  can,  might  or  ought  to  have  of,  in,  or  unto  the  Premises, 
or  unto  any  Part  or  Parcel  thereof.  To  have  and  to  hold  all 
and  singular  the  Premises  before,  in  and  by  these  Presents  given, 
granted,  released  and  confirmed,  or  herein  or  hereby  meant, 
mentioned,  or  intended  to  be  given,  granted,  released  and 
confirmed,  and  every  Part,  Parcel  and  Member  thereof,  together 
with  their  and  every  of  their  Rights,  Members  and  Appurtenances 
whatsoever,  unto  them  the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons,  and 
Citizens  of  Our  City  of  Dublin,  and  their  Successors  for  ever ; 
to  be  held  and  enjoyed  by  the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons, 
and  Citizens  of  Our  said  City  of  Dublin,  and  their  Successors 
for  ever  ;  to  the  only  Use,  Ends,  Intents  and  Purposes  hereafter 
in  these  Presents  mentioned  and  expressed ;  that  is  to  say. 
Upon  the  especial  Trust  and  Confidence,  and  to  the  End,  Intent 
and  Purpose,  that  the  said  Piece  of  Ground  on  Oxmantown  Green 
aforesaid,  hereby  granted,  or  meant,  mentioned,  and  intended  to 
be  granted,  and  the  building  thereon  erected,  and  to  be  erected, 
Shall  for  ever  more  hereafter  be,  remain  and  continue  a  Mansion 
House,  and  Place  of  Abode  for  the  Sustentation  and  Relief  of 
poor  Children,  aged  and  impotent  People  ;  to  be  holden  of  Us 
our  Heirs  and  Successors,  as  of  our  Castle  of  Dublin,  in  Free 
and  Common  Soccage,  without  any  Rent  or  other  Payment  to  be 
rendered  or  paid  unto  Us,  Our  Heirs  and  Successors  for  the  same. 
And  further  of  Our  more  abundant  Grace,  certain  Knowledge, 
and  Mere  Motion,  and  princely  Disposition  for  the  Furtherance 
and  Accomphshment  of  so  good  and  charitable  a  Work,  by  and 
with  the  Advice  and  Consent  aforesaid,  and  in  Pursuance  of  our 
said  Letters,  We  have  given  and  granted,  and  by  these  Presents 
for  Us,  Our  Heirs  and  Successors,  We  do  give  and  grant  unto 
the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons,  and  Citizens  of  Our  said  City 
of  Dublin,  and  their  Successors  for  ever,  full  Power  and  Authority, 
at  their  Will  and  Pleasures,  from  Time  to  Time,  and  at  all  Times, 
to  place  therein  such  Master  or  Masters  of  the  said  Hospital, 


and  such  Numbers  of  Poor  People  and  Children,  and  such  Officers 
or  Ministers  of  the  said  Hospital  and  Free  ISchool,  as  likewise  an 
able,  learned,  pious  and  orthodox  Minister,  to  be_  approved  of 
from  Time  to  Time  by  the  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  for  the  time 
being  ;  the  said  Minister  to  read  Divine  Service,  and  preach 
and  teach  the  Word  of  God  to  such  as  shall  reside  within  the 
same,  and  catechizejuch  Children  as  shall  be  in  the  said  Hospital 
or  Free  School,  as  to  the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons,  and 
Citizens,  and  their  Successors,  or  such  as  shall  be  appointed  as 
aforesaid,  shall  seem  convenient ;  and  from  Time  to  Time,  as 
they  shall  see  Occasion,  to  remove,  displace,  and  amove  such 
Masters,  Minister,  Poor,  poor  Children,  People,  or  any  other 
Officers  or  Ministers  to  the  said  Hospital  or  Free  School  belonging, 
and  put  some  other  or  others  in  his  or  their  Place  or  Stead,  and 
to  apportion,  appoint,  and  allow,  from  Time  to  Time  such  Fees, 
Salaries,  and  Wages,  and  such  Allowances  for  Maintenance, 
Rehef  and  Sustentation  of  the  said  Preacher,  Master  or  Masters, 
other  Officers  or  Ministers,  and  the  said  poor  People  and  Children, 
as  to  them  the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons  and  Citizens,  and 
their  Successors,  shall  seem  meet  ;  And  that  it  shall  and  may 
be  lawful  to  and  for  the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons  and 
Citizens,  and  their  Successors,  from  Time  to  Time,  and  at  all 
Times  hereafter,  when  and  as  often  as  it  shall  seem  expedient, 
or  Necessity  shall  require,  to  make,  constitute  and  appoint  all 
or  any  such  apt,  wholesome  and  honest  Ordinances,  Statutes, 
Rules  and  Orders  for  or  in  Relation  to  the  well  governing  of  the 
said  Hospital  and  Free  School,  or  either  of  them,  or  the  Master, 
Minister,  Poor,  poor  Children,  or  any  other  Officers  or  Ministers 
to  the  said  Hospital,  or  Free  School,  belonging  or  to  be  belonging, 
as  to  them  the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons  and  Citizens,  and 
their  Successors,  shall  seem  meet,  convenient,  or  necessary, 
giving  and  hereby  graiiting  unto  them  the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs, 
Commons  and  Citizens  and  their  Successors,  full  and  absolute 
Power  and  Authority  to  perform  and  execute  all  Act  or  Acts, 
Thing  or  Things  whatsoever,  that  shall  be  requisite  and  necessary 
to  be  done  for  the  putting  in  Execution  or  compelling  a  Per- 
formance of  all  such  Ordinances,  Statutes,  Rules  and  Orders 
that  shall,  by  Vertue  of  these  Presents,  be  made,  constituted  or 
appointed,  without  Interruption  of  Us,  our  Heirs,  or  Successors, 
or  any  of  the  Justices,  Escheators,  Sheriffs,  Ministers,  Servants, 
or  other  Subjects  whatsoever,  of  Us,  Our  Heirs,  or  Successors,  any 
Statute,  Act,  Law,  or  Direction  heretofore  done  or  made,  or 
hereafter  to  be  done  or  made  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding  ; 
so  that  such  Statutes,  Ordinances,  Rules,  or  Orders  so  to  be 
made,  constituted,  or  appointed  by  Vertue  of  these  Presents,  be 
not  contrary  or  disagreeing  to  the  Laws  and  Statutes  of  Our 
Kingdom  of  England  or  Ireland,  or  Our  Royal  Authority,  and 
such  Rules,  Ordinances  and  Statutes  to  disanul  and  make  void 

296       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

as  shall  by  the  said  Mayors,  Sheriffs,  Commons  and  Citizens  be 
found  from  Time  to  Time  prejudicial  and  hurtful  to  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  said  Hospital  and  Fi-ee  School.  And  further  of  Our 
more  abundant  Grace,  certain  Knowledge,  meer  Motion,  and 
princely  Disposition,  for  the  Furtherance  and  Accomplishment  of 
so  good  and  charitable  a  Work,  by  and  with  the  Advice  and 
Consent  aforesaid,  and  in  Pursuance  of  Our  said  Letters,  We 
have  also  given  and  granted,  and  by  these  Presents  for  Us,  Our 
Heirs  and  Successors,  do  give  and  grant  unto  the  said  Mayor, 
Sheriffs,  Commons  and  Citizens  of  our  said  City  of  Dublin,  and 
their  Successors  for  ever.  That  the  said  Hospital  and  Free  School 
shall  be  named,  Incorporated,  and  called  The  Hospital  and 
Free-school  of  King  Charles  the  Second,  Dublin,  and  by 
that  Name  shall  be  and  is  hereby  erected,  founded,  estabhshed 
and  confirmed,  and  to  have  Maintenance  and  Continuance  for 
ever,  and  that  the  Mayors,  Sheriffs,  Commons  and  Citizens  of  Our 
said  City  of  Dublin,  and  their  Successors,  shall  be  from  Time  to 
Time  Governors  of  the  said  Hospital  and  Free  School,  and  of 
the  Lands  and  Tenements,  Possessions,  Revenues  and  Goods, 
unto  the  same  belonging,  or  to  be  belonging,  and  shall  be  called 
and  known  by  the  Name  of  the  Governors  of  the  Hospital  and 
Free  School  of  King  Charles  the  Second,  Dublin,  and  that  the 
said  Governors  shall  be  and  for  ever  continue  by  the  Name  of  the 
Governors  of  the  Hospital  and  Free  School  of  King  Charles  the 
Second,  Dublin,  a  Body  Politic  and  Corporate,  to  have  Successors 
for  ever,  and  by  that  Name  shall  be  and  continue,  and  shall  be 
able  and  capable  in  Law  from  Time  to  Time,  and  at  all  Times,  to 
sue  or  be  sued  in  any  of  Our  Courts  Spiritual  and  Temporal, 
within  Our  Kingdom  of  Ireland,  or  other  Our  Kingdoms  and 
Dominions,  in  Relation  to  the  said  Hospital  and  Free  School, 
or  any  of  the  Lands,  Tenements  or  Possessions,  Revenues  or 
Goods  unto  the  same  belonging,  or  to  be  belonging,  or  for  any 
Transgressions,  Offences,  Matters,  Causes,  or  Things  made, 
committed,  or  done,  or  to  be  done,  in  or  upon  the  Premises,  or 
any  Part  thereof,  or  any  Thing  in  these  Presents  specified,  and  to 
purchase,  take,  hold,  receive  and  enjoy  to  them  and  their 
Successors  for  ever,  to  the  Ends  aforesaid,  as  well  Goods  and 
Chatties,  as  also  any  Manors,  Lands,  Tenements,  Rents, 
Reversions,  Annuities,  and  Hereditaments  whatsoever,  as  well 
from  Us,  our  Heirs,  and  Successors,  as  of  any  other  Person  or 
Persons  whatsoever,  not  exceeding  the  yearly  Value  of  Six 
Thousand  Pounds  Sterling,  the  Statutes  of  Mortmain  or  any 
other  Statutes  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding  :  And  further 
of  Our  more  abundant  Grace,  certain  Knowledge,  meer  Motion, 
and  princely  Disposition,  for  the  Furtherance  and  Accomplish- 
ment of  so  good  and  charitable  a  Work,  by  and  with  the  Advice 
and  Consent  aforesaid,  and  in  Pursuance  of  Our  said  Letters, 
We  have  also  given  and  granted,  and  by  these  Presents  for  Us, 


Our  Heirs,  and  Successors,  do  give  and  grant  free  Liberty  and 
License,  that  the  said  Governors,  and  their  Successors,  may 
have  and  enjoy  a  Common  Seal  for  the  seahng  of  any  Instrument, 
or  Instruments,  Deeds,  or  Writings,  touching  and  concerning 
the  Lands,  Tenements  and  Hereditaments,  Businesses,  or  Affairs 
of  the  said  Hospital  and  Free  School  ;  nevertheless  Our  Royal 
Pleasure,  Intent,  and  Meaning  is,  that  the  said  Governors,  or 
their  Successors,  shall  not  do,  or  suffer  to  be  done,  at  any  Time 
hereafter,  any  Act  or  Thing  whereby  any  of  the  Lands,  Tenements, 
or  Hereditaments,  or  the  Estate  which  shall  belong  to  the  said 
Corporation,  shall  be  conveyed,  ahenated,  or  transferred,  to  any 
other  Use  whatsoever  than  to  the  Use  of  the  said  Hospital  or 
Free  School,  and  that  the  said  Gov-ernors,  for  the  Time  being, 
shall  not  make  any  other  Lease  or  Leases  of  any  of  the  Lands, 
Tenements,  Possessions,  cr  Hereditaments,  which  shall  belong 
to  the  said  Corporation  than  for  the  Term  of  Forty-one  Years, 
of  Houses,  or  Buildings,  or  Ground  to  be  built  on,  and  of  Tweisty- 
one  Years  of  Lands,  Tythes,  or  other  Hereditaments,  and  those 
to  be  made  either  in  Possession,  or  not  .above  Two  Years  before 
the  Expiration  of  the  State  in  Possession,  and  that  without 
Fine  or  Income,  at  the  best  yearly  Rent  that  bona  fide  from  good 
and  solvent  Tenants  may  be  had,  and  that  no  Lease  be  made  to 
any  of  the  aforesaid  Governors,  or  to  any  other  Person  or  persons 
to  the  Use,  or  for  in  Trust  for  any  of  the  said  Governors  :  And 
further  of  our  more  abundant  Grace,  certain  Knowledge,  and 
meer  Motion,  by  and  with  the  Advice  and  Consent  aforesaid, 
and  in  Pursuance  of  our  said  Letters,  We  have  given  and  granted, 
and  by  these  Presents  for  Us,  Our  Hen's,and  Successors,  do  give, 
and  grant  unto  the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons  and  Citizens 
of  Our  City  of  Dublin,  and  their  Successors,  that  these  Our  Letters 
Patents,  or  the  Inrolment  thereof,  and  every  Clause,  Article, 
Matter,  and  Thing  whatsoever,  herein  contained,  shall  be  in,  by 
and  through  all  Things  firm,  good,  valid,  sufficient,  and  effectual 
in  the  Law  unto  them  the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons  and 
Citizens,  and  their  Successors,  against  Us,  Our  Heirs,  and 
Successors,  as  well  in  all  Our  Courts  within  our  said  Realm  of 
Ireland  as  elsewhere  wheresoever,  notwithstanding  the  not 
finding,  or  not  returning,  or  ill  finding,  or  ill  returning  of  any 
Office,  or  Inquisition,  of  the  Parcel  of  Ground  and  Premises  in 
and  by  these  Letters  Our  Patents,  meant,  mentioned,  and  intended 
to  be  given  and  granted  for  the  Ends  and  Purposes  aforesaid, 
whereby  our  Title  should  have  been  found  of,  in,  and  unto  the 
said  Premises  and  every  Part  and  Parcel  thereof,  before  the 
making  of  these  Presents,  and  notwithstanding  the  not  naming 
cr  not  rightly  naming  of  the  Premises,  or  any  Part  or  Parcel 
thereof,  or  the  Parish,  Ward,  Liberty,  Freedom,  or  Place,  in 
which  the  Premises,  or  any  Part  or  Parcel  thereof,  is,  are,  or  do 
lie,  and  notwithstanding  the  not  naming,  or  not  rightly  naming, 

298       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

the  Quantity,  Quality,  Nature,  Kind,  or  Sort  of  the  Premises, 
or  any  Part  or  Parcel  thereof,  and  notwithstanding  that  of  the 
true  annual  Value,  Rate,  Survey,  Quantity,  or  Quality,  of  the 
Premises,  there  be  no  true,  certain,  or  no  mention  made  in  these 
presents,  and  notwithstanding  the  not  naming,  or  not  reciting, 
or  ill  naming,  or  ill  reciting,  of  any  Grant  or  Grants,  Lease  or 
Leases,  heretofore  made  of  the  Premises,  or  any  Part  or  Parcel 
thereof,  to  any  Person  or  Persons  whatsoever  for  Term  of  Life, 
Lives,  or  Years,  in  Fee  Simple,  or  Fee  Tail,  or  otherwise  howsoever, 
remaining  of  Record,  or  not  of  Record,  and  notwithstanding 
that  of  the  rent  heretofore  reserved  upon  any  former  Demise  or 
Demises,  Lease  or  Leases,  heretofore  made  of  the  Premises,  or 
any  Part  or  Parcel  thereof,  there  be  no  full,  true,  certain,  or  no 
mention  at  all  made  in  these  Presents,  and  notwithstanding  a 
certain  Statute  made  in  the  Parliament  held  at  Westminster,  in  Our 
said  Kingdom  of  England,  in  the  Eighteenth  Year  of  the  Reign 
of  King  Henry  the  Sixth,  late  King  of  England,  Our  Predecessor 
and  notwithstanding  a  certain  statute  made  in  the  Parliament 
held  at  Limerick,  in  our  said  Kingdom  of  Ireland,  in  the  Thirtieth 
Year  of  the  Reign  of  King  Henry  the  Eighth,  late  King  cf  England, 
Our  Predecessor,  the  Title  of  which  Act  is.  An  Act  for  Lands 
given  by  the  King,  and  notwithstanding  any  other  Statute  or 
Act  made  in  Our  said  Kingdom  of  Ireland,  in  any  of  the  Years  of 
the  Reign  of  the  said  King  Henry  the  Eighth,  and  notwithstanding 
a  certain  statute  made  in  Our  Said  Kingdom  of  Ireland,  the 
Second  Year  of  the  Reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  late  Queen  of 
England,  Our  Predecessor ;  and  notwithstanding  any  other 
Statute  or  Act,  Statutes  or  Acts,  made  in  our  said  Kingdom  of 
Ireland,  in  the  said  Second  Year  of  the  Reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth, 
or  any  other  Year  of  the  Reign  of  the  said  Queen  Elizabeth,  or 
of  any  other  the  Kings  or  Queens  of  England  ;  and  notwith- 
standing any  Act,  Clause,  Provision,  or  Ordinance  made  in  the 
Parliament  begun  at  Dublin  in  the  Fifteenth  Year  of  the  Reign 
of  our  late  Royal  Father,  of  ever  glorious  Memory,  deceased  ; 
and  notwithstanding  any  other  Statute,  Act,  Ordinance,  Pro- 
vision, or  Restriction,  or  any  other  Cause,  Matter,  or  Thing 
whatsoever,  to  the  Evacuation  or  Annihilation  of  these  Our 
Letters  Patents ;  and  notwithstanding  a  Writ  of  ad  quod 
damnum  hath  not  issued  to  enquire  concerning  the  Premises, 
And  Our  further  Will  and  Pleasure  is,  and  We  do  by  these 
Presents  for  Us,  our  Heirs  and  Successors,  give  and  grant  unto 
the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons  and  Citizens  of  our  said  City 
cf  Dublin,  and  their  Successors,  That  they  the  said  Mayor, 
Sheriffs,  Commons  and  Citizens  of  Our  said  City  of  Dublin, 
shall  have  these  Our  Letters  Patents  under  Our  Great  Seal  of 
Ireland  wdthout  Fine,  great  or  small,  to  be  therefore  paid  to  Our 
Use  in  Our  Hanaper,  in  Our  said  Kingdom  cf  Ireland,  Although 
Express  Mention  is  not  made  cf  the  clear  yearly  Value,  or  of  the 


Certainty  of  the  Premises,  or  that  any  Gift  or  Grant  heretofore 

made  by  Us,  or  Our  Progenitors,  to  the  said  Mayor,  Sheriffs, 

Commons  and  Citizens  of  Our  said  City  of  Dublin  of  the  Premises, 

any  Statute,  Act,  Ordinaiice,  or  Provision,  or  any  other  Cause 

or  Matter  whatsoever  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding  ;   Provided 

always  that  these  Our  Letters  Patents  be  inrolled  in  the  Rolls  of 

Our  High  Court  of  Chancery  in  Our  said  Kingdom  of  Ireland ^ 

within  the  Space  of  Six  Months  next  ensuing  the  Date  of  these 

Presents.     In  Witness  whereof  We  have  caused  these  Our  Letters 

to  be  made  Patents.     Witness  Our  aforesaid  Lieutenant  General 

and  General  Governor  of  Our  said  Kingdom  of  Ireland  at  Dublin, 

the  Fifth  Day  of  December,  in  the  Three  and  Twentieth  Year  of       /  6  "^  O 

our  Reign. 


Irrotulat  in  Rot.  Paten.  Can- 
cellar.  Hibnie  Vicessimo  Sexto 
Die  Januarii  Anno  Regni  Re- 
gis Caroli  Seciindi  Vicessimo 
Tertio,  et  examinat  per  me 

Ra.  Wallis,  Cleric,  in  Offico 
Mri.  Rotolor. 

300       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 


See  p.  156. 


entitled,   "  an   act  for  further   application   of   the 
1^  Rents   and   Profits   of   the   Lands   and   Tenements," 


And  whereas  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools  have  come  to  an 
agreement  with  the  Governors  of  the  Hospital  and  Free 
School  of  King  Charles  the  Second,  Dublin,  commonly  called  the 
Blue  Coat  Hospital,  in  the  City  of  Dublin,  on  the  terms  herein- 
after mentioned,  viz.  :  that  the  Governors  of  the  Schools  shall  give, 
to  the  Governors  of  the  Blue  Coat  Hospital,  three  hundred  pounds 
sterling,  towards  building  an  Infirmary  for  the  said  Hospital, 
for  the  reception  of  forty  boys  ;  that  in  consideration  of  the  said 
sum  of  three  hundred  pounds,  the  Governors  of  the  said  Hospital 
shall  find  convenient  reception  in  the  said  Hospital  for  any 
number  of  boys  to  be  named  and  placed  therein  by  the  Governors 
of  the  Schools,  not  exceeding  twenty,  to  have  the  same  reception, 
maintenance  and  clothing,  and  be,  every  way,  under  the  same 
regulation  as  the  other  boys  in  the  said  Hospital  are  :  that  the 
Governors  of  the  Schools  shall  find  bedding  and  the  usual 
furniture  for  each  room,  for  such  boys  as  shall  be  placed  by  them 
in  the  said  Hospital  at  their  first  entrance  therein,  until  such  time 
as  provision  shall  be  made  for  the  number  of  twenty  boys,  agreed 
upon,  to  be  placed  in  the  said  Hospital,  after  which  the  repairing 
and  keeping  the  said  bedding  and  furniture  are  to  be  charged 
in  the  annual  expense,  for  the  maintenance  of  the  said  boys, 
according  to  the  usage  and  custom  of  the  said  Hospital :  that  the 
Governors  of  the  said  Schools  shall  pay,  to  the  Governors  of  the 
Blue  Coat  Hospital,  for  the  maintenance  of  each  and  every 
boy  placed  by  them  in  the  said  Hospital,  the  same  rate  that 
the  other  boys  in  the  said  Hospital  are  maintained  at,  and  that 
such  sums  as  are  found  necessary  for  maintenance  of  each  and 


every  boy  placed  in  the  said  Hospital,  as  aforesaid,  shall  be  paid 
quarterly,  and  the  accounts  shall  be  made  once  every  year  : 
that  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools  shall  pay  five  pounds 
per  annum,  to  the  Schoolmaster  of  the  said  Hospital,  for  teaching 
the  boys  which  shall  be  placed  in  the  said  Hospital  by  the 
Governors  :  that  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools  shall  pay  the 
same  rate  that  is  paid  for  the  other  boys,  who  are  taught  the 
mathematics  in  the  said  Hospital,  if  the  Governors  of  the  Schools 
desire  that  any  of  the  boys  placed  by  them  in  the  said  Hospital 
be  taught  the  same  :  that  the  Governors  of  the  Schools  shall  and 
will,  at  their  own  expense,  bind  out  each- and  every  boy  that  shall 
be  nominated  and  placed  by  them  in  the  said  Hospital,  as  soon 
as  he  and  they  shall  be  fit  to  be  put  out  apprentice,  to  such 
Master  as  the  Governors  of  the  Schools  shall  approve  of,  and 
shall  give  such  fee  as  the  Governors  of  the  Hospital  give  w'ith 
the  other  boys  to  be  put  out  apprentice  by  them  ;  that  the  Lord 
Mayor,  Recorder,  and  two  Aldermen,  by  the  Governors  of  the 
Hospital  to  be  chosen,  shall  be  standing  Governors  of  the  Schools 
founded  by  Erasmus  Smith,  esquire  :  that  four  of  the  Governors 
of  the  Schools,  by  them  to  be  chosen,  shall  be  standing  Governors 
of  the  said  Hospital  :  that  the  Governors  of  the  Schools  shall 
and  will,  at  their  own  expense,  next  sessions  of  Parliament, 
endeavour  to  get  an  act  of  Parliament  passed  in  this  kingdom, 
to  make  the  foregoing  agreement  effectual. 

Therefore,  for  rendering  the  said  agreement  effectual,  and 
for  the  encouragement  of  so  good  and  charitable  a  work,  be  it 
enacted,  that  the  said  agreement  be,  and  is  hereby  ratified  and 
confirmed,  and  be  it  therefore  enacted,  by  the  authority  aforesaid, 
that  the  Treasurer  of  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools  shall, 
out  of  the  cash  now  in,  or  which  shall  hereafter  come  to  his  hands, 
with  all  convenient  speed,  pay,  to  the  Governors  of  the  said 
Hospital  and  Free  School  of  King  Charles  the  Second,  Dublin, 
commonly  called  the  Blue  Coat  Hospital,  the  said  sum  of  three 
hundred  pounds,  sterling,  towards  building  an  Infiimary  as 
aforesaid  ;  and  also  find  and  provide  bedding  and  other  iisual 
furniture  for  each  room  for  such  boys  as  shall  be  by  them  placed 
in  the  said  Blue  Coat  Hospital,  the  keeping  and  repairing  of  which 
bedding  and  furniture  is  thereafter  to  be  charged  in  the  annual 
expense  for  maintenance  of  the  said  boys,  according  to  the  usage 
and  custom  of  the  said  Hospital  :  and  to  the  end  the  boys,  hereby 
designed  to  be  placed  by  the  (icvernors  of  the  Schools  in  the  said 
Hospital,  may  be  maintained,  clothed  and  educated,  in  the  same 
manner  as  the  other  boys  in  the  said  Hospital,  be  it  enacted, 
that  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools,  for  the  time  being,  shall, 
yearly,  for  ever  hereafter,  pay,  out  of  the  surplus  rents  of  the 
lands  vested  m  them,  to  the  Governors  of  the  said  Blue  Coat 
Hospital,  such  yearly  sum  and  sums  of  money,  for  the  main- 
tenance of  such  beys,  as  shall,  by  the  Governors  of  the  said 


Schools,  pursuant  to  the  aforesaid  agreement,  be  placed  in  the 
said  Hospital,  as  the  Governors  of  the  said  Hospital  shall,  from 
time  to  time,  bona  fide,  yearly  lay  out  and  expend  for  the  main- 
tenance of  the  like  number  of  other  boys  in  the  said  Hospital, 
and  all  and  every  sum  and  sums  of  money  hei'eby  appointed  to 
be  paid  for  the  maintenance  of  the  said  boys  to  be  placed  in  the 
said  Hospital,  shall  be  paid  by  the  Governors  of  the  Schools, 
quarterly,  to  the  Treasurer  or  Agent  of  the  said  Hospital,  for  the 
time  being,  and  the  accounts  of  such  money  shall  be  made  up, 
stated  and  settled,  by  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools  and 
the  Governors  of  the  said  Hospital,  once  in  every  year,  for  ever 
hereafter  ;  and  also  that  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools  shall, 
for  ever  hereafter,  out  of  the  said  rents,  pay  the  yearly  sum  of 
five  pounds  per  annum  to  the  Schoolmaster  of  the  said  Hospital, 
for  teaching  the  said  boys  to  read,  write  and  cast  accounts, 
as  the  other  boys  in  the  said  Hospital  are  taught  and  instructed, 
the  same  to  be  paid  half-yearly,  by  equal  payments,  to  such 
Master ;  provided,  always,  that  if  the  Governors  of  the  said 
Schools  shall,  at  ariy  time,  appoint  any  of  the  said  boys  by  them 
placed  in  the  said  Hospital,  as  aforesaid,  to  be  instructed  in  the 
mathematics,  the  said  Governors,  over  and  above  the  payments 
herein  before  appointed  to  be  made,  shall  pay  and  allow  unto  the 
Governors  of  the  said  Hospital  such  sum  and  sums  of  money, 
and  after  the  same  rate  for  instructing  and  teaching  such  boys 
in  the  mathematics  as  are  paid  for  instructing  other  boys  in  the 
mathematics  in  the  said  Hospital,  any  thing  herein  contained 
to  the  contrary  notwithstanding. 

And  be  it  further  enacted,  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  that  the 
Governors  of  the  said  Schools,  for  the  time  bemg,  shall,  from 
time  to  time,  at  their  own  expense,  put  and  place  out  apprentice, 
to  such  trades  and  employments  as  they  shall  think  fit,  all  such 
boys  as  shall  be  by  them,  from  time  to  time,  sent  to  be  maintained 
and  educated  in  the  said  Hospital,  as  soon  as  such  boys  shall, 
respectively,  be  qualified  for  that  purpose,  and  shall  also,  out 
of  the  yearly  surplus  rents  of  the  said  lands,  give  such  apprentice 
fees  with  the  said  boys,  respectively,  as  the  Governors  of  the 
said  Hospital  usually  give  with  other  boys  cf  the  said  Hospital, 
by  them  put  out  apprentice  to  the  like  trades  or  employments, 
it  being  the  design  and  meaning  of  this  Act,  that  all  the  boys 
who  shall  be  placed  in  the  said  Hospital  by  the  Governors  of  the 
said  Schools,  shall  be  by  them  maintained,  educated  and  provided 
for,  in  such  and  the  same  manner,  and  be  subject  and  liable  to 
the  same  rules  and  regulations  as  all  other  boys  in  the  said 
Hospital  are  or  shall  be  liable  unto. 

And  be  it  further  enacted,  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  that  the 
Lord  Mayor  and  Recorder  of  the  city  of  Dublin,  now,  and  for  the 
time  being,  and  two  of  the  Aldermen  of  the  said  city,  such  as  the 
Governors  of  the  said  Hospital  shall,  from  time  to  time,  elect  and 


appoint,  shall,  for  ever  hereafter,  be  standing  Governors  of  the 
Schools  founded  by  the  said  Erasmus  Smith,  and  added  to  the 
thirty-two  Governors  in  the  said  letters  patent  mentioned ; 
and  also  that  the  Treasurer  and  three  othei  of  the  Governors  of 
the  said  Schools,  now,  and  for  the  time  being,  such  as  the  said 
Governors  of  the  said  Schools,  shall,  from  time  to  time  choose 
and  appoint,  shall  be  and  are  hereby  declared  to  be  standing 
Governors,  and  added  to  the  Governors  of  the  said  Hospital  and 
Free  School  of  King  Charles  the  Second,  Dublin,  commonly  called 
the  Blue  Coat  Hospital. 

Provided,  always,  and  be  it  further  enacted,  by  the  authority 
aforesaid,  that  all  annual  and  other  payments  hereby  mentioned, 
intended,  or  appointed  to  be  made  to  or  for  the  use  of  the  said 
College  of  Dublin,  or  any  Fellow,  Lecturer,  Member  or  Scholar 
thereof,  shall  at  all  times,  hereafter,  be  made  to  the  Bursar  of  the 
said  College,  for  the  time  being,  and  that  all  annual  and  other 
payments  hereinbefore  mentioned,  or  intended  to  be  made 
to  or  for  the  use  of  the  said  Hospital,  or  any  boys  to  be  placed 
therein,  shall,  at  all  times  hereafter,  be  made  to  the  Agent  or 
Treasurer  of  the  said  Hospital,  for  the  time  being,  and  that  the 
receipt  and  receipts  of  the  Bursar  of  the  said  College,  and  also 
that  the  receipt  and  receipts  of  the  Treasurer  or  Agent  of  the 
said  Hospital,  respectively,  for  the  time  being,  shall  be  a  sufficient 
discharge  to  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools,  and  their  successors 
for  the  same. 

And  whereas  the  Governors  of  the  Hospital  and  Free  School 
of  King  Charles  the  Second,  DubUn,  are  seized  and  possessed 
of  several  waste  plots  of  ground,  in  the  city  of  Dublin,  and  suburbs 
thereof,  which,  by  reason  the  said  Governors  are  restrained  from 
making  leases  for  a  sufficient  term,  to  encourage  building  thereon, 
lie  waste  and  unimproved,  to  the  great  loss  and  prejudice  of  the 
said  Hospital  and  Free  School ;  be  it  therefore  enacted,  by  the 
authoiity  aforesaid,  that  it  shall  and  may  be  lawful  to  and  for 
the  Governors  of  the  said  Hospital  and  Free  School  to  make  lease 
of  said  waste  plots,  or  any  of  them,  whereof  they  are  seized 
of  an  estate  of  inheritance,  and  of  which  no  lease  shall  be  in 
being  at  the  time  of  making  thereof,  for  any  term  or  number 
of  years,  not  exceeding  the  term  of  ninety-nine  years,  at  the  best 
and  highest  rent  that  can  be  got  for  the  same,  without  line 
or  other  income,  in  order  that  the  said  premises  may  be  built  and 
improved  upon,  for  the  benefit  of  the  said  Hospital  and  Free 

And,  be  it  further  enacted,  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  that 
if,  at  any  time  or  times  hereafter,  the  rents,  revenues  or  profits 
of  the  said  lands,  and  tenements  so  set  apart  by  the  said  Erasmus 
Smith,  shall  happen  to  increase,  or  be  raised  to  better  or  greater 
yearly  value  than  they  now  yield,  or  if  any  part  of  the  present 
yearly  rents  of  the  said  lands  shall  be  and  remain  in  the  hands 

304       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

of  the  Treasurer  or  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools,  over  and 
above  the  annual  payments,  charges  and  expenses  heretofore, 
or  by  this  Act  appointed  to  be  made,  out  of  the  said  lands,  that 
then,  and  in  such  cases,  it  shall  and  may  be  lawful  to  and  for  the 
Governors  of  the  said  Schools,  for  the  time  being,  from  time  to 
time,  for  ever  hereafter,  to  apply  -  and  dispose  of  the  residue 
and  overplus  of  the  said  yearly  rents  for  and  towards  some  public 
work  or  use  in  the  said  College  or  Hospital,  in  putting  cut  poor 
children  to  school,  or  apprentices,  or  in  setting  up  and  foundmg 
one  or  more  English  School  or  Schools  in  any  place  or  places  in 
this  Kingdom,  as  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools,  for  the  time 
being,  shall  think  most  proper  and  convenient  ;  and,  in  like 
manner,  that  if,  at  any  time  or  times  hereafter,  the  yearly  rents, 
revenues  and  profits  of  the  said  lands  and  tenements  so 
set  apart  by  the  said  Erasmus  Smith,  shall  decrease  or  grow 
less,  that  then,  and  in  such  cases,  it  shall  and  may  be  lawful  to 
and  for  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools,  for  the  time  being, 
and  they  are  hereby  empowered,  from  time  to  time,  and  at  all 
fimes  hereafter,  either  to  lessen  the  number  of  the  Pensioners  or 
Exhibitioners  of  the  said  College,  or  to  make  such  deduction 
and  abatement  out  of  all  or  any  the  pensions,  exhibitions, 
salaries,  or  other  yearly  sum  or  sums  of  money  hereby  appointed, 
or  continued  to  be  paid  by  them,  as  they  shall  think  fit. 

Provided,  nevertheless,  that  no  deduction  or  abatement 
whatsoever  shall  be  made  out  of  the  sums  mentioiied  to  be 
payable  to  the  said  Mayor  and  Commonalty  and  Citizens  of  the 
City  of  London,  Governors  of  the  possessions,  revenues  and  goods 
of  the  Hospitals  of  Edward,  King  of  England,  the  Sixth,  of  Christ 
Bridewell,  and  St.  Thomas  the  Apostle,  or  the  salaries  hereinbefore 
appointed  to  be  paid  to  the  three  junior  Fellows  herein  before 
mentioned,  or  out  of  any  provision  of  this  Act  intended  for  the 
boys,  to  be,  by  the  Governors  of  the  said  Schools,  placed  in 
the  said  Blue  Coat  Hospital,  or  to  the  Master  for  teaching  of 
the  said  boys,  but  that  all  the  last-mentioned  sums  shall  continue 
and  remain  payable,  anything  hereinbefore  contained  to  the 
contrary  notwithstanding. 

And  be  it  further  enacted,  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  that  the 
Governors  of  the  said  Schools  shall  pay  and  be  allowed  the 
charges  of  obtaining  and  passing  this  present  Act ;  provided 
that  nothing  herein  contained  shall  extend,  or  be  construed  to 
extend,  to  defeat  or  prejudice  the  payment  of  the  said  sum  of 
one  hundred  pounds  per  annum,  payable  to  the  said  Mayor 
and  Commonalty  and  Citizens  of  the  City  of  London,  Governors 
of  the  possessions,  revenues  and  goods  of  the  Hospitals  of  Edward 
King  of  England,  the  Sixth,  of  Christ  Bridewell,  and  St.  Thomas 
the  Apostle,  but  that  the  same  shall  continue  to  be  paid  and 
payable,  without  any  deductions  or  abatement  whatsoever, 
as  if  this  Act  had  not  been  made. 


Saving,  nevertheless,  to  the  King's  Most  Excellent  Majesty, 
his  heirs  and  successors,  and  to  all  and  every  other  person  and 
persons,  bodies  politic  and  corporate,  their  heirs,  executors, 
administrators,  successors  and  assigns,  (other  than  and  except 
the  said  Governors  of  the  Schools  founded  by  Erasmus  Smithy 
esquire  ;  the  Provost,  Fellows  and  Scholars  of  the  College  of  the 
Holy  and  Undivided  Trinity,  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  near  Dubhn, 
the  Governors  of  the  Hospital  and  Free  School  of  King  Charles 
the  Second,  Dubhn,  commonly  called  the  Blue  Coat  Hospital, 
in  the  City  of  Dublin,  and  the  said  i\Iayor  and  Commonalty  and 
Citizens  of  the  City  of  London — Governors  of  the  possessions, 
revenues  and  goods  of  the  Hospitals,  of  Edward  King  of  England 
the  Sixth,  of  Christ  Bridewell,  and  Saint  Thomas  the  Apostle) 
all  such  estate,  right,  title  and  interest,  trust,  claim,  and  demand 
whatsoever,  as  they,  or  any  of  them,  have  or  hath,  or  can  or  may 
have,  or  claim  of,  in  or  to  all  or  any  of  the  said  lands,  tenements, 
hereditaments  and  premises,  as  if  this  Act  had  not  been  made 
any  thing  herein  contained  to  the  contrary  notwithstanchng. 

Carleton  p.  Holles. 


3o6       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 


See  p.  287. 

The  Clauses  of  the  Municipal  Corporations  of  Ireland 
Act,  1840  (304  Vic.  c.  108),  reconstituting  the  King's 

And  whereas  by  Letters  Patent  of  King  Charles  the  Second, 
bearing  Date  the  Fifth  Day  of  December  in  the  Twenty-third 
Year  of  His  Reign,  the  Lord  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons,  and 
Citizens  of  the  City  of  Dublin,  and  their  Successors,  are  constituted 
a  Body  Pohtic  and  Corporate,  by  the  name  of  ''  The  Governors  of 
the  Hospital  and  Free  School  of  King  Charles  the  Second, 
Dublin  : "  Ard  wheieas  the  Government,  Management,  and 
Direction  of  the  said  Hospital  and  Free  School  are  now  exercised 
by  Sixty-one  standing  Governors  (whereof  Four  are  the  Treasurers 
for  the  Time  being  and  Three  other  Governors  of  the  Schools 
founded  by  Erasmus  Smith  Esquire,  appointed  by  the  Governors  of 
the  said  last-mentioned  Schools,  in  pursuance  of  an  Act  of  the 
Parliament  of  Ireland,  made  in  the  Tenth  Year  of  the  Reign  of 
King  Gi'org'(^  the  First):  Be  it  enacted,  That  from  and  immediately 
after  this  Act  shall  come  into  operation  in  the  said  City  of  Dublin 
the  Persons  who  at  that  Time  shall  be  the  Governors  of  the  said 
Hospital,  and  the  Survivors  of  them,  and  their  Successors,  to  be 
appointed  in  manner,  herein-after  mentioned,  shall  be  and  they 
are  hereby  constituted  a  Body  Politic  and  Corporate,  by  the 
aforesaid  Name  of  "  The  Governors  of  the  Hospital  and  Free 
School  of  King  Charles  the  Second,  Dublin,"  in  the  Place  and 
Stead  of  the  said  Lord  Mayor,  Sheriffs,  Commons,  and  Citizens  of 
the  said  Cit}?  of  Dublin,  who  shall  no  longer  be  such  body  Pohtic 
and  Corporate,  in  like  manner,  to  all  Intents  and  Purposes, 
as  if  the  said  Sixty-one  Persons,  and  the  Survivors  of  them,  and 
their  Successors,  had  been  the  Persons  appointed  by  virtue  of  the 
said  Letters  Patent,  instead  of  the  said  Lord  Mayor,  Sheriffs, 
Commons,  and  Citizens,  and  all  and  singular  the  Hereditaments, 
Sums  of  Money,  Chattels,  Securities  for  Money,  and  other 
Personal  Estate  of  the  said  Body  Corporate, constituted  by  the 
said  Letters  Patent,  and  all  the  Estate,  Right,  Interest,  and 
Title,  and  all  the  Rights,  Powers,  Privileges,  and  Immunities  of 
such  Body  Corporate,  and  all  Rights  of  Action  and  Suit  vested 


in  such  Body  Corporate,  shall  be  and  arc  hereby  vested  in  the 
Body  Corporate,  hereby  constituted  in  the  Place  and  Stead  thereof 
and  the  Body  Corporate  thereby  constituted  shall  be  subject  to 
the  same  Liabilities,  and  governed  according  to  the  same  Regula- 
tions, as  the  Bod}^  Corporate  appointed  by  the  said  Letters 
Patent  shall  be  subject  to  and  governed  by  ;  Provided  always, 
that  the  Treasurer  for  the  Time  being,  and  Three  other  Governors 
of  the  Schools  founded  by  the  said  Erasmus  Smith,  such  as  the 
Governors  of  the  said  Schools,  shall  from  Time  to  Time  choose 
and  appoint,  shall  and  they  are  hereby  declared  to  be  standing 
Governors  of  the  said  Hospital,  in  hke  Manner  as  by  the  said  Act 
of  the  Tenth  Year  of  the  Reign  of  King  George  the  First  they 
were  made  Governors  of  the  said  Hospital  :  Provided  also,  that 
the  Governors  of  the  said  Hospital  hereby  constituted  shall  never 
consist  of  less  than  Fifty,  and  mat  when  and  so  often  as  any  of 
the  Governors  hereby  appointed,  or  to  be  appointed  as  herein- 
after is  mentioned,  (other  than  the  said  Treasurer  and  Three 
other  Governors  of  the  said  Schools  founded  by  the  said  Erasmus 
Smith),  shall  depart  this  Life,  then  it  shall  be  lawful  for  the 
Lord  Archbishop  of  Armagh,  the  Lord  Chancellor  of  Ireland, 
the  Lord  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  and  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Meath, 
for  the  Time  being,  or  the  Major  Part  of  them,  and  they  are 
hereby  empowered,  by  Writing  under  their  Hands  and  Seals, 
to  appoint  One  or  more  Persons  or  Person  in  the  Place  or  Places 
and  as  a  Successor  or  Successors  of  the  deceased  Governor  or 
Governors,  or  any  of  them,  so  as  to  make  up,  with  the  surviving 
Governors,  the  Number  at  the  least  of  Fifty  Governors,  including 
the  said  Treasurer  and  Three  other  Governors  of  the  said  Schools 
founded  by  the  said  Erasmus  Smith ;  and  every  person  so 
appointed  a  Governor  shall  be  a  Governor  jointly  with  the 
surviving  Governors  for  the  Time  being,  and  shall  have  the  same 
Powers  and  Authorities  as  if  he  had  been  appointed  a  Governor 
by  this  Act. 

And  be  it  enacted.  That  from  and  immediately  after  this 
Act  shall  come  into  operation  in  the  said  City  of  Dublin  so 
much  of  the  said  Act  of  Parliament  passed  in  the  Tenth  Year 
of  the  Reign  of  King  George  the  First  as  provides  that  the  Lord 
Mayor  and  Recorder  of  the  City  of  Dublin,  then  and  for  the  Time 
being,  and  Two  of  the  Aldermen  of  the  said  City,  such  as  the 
Governors  of  the  Schools  founded  by  Erasmus  Smith  Esquire, 
should  from  Time  to  Time  select  and  appoint,  should  for  ever 
thereafter  be  standing  Governors  of  the  said  Schools,  shall  be 
and  the  same  is  hereby  repealed  ;  and  that  foiu-  of  the  Governors 
for  the  Time  being  of  the  said  Hospital  and  Free  School  of  King 
Charles  the  Second,  Dublin,  such  as  the  Governors  of  the  said 
Schools  founded  by  Erasmus  Smith  shall  from  Time  to  Time 
select  and  appoint,  shall  for  ever  thereafter  be  standing  Governors 
of  the  said  Schools  founded  by  the  said  Erasmus  Smith. 


In  this  Index   Go\ 

means  ('oNctnor  of   B.  C.     and   B.   C.   means   Blue 
Coat  School. 


Abercorn,  Earl  of,  Gov.,  IGO. 
Addison,  Rt.  Hon.  Joseph,  135. 
Aldermen,  All  Govs.,  G5  ;    ConstitAi- 

tion  of,    1S9  ;     Fines  on,   given   to 

B.  C,  12g,  25 1.  -289. 
Allen,  Sir  Joshua,  Gov.,  48,  58,  65,  109. 
Allen,  Lords,  58. 
Anne,  Queen,  125,  142,  172. 
Anne's,  St.,  Guild  Wardens  of   Govs., 

Annesley,  Sir  A.,  Earl  Angle.^ea,  2. 
Arlington,  Earl  of,  34,  68. 
Aston 's  Quay,  237. 


Ball,  Beni..  Gov.,  211. 
Ball,  F.  EirintTton,  208,  211,  275. 
Ballast  Ofhce,  Grant  to  B.  C,  131,  163. 
Beasley,  Ed.,  Gov.  and  Steward  B.  C, 

227,  "247. 
Benefactors,  Original  Lipt  of,  48. 
Beresford,    Lord    John    G.,    Primate, 

Gov  ,  290. 
Bcresfo.'d,  Et.  Hon.  J.  Claudius,  Gov., 

Berkeley,  Lord,  of  Stratton,  I,.  L.,  49, 

65  ;    His  Corporation  Rules,  52. 
Berkeley,  George,  Bp.  of  Cloyne,  184. 
Bishops,  Consecration  Fees    to  B.  C, 

86,   184. 
Blackhall,  Sir  Thos.,  Gov.,  203,  207, 

Blackholl  Street  and  Place,  211. 
Blackpool  of  Dublir,  G. 
Blue  Coat  School — 

First  Hospital,  69. 

Second  Hospital,  214. 

Charter  of,  63  ;    App.  A. 

Original  Pujiils,  71 

Boys  expelled  by  Tyrconnell,  1 10. 

Blue  Coat  School — 

Boys  sent  to  Christchurch,  116. 
Numbers    of,     1675—60;      1692— 
32;    1702—82;   1714— 127  ;  1725 
—  188;    1731—162;    1737—138; 
1771—170;    1800—110;    1808— 
130;      1840—123;      See    above 
Chaplains  and  Headmasters  of,  see  C. 
Alliance   of   B.  C.    with     E.   Smith 
Board,  155,  244,  290  and  App.  B. 
and  C. 
B.C.  attacked  by  Lucas.  Chap.  IX. 
Parliament  in,  C'liap.  VIII. 
Unruly  Boys.  101, 170, 182,224.  2£0. 
Theatricals  in,  255. 
Boulton.  Primate,  Gov..  162,  183. 
Boyle,  Archbp.,   Chancellor  and  Pri- 
mate, 54,  69,  92.  125. 
Brabazon,  Lord,  79. 
Bradogue-Riveret,  27. 
Bradstreet,  Sir  Saml.,  Rcc.  and  Gov., 

193,  213,  218. 
Brewers,  Tax  on  for  B.  C,  76. 
Brewery  in  B.  C,  130. 
Brodrick,     Chas.,     Archbp.      Cashel, 

Gov.,  241,  252 
Bysse,  Sir  John,  Rec.  and  C.  Buron. 
"Gov.,  55,  65,   120. 

Cabal  Ministry,  49,  83. 
Cage  Tor  Corner  Bojs,  18. 
Cappoloughlin,  Endcwn;ent  of    B.C., 

57,  250,  266. 
Carlisle  Bridge.  237. 
Can-,    Bishop    of    Killaloc,    Chaplain 

B.  C,  120,  131,  1.53. 
Carter,  M.  Rolls,  197. 
Carteret,  Lord,  L.  L.,  167,  17(». 
Cassels,  Architect,  232.  233. 
Chairs,  Old,  in  B.  C,  226. 

310       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Chaplains  and  Headmasters  of  B.  C, 

Rev.  E.  Wettenhall,  desig  ,  1673. 

Lewis  Prythirch,  1675. 

Benj.  Colquit,  1681. 

Nich.  Knight,   1685. 

Thos.  King,  1687. 

Thos.  Hemsworth,   1692. 

Chas.  Carr,   1700. 

Rich.  Gibbons,   1716. 

Ralph  Grattan,   1732. 

Hamilton  Morgan.  1763. 

Allan  Morgan,   1785. 

Jas.  Walker  King,  1830. 

Fielding  Oiild.  1836. 

Louis  Le  Pan,   Head  Master, 

1839  ;  Chaplain,  1848. 

See  under  above  years. 
Charlemont,  Viscount,  Gov.,  127. 
Charlemont,  Earl  of,  209,  235,  236. 
Charles,  II,,  Petition  from  B.  C,  66; 

Holds    Council    thereon,    66 ;     gift 

to  Lord  Mayor  of  Collar  of  S.S.,  83. 
Christchurch,  Manor  and  Barns  of,  22  ; 

Litigation  with  Archbp.  King,  131. 
Churchill,  Sir  Winston,  38. 
Claims,  Court  of,  33. 
Clarendon,  Earl  of.  L.  L.,  104. 
Coaches  and  Chairs,  Tax  on,  to  B.  C, 

Coghill,    Sir    Marmaduke,  Gov.,   161, 

Colquit,  Chaplain,  B.C.,  order  appoint- 
ing, 88. 
Connolly,  Rt.  Hon.  Sir.  W.,  Speaker, 

Gov.,' 165,  187. 
Constantine,    Aid,   Robert,   Gov.,   see 

Three  Years  War. 
Conyngsby,  Lord,  112. 
Cooke,  SirSaml,  L.M,.  Gov..  140.  144. 
Cooke,  Sir  Saml.  (2),  202. 
Cooley,  Thomas,  Architect,  232,  239. 
Corporation,    Dublin,    Riding    Fran- 
chises, 22  ;   Constitution  of,  55,  189, 

191.  Attacked  by  Lucas,  Chap.  IX. 
Courtney,  Master,  in  B.  C,  276,  277. 
Craddock,  Dean  of  S.  Patrick's,  221. 
Crawford,  The  Gentle  Georgina,  284 

ct  seq. 
Cupola,  219,  245,  240. 


D ALTON,    IMaster  in   B.    C,  247,   256 

ct  seq.,  276  et  f.eq. 
Damas  Gate.  6,  11,  233. 
Dame  Street,  234,  238. 
Danes  in  Dublin,  see  O.xmintown. 
Davys,  Sir  Wm,  Rec.  and  Ch.  Justice, 

47,  52,  63. 
Desm5mieres,  Louis,  Gov.,  49,  57. 

Domville,  Sir  William,  64. 

Donellan,    Sir    Xehemiah,    Rec,    Ch. 

Justice,  Gov.,   115. 
Dongan,  Lord,  Limerick,  Gov.,  108. 
Dopping,  Bishop  Anthony,  88. 
Downes,  Lord  Cli.  Justice.  Gov.,  244 ; 

Reform  in  B.   C,   244-247 ;     sends 

more  boys  from  E.  Smith,  245,  251. 
Drelincourt,  Dean  of  Armagh,  Bene- 
factor of  B.  C,  Gov.,  133,  134. 
Drogheda,  The  Lords,  21. 
Drogheda  Street,  21,  233,  237. 
Aspect  of,  at  Restoration.  Chap.  I. 

Ancient  Gates,  Towers  and  Walls, 
11,  15,  16.  99. 

Ballast  Office,  129. 

Blackpool  of,  6. 

Boundaries,  Old,  21. 

Churches  at  Restoration,  16. 

City  Music,  17. 

Drink  in,  15. 

Evolution  of,  98,  124,  129,  163,  and 
Chap.  XII. 

Free  School  of,  36  et  seq. 

Recorders  of,  see  R. 

Regiments,  18,  57. 

Social  state  of,  at  Restori.tion,  29 
et  seq. 

Workhouse,   109. 
Dudley,  Lord,  L.  L.,  173,  246. 


Education  Commission,     1806^ — 242, 

251;    (1812)  (Clare  St.),  266,  275; 

(1854),  225,  243,  263. 
Ellis,  Bp.  Welbore,  132,  134. 
Elrington,  Rev    Dr.  Charles.  Reforms 

in  B.   C,  275,  290. 
Encroachments,  Fines  for,  to  B.  C,  75 
Essex,  Athur,  Earl  of,  L.  L..  55,    91,; 

His  New  Rules.  55,    105,    141,  189. 
Essex  Bridge,  90  et  seq. 
Eustace,  L^  C,  7,  81. 
Evelyn,  John,  Diary,  51.  120 
Evolution  of  Dublin,  see  D. 
Expulsion  of  Founders,  49. 

Falkiner,  Daniel,  Gov.,  143,  151, 183. 
Faulkner,  Aid.     George,  Gov.,  205. 
Fenby,  Master  in  B.  C,  279  et  seq. 
Fielding,  Sir  Chas.,  127. 
Forster,  John,  Rec,  Ch.  Justice,  Gov., 
122.  139,  142,  147,  149. 



Fostei,  Rt.  Hon.  John,  Speaker,  Gov., 

215,  223,  241,  248. 
Fownes,  Sir  Wm..  L.  M.,  Gov.,  135, 144. 
Free  School,  Chap  II. 
French,  Hunifre^',  L.M.,  Gov.,  173. 
FuUerton ,  Sir  James,  37.      See  Free 



Galway,  Earl  of  (Ruvigny),  153. 
Gandon,  James,  Architect.  237,  238, 

Gardiner,  Rt.  Hon.  Luke,  183, 
George  I.,  135. 

George  II.,  200;   Statue.  201,  232. 
George   III.,    Recommends   Lucas   to 

favour,  199  ;  Statue  by  Van  Xost, 

(Jeorge  IV.,  Visits  Dublin,  254. 
George,  Denis,  Rec.  and  Baron,  Gov. 

218,  247. 
Gibbons,  Grinling,  Sculptor,  120. 
Gibbons,  Rev.  Rich.,  Chaplain  B.  C, 

171,   175. 
Ciore,  Sir  Ralph,  Speaker,  Gov., 102,106. 
Grangegorman  in  Sylvis,  2.".,  20. 
Grattan,  James,  Rec.  and  Gov.,  198. 
Grattan,  Rev.  Ralph,  Chaplain,  176, 

Grattans,  The,  and  B.  C,  176,  et  seq. 
Gressingham,  Aid.,  Silver  Cup,  56. 


Hackett,  SirThos.,  L.  M.  Gov.,  107, 

Hamilton,  James,  Loid  Clandebo}%  39. 
Hanly,  Master  in  B.  C.  279,  288. 
Harcourt,  Earl,  Simon.  L.  L.,  205. 
Hardwick,  Earl  of,  L.  L.,  241. 
Harrington,  Karl  of,  L.  L.,  194. 
Hart,  Robert,  Agent  of  B.  C.  229,  243, 

Hartv,  Dr.,  Gov.,  247.  2'^7. 
Harvey,  Dr..  Phys.  to  B.  C,  Gov.,  123. 
Hemming,  Capt.,  Benefactor,  225. 
H.-)adiey,  Archbp..  Gov.,  160,  1S4. 
Hoggen  Green,  7. 
Hone,  Addison,  Reg.  B.  C,  202. 
Hutchinson,  Aid.  Daniel.  Gov..  49.  05. 

TsouLT,  La  Belle,  Tower,  13;  Fountain, 
22  ;  Tristram  and,  99  note. 

I\orv,  James,  Architect  of  B.  C.  ; 
TTis  Plans  in  Brit.  Museum,  208, 
also  235. 

Jamks,  Duke  of  York,  35,  51. 

James  II.,  Chaj).   X. 

Jarndyce  /•.  Jarndyce,  of  B.  C,  205 

et  seq. 
Jervis,  Sir  Humphrev,  90  el  sc^. 
JoceljTi,   I/3rd  Newport,   L.C..   Gov., 

Joh.rston,  Francis,  Architect,  245. 
Jones,  Bp.  Henrv,  8,  32. 
Jcacs,  Sir  Thee  ph.,  21,  32. 

Kane,  ^ir  Nathaniel.  L.  M.  Gov..  179, 

attacked  by  Luca^^,  195. 
Kavanagh,  George.  Benefactor  B.  C, 

Kilcotty.   Tithes   of,  granted    B.   C. 

Kildare,  Marouess  of.  Benefactor  B.  C, 

King,  Rev.  Thomas,  Chaplain  B.  C, 

110.  112,  127. 
King,   Sir   Abraham    Bracllej-,  L.  M., 

Gov.,  159,  249,  254. 
King,  Archbishop,  Bisho])  Derrv,  112  ; 

4rchbp.  Dublin,  127  ;  aontlictwith 

Christ    Church,     131  :      Letter    to 

Swift,   139;    Great  Gov.  of  B.  C, 

154  i:t  sc'/. ;    Form"  alliance  with  E. 

Smith's  Board,   155;    Meniorial  i', 

St.  Patrick's,  158. 
King,  Rev.,  Sir  James  W.  King.  Bart., 

Chaplain  of  B.   C,    159,   205. 
Knight,  Rev.  N.,  Chaplain  in  B.  C, 

presentation  to  Archbishop,  101. 
Kirwan,    Dean    of    Killala,    Charity 

Sermon  for  B.  C,  222. 

Land  Values  of  Endowments, 223,  251. 
Latin  in  B.  C.  89. 
Latouche,   James   Digges,    189,    194. 
Latouche,     Rt.     Hon.    David,    Gov.. 

216,  240. 
Leake.  Surgeon,  B.  C,  227,  250. 
I>easiiig,  Powers  of,  B.  C,  150  ;    and 

App.   B. 
Leighton.  Sir  Ellis,  Recorder,  49,  51. 
Leinster,    William,    2nd    Duke,    207, 

Le  Pan,  Rev.  Lonis,  Chaplain,  B.  C, 

283,  287.  289. 
Linen  Trade  and  B.  C.,  180. 
Loftus,  Dr.  Dudley,  55,  1 13. 

312       FOUNDATION    OF    THE    KING'S    HOSPITAL 

Lord  Mayor,  Chairmen  of  B.  C,  74; 
List  of,  98,  123.  152,  130,  164, 
2(»2,  230,  253,  264,  291  ;  Laws  of 
Election,  55,  137  189,  198,  202; 
Fines  to  B.  C.  in  liea  of  Feasts,  165. 

Lucas,  Dr.  Cha.,  42,  chap.  IX., 
statue  by  Ed.  Smj'th,  199,  234. 


Macaulay,    Lord,   on  Oath  of  siipre- 

Jiiacy,   105. 
McDerniot,  Terence,  L.  M.  Gov.,  Ill 
Madden,  Dr.  John,  Gov.,  123. 
Magee,  Archbishop,  Gov.,  260. 
Martyii,   Gyles,  Donor  of  Nodstown, 

Malone,  Prime  Sergeant,  193,  106. 
Manners,  Lord  Chan.,  2G7,  271,  272. 
Marlborough,  Duke  of,  at  Free  School, 

Mary's,  St.,  Abbey.,  21. 
Mathematical  School  in  B.  C,  127. 
Mead,  James,  Master,  in  B.  C,  75. 
Merchant  Seamen's  Act,  Fines  to  B.  C, 

Michan's,  St.,  Parish  and  Church,  20, 

22,  132,  238. 
Midleton,  Lady,  Legacy  to  B.  C,  158, 
Morgan,  Rev.  Allan,  Dean  of  Killaloe. 

Chaplain  B.  C,  219,  2.55,  257,  263. 
Morgan,     Rev.     Hamilton,     Chaplain 

B.  C,  219. 
Molyneux,  Sir  Thos.,  Gov.,  123. 
Molyneux,    William,    Gov.,    122. 
Mullingar,  Tithe.-  of.  87,  110,  223. 
Municipal  Corporation  Act,  1840,  287, 

and  App.  C. 
Mynchin  Fields,  7,  232. 


NiCOLTNi,  Cavaliere,  sings  in  B.  C,  128. 
Nodstown  Endowments,  81,  242,  252. 
Normanton,     Earl,     of,     Archbishop, 

Cashel  and  of  Dublin,  Gov.,  216,  240, 

see  Somerton. 


Oath  of  Allegiance,  55,  97  ;  of  Non- 
Resistance,  62  ;  of  Supremacy,  55 

Ormonde,  James,  Duke  of,  35,  66,  78, 
SO,  82,  86,  201. 

Ormonde  Bridge,  93. 

Osborne,  Henry,  Benefactor  of  B.  C, 

Ossory,  Earl  of,  Chap.  III.  ;  His 
Letter  to  Corporation,  45,  66. 

Ostmen  in  Dublin,  IS. 

Ould,  Rev.  Fielding,  Chaplain,  B.  C, 
276,  280,  288. 

Oxmantown,  19  ct  .'t'/.  ;  Allotments 
of,  4:?. 

Parliament,   in   B.  C,  Chap.  VIII., 

165  ct  seq. 
Patrick's,  St.,  Cathedral,  ^lemorial  of 

Dr.  King,   158 ;  B.  C.  Boys  march 

to,  261. 
Paul's,  St., Church  and  Parish,  126. 
Penal  Laws,  159. 
Pepy's  Diary,  49. 
Philpot,  Aid.,  Silver  Cups,  56. 
Phipps,  Constantine,  Lord  Chan.,  132, 

148,  149. 
Physicians,  K.  and  Q.  College  of,  con- 
nection with  B.  C.  123, 129  153, 166, 

227,  247  ;  Presidents  of.  Physicians 

of  B.  C,  123. 
Percy,  Sir  Anthony,  L.  M.  Gov.,   120. 
Pooley,  Bp.  Raphoe,  Benefactor  B.  C, 

Preston,  .Alderman  John,  Benefactor 

of  B.  C,  Gov.,  57,  250. 
Preston,   John,    Lord  Tara,   57,   251, 

270,  272. 
Preston,  Rev.  Joseph,  270,  272. 


QuiNN,  Aid.  Mark,  46,  49,  59. 
Quin,  James,  60,  62. 


Ram,  Sir  Abel,  L.  M.  Gov.,  Expelled 

by  Tyrconnell,  107. 
Read,  Dr.,  Phys.  to  B.  C,  288. 
Reader,  Enoch,  Evicted  Clov.,  49. 
Recorders  Govrs., — 

Sir  John  Bysse,  Ch.  Baron,  1660. 
Sir  Wm.   Davys,  C.  J.   King's  B, 

1660,  1680. 
Sir  Richard  Ryves,  1080;    Evicted 
by     Tjrrconnell,       1688 ;       Lord 
Commr.  Great  Seal,  1690. 
Sir  John   Barnwell,    1688 ;     Baron 

Exch.,  1689. 
Gerald   Dillon,    1689 :     Evicted   by 

William  III.,  1690. 
Thos.  Coote,  1690;    Justice  K.  B., 



Recorders  (jovts. — 

Neheniiah  Donnellan,  1693  ;    Baron 
Exch.,  1H!)5;   Ch.  Baron,  1703. 

Sir  William  Handcock,  169;i. 

John    Foster,    1701  ;     Ch.   J.   Com. 
Pleas,   1714. 

John  Rogerson,  1704  :    Ch.  Justice, 
K.  B.,  1727. 

Francis  Stoyte,  1727. 

Eaton  Stannard,  Swift's  Rec,  1733. 

Thomas  Morgan,  1749. 

James  Grattan,  1756. 

Sir  Samuel  Bradstreet.  Bart.,  1766  ; 
Justice  K.  B.,  1784. 

Dufllcy  Hussey,  1785. 

Denis  George,  1785;    Baron  Exeh., 

William  Walker,  1795. 

Sir  Jonas  Greene,  1822. 

Sir  Frederick  Shaw,  Bart..  1828. 

iSee  iinder  above  vears. 
Religious  Education  in  B.  C,  88,  101, 

120,  157,  175,  176,  275,  279,  and  see 

Richards,  Rev.  T.  R,  76,  291. 
Richmond,  Duke  of,  L.  L.,  Gov.,  248. 
Rice,  Chief  Baron,  107. 
Rogerson,  Sir  John,  L.  M.  Gov.,  114, 

Rogerson,  John,  Rec.  and  L.  C.  J.,  162. 
Rokeby,  Lord  Primate,  Gov.,  118. 
Royal  Arms  in  B.  C,  115. 
Rutland,  Duke  of,  L.  L.,  220. 

Sackville  Street,  233,  237. 

Scaldbrother's  Hole,  23,  210. 

Shannon,  Lord,  Henry  Boyle,  196. 

Shaw,  Sir  Robt.,  255."^ 

Shaw,  Sir  Frederick,  289. 

Sheriffs.  High,  Fines  to  B.  C,  207,  226, 
241,  289. 

Shiel,  Rt.  Hon.  R.  Lalor,  85. 

Smith,  Erasmus  Board,  155,  240, 

Smith,  William,  Gov.,  Whittington  of 
Dublin,  76  et  seq. 

Smyth,  Edward,  Sculptor,  199. 

Social  State  of  Dublin,  1660,  29  et  seq. 

Somerton,  Viscount,  240,  see  Norman- 

Somerville,  Sir  James,  Gov.,  181. 

Stanley,  Sir  John,  25. 

Stannard.  Eaton,  Rec,  Gov.,  192. 

Stephens.  St.,  Green,  allotted,  43. 

Steyne  Riveret,  2  ;    Pillar,  5. 

Stone,  Primate,  196. 

Strafford,  Lord,  Open  Spaces  order,  S. 

Sutton,  Alderman,  Gov.,  225,  260. 

Swift,  Dean — 

On  Mark  Quinn,  59;  On  Three 
Years  War,  140;  Swift  and  Lord 
Abercorn,  159 ;  The  Grattans, 
176  ;  Gov.  of  B.  C,  159,  161,  162, 
186  ;  Influence  on  Lord  Carteret 
and  Parlt.,  169,  226;  Three 
Unpublished  Letters,    184. 

Tandy,  J.  Xapper,  Gov.,  216. 

Temi)le,  Sir  John,  M.  R.,  7,  65. 

Temple,  Su-  John,  Sol-Gen.,  86. 

Thingmount,  Danish,  8,  et  seq. 

Thorkill,  20. 

Thome,  Steward  of  B.  C,  171,  178. 

Three  Years  War,  137  et  seq. 

Tichborne,  Sir  H.,  Benefactor,  48. 

Tickell,  Irish  Secretary,  171. 

Tighe,  Aid.  R.,  Gov.,  49,  57. 

Toll  Corn  Annuity  to  B.  C,  136,  221, 
240,  242. 

Tottie,  L.  M.  Gov.,  52. 

Trench.  Thos.  F.  Cooke,  151. 

Trinity  College  Buildings,  231, 233,  235 

Trinity,  Guild  of  ^lerchants.  Annuity, 
to  B.  C,  121  ;  IMathematical  School 
in  B.  C,  127  ;  Wardens,  Govs.,  122. 

Tristram  and  Isoult,  99  ;    Note. 

Tyrconnell,  Duke  of,  Chap.  V. 


Usher,  Sir  William,  3,  29. 
Usher,  Primate,  37,  158. 


Van   Homrigh,   Bartholomew,    Gov., 

108,  116. 
Van  Nost,  Statue  of  Geo.  II.,  201,  of 

George  III.,  234. 
Vaughan,  George,  and  B.  C,  185. 
Vierpyl,    Simon,  Statuary,  199,  209. 


Ware,  Sir  James,  20. 
Wellesley.  Marquess.  261. 
Wellington,  Duke  of.  165. 
Wesley,  Lord  Mornington,  Gov.,  165. 
Wettenhall,     Ed.,     Chaplin     B.     C.  ; 

Bishop  of  Cork,  41,  87. 
Whateley,  Archbishop,  288,  290. 
Whitelaw,  Rev.  James,  243,  259. 


Whiteway,  John,  Surgeon  B.  C,  226. 

Whitshed,  Cli.  Justice,  60,  62. 

Wide  Street  Commissioners,  235,  237. 

Williamson,  Rev.  W.,  131. 

William  III.,  King,  111;   gives  Collar 

SS.  to  Lord  Mayor,  112  ;   Statue  by 

S.  Gibbons,  118. 
Wilson,    Jolin,    Architect   and    Regr. 

B.  C,  211,  227. 

Wybrants,  Barth.,  Regr.  B.  C.  116; 

Tragedy  in  Family,  174. 
Wyndham,  Lord  Chan.,  166,  171,  267. 


York,  Frederick,  Duke  of,  Duel  with 
Richmond,  248 


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